Compaq was a company founded in 1982 that developed and supported computers and related products and services. Compaq produced some of the first IBM PC compatible computers, being the first company to reverse engineer the IBM Personal Computer, it rose to become the largest supplier of PC systems during the 1990s before being overtaken by HP in 2001. Struggling to keep up in the price wars against Dell, as well as with a risky acquisition of DEC, Compaq was acquired for US$25 billion by HP in 2002; the Compaq brand remained in use by HP for lower-end systems until 2013. The company was formed by Rod Canion, Jim Harris and Bill Murto former Texas Instruments senior managers. Murto departed Compaq in 1987, while Canion and Harris left under a shakeup in 1991, which saw Eckhard Pfeiffer appointed president and CEO. Pfeiffer served through the 1990s. Ben Rosen provided the venture capital financing for the fledgling company and served as chairman of the board for 17 years from 1983 until September 28, 2000, when he retired and was succeeded by Michael Capellas, who served as the last chairman and CEO until its merger with HP.
Prior to its takeover the company was headquartered in northwest unincorporated Harris County, that now continues as HP's largest United States facility. Compaq was founded in February 1982 by Rod Canion, Jim Harris and Bill Murto, three senior managers from semiconductor manufacturer Texas Instruments; the three of them had left due to lack of faith and loss of confidence in TI's management, considered but decided against starting a chain of Mexican restaurants. Each invested $1,000 to form the company, founded with the temporary name Gateway Technology; the name "COMPAQ" was said to be derived from "Compatibility and Quality" but this explanation was an afterthought. The name was chosen from many suggested by Mather, it being the name least rejected; the first Compaq PC was sketched out on a placemat by Ted Papajohn while dining with the founders in a Houston pie shop. Their first venture capital came from Benjamin M. Rosen and Sevin Rosen Funds who helped the fledgling company secure $1.5 million to produce their initial computer.
Overall, the founders managed to raise $25 million from venture capitalists, as this gave stability to the new company as well as providing assurances to the dealers or middlemen. Unlike many startups, Compaq differentiated its offerings from the many other IBM clones by not focusing on price, but instead concentrating on new features, such as portability and better graphics displays as well as performance—and all at prices comparable to those of IBM's PCs. In contrast to Dell Computer and Gateway 2000, Compaq hired veteran engineers with an average of 15 years experience, which lent credibility to Compaq's reputation of reliability among customers. Due to its partnership with Intel, Compaq was able to maintain a technological lead in the market place as it was the first one to come out with computers containing the next generation of each Intel processor. Under Canion's direction, Compaq sold computers only through dealers to avoid potential competition that a direct sales channel would foster, which helped foster loyalty among resellers.
By giving dealers considerable leeway in pricing Compaq's offerings, either a significant markup for more profits or discount for more sales, dealers had a major incentive to advertise Compaq. During its first year of sales, the company sold 53,000 PCs for sales of $111 million, the first start-up to hit the $100 million mark that fast. Compaq raised $67 million. In 1986, it enjoyed record sales of $329 million from 150,000 PCs, became the youngest-ever firm to make the Fortune 500. In 1987, Compaq hit the $1 billion revenue mark, taking the least amount of time to reach that milestone. By 1991, Compaq held the fifth place spot in the PC market with $3 billion in sales that year. Two key marketing executives in Compaq's early years, Jim D'Arezzo and Sparky Sparks, had come from IBM's PC Group. Other key executives responsible for the company's meteoric growth in the late 80s and early 90s were Ross A. Cooley, another former IBM associate, who served for many years as SVP of GM North America. In the United States, Brendan A. "Mac" McLoughlin led the company's field sales organization after starting up the Western U.
S. Area of Operations; these executives, along with other key contributors, including Kevin Ellington, Douglas Johns, Steven Flannigan, Gary Stimac, helped the company compete against the IBM Corporation in all personal computer sales categories, after many predicted that none could compete with the behemoth. The soft-spoken Canion was popular with employees and the culture that he built helped Compaq to attract the best talent. Instead of headquartering the company in a downtown Houston skyscraper, Canion chose a West Coast-style campus surrounded by forests, where every employee had similar offices and no-one had a reserved parking spot. At semi-annual meetings, turnout was high. In 1987, company co-founder Bill Murto resigned to study at a religious education program at the University of St. Thomas. Murto had helped to organize the company's marketing and authorized-dealer distribution strategy, held the post of senior vice president of sales since June 1985. Murto w
A color space is a specific organization of colors. In combination with physical device profiling, it allows for reproducible representations of color, in both analog and digital representations. A color space may be arbitrary, with particular colors assigned to a set of physical color swatches and corresponding assigned color names or numbers, or structured mathematically. A "color model" is an abstract mathematical model describing the way colors can be represented as tuples of numbers. Adding a specific mapping function between a color model and a reference color space establishes within the reference color space a definite "footprint", known as a gamut, for a given color model this defines a color space. For example, Adobe RGB and sRGB are two different absolute color spaces, both based on the RGB color model; when defining a color space, the usual reference standard is the CIELAB or CIEXYZ color spaces, which were designed to encompass all colors the average human can see. Since "color space" identifies a particular combination of the color model and the mapping function, the word is used informally to identify a color model.
However though identifying a color space automatically identifies the associated color model, this usage is incorrect in a strict sense. For example, although several specific color spaces are based on the RGB color model, there is no such thing as the singular RGB color space. In 1802, Thomas Young postulated the existence of three types of photoreceptors in the eye, each of, sensitive to a particular range of visible light. Hermann von Helmholtz developed the Young–Helmholtz theory further in 1850: that the three types of cone photoreceptors could be classified as short-preferring, middle-preferring, long-preferring, according to their response to the wavelengths of light striking the retina; the relative strengths of the signals detected by the three types of cones are interpreted by the brain as a visible color. But it's not clear; the color-space concept was due to Hermann Grassmann, who developed it in two stages. First, he developed the idea of vector space, which allowed the algebraic representation of geometric concepts in n -dimensional space.
Fearnley-Sander describes Grassmann's foundation of linear algebra as follows: With this conceptual background, in 1853, Grassmann published a theory of how colors mix. Colors can be created in printing with color spaces based on the CMYK color model, using the subtractive primary colors of pigment. To create a three-dimensional representation of a given color space, we can assign the amount of magenta color to the representation's X axis, the amount of cyan to its Y axis, the amount of yellow to its Z axis; the resulting 3-D space provides a unique position for every possible color that can be created by combining those three pigments. Colors can be created on computer monitors with color spaces based on the RGB color model, using the additive primary colors. A three-dimensional representation would assign each of the three colors to the X, Y, Z axes. Note that colors generated on given monitor will be limited by the reproduction medium, such as the phosphor or filters and backlight. Another way of creating colors on a monitor is with an HSL or HSV color space, based on hue, brightness.
With such a space, the variables are assigned to cylindrical coordinates. Many color spaces can be represented as three-dimensional values in this manner, but some have more, or fewer dimensions, some, such as Pantone, cannot be represented in this way at all. Color space conversion is the translation of the representation of a color from one basis to another; this occurs in the context of converting an image, represented in one color space to another color space, the goal being to make the translated image look as similar as possible to the original. The RGB color model is implemented in different ways, depending on the capabilities of the system used. By far the most common general-used incarnation as of 2006 is the 24-bit implementation, with 8 bits, or 256 discrete levels of color per channel. Any color space based on such a 24-bit RGB model is thus limited to a range of 256×256×256 ≈ 16.7 million colors. Some implementations use 16 bits per component for 48 bits total, resulting in the same gamut with a larger number of distinct colors.
This is important when working with wide-gamut color spaces, or when a large number of digital filtering algorithms are used consecutively. The same principle applies for any color space based on the same color model, but implemented in different bit depths. CIE 1931 XYZ color space was one of the first attempts to produce a color space based on measurements of human color perception and it is the basis for all other color spaces; the CIERGB color space is a linearly-related companion of CIE XYZ. Additional derivatives of CIE XYZ include the CIELUV, CIEUVW, CIELAB. RGB uses additive color mixing, because it describes what kind of light needs to be emitted to produ
Sandee Chan. Chan was born in the Philippines on July 19, 1970, her family has Chinese roots, she has Shanghai ancestry. Due to her father's factor, her family moved to Taiwan. Chan holds a BA in Journalism at National Chengchi University. Chan began playing the piano as a child and created her own songs while a student at National Chengchi University in Taiwan, she was signed by an independent record label after performing on university music contest Young Star in 1991, wrote songs for Jeff Chang and Huang Pin-Yuan before releasing her debut single and album in 1994. She has released 14 solo albums. 1994: Washington Chopped Down the Cherry Tree 1995: Leaving on a Jet Plane 1996: Sing till the End of the World 1999: I’m Not the Kind of Girl 2000: Perfect Moan 2004: Then, We All Wept 2008: What If It Matters 2011: I Love You, John 2013: A Low-Key Life 2015: When Sorrow Being Downloaded Twice 2017: Martial God Cardea 2019: Juvenile A 1997: The Night When Bad Guys Weren't So Bad 1997: Cannot Be Ignored Collection 1994-1997 2000: Sandee Chan Collection 1994-1999 2004: Happy Together 2003 2004: An Addiction Of Beauty 2004: Material-Girl Coin 2005: Material-girls.com 2005 2009: What If It Matters 2009: A Tale of Two Chens 2011: 19 Chan was awarded Best Album and Best Album Producer at the 16th Golden Melody Awards in 2005.