A magnate, from the late Latin magnas, a great man, itself from Latin magnus, "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. In reference to the Middle Ages, the term is used to distinguish higher territorial landowners and warlords such as counts, earls and territorial-princes from the baronage. In England, the magnate class went through a change in the Middle Ages, it had consisted of all tenants-in-chief of the crown, a group of more than a hundred families. The emergence of Parliament led to the establishment of a parliamentary peerage that received personal summons more than sixty families. A similar class in the Gaelic world were the Flatha. In the Middle Ages a bishop sometimes held territory as a magnate, collecting the revenue of the manors and the associated knights' fees. In the Tudor period, after Henry VII defeated Richard III at Bosworth Field, Henry made a point of executing or neutralizing as many magnates as possible. Henry VII would make parliament attaint undesirable nobles and magnates, thereby stripping them of their wealth, protection from torture, power.
Henry VII used the Court of the Star Chamber to have powerful nobles executed. Henry VIII continued this approach in his reign. Henry VIII ennobled few men and the ones he did were all "new men": novi homines indebted to him and having limited power; the term was applied to the members of the Upper House in the Apostolic Kingdom of Hungary, the Főrendiház or House of Magnates. Magnates were a social class of wealthy and influential nobility in the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth; the magnates, velikaši, of Serbia in the Middle Ages were noted by their higher titles in relation to those held by the lesser nobles. In the Early and High Middle Ages the highest title was vojvoda, a military rank and title of governors. During the Serbian Empire the higher court members held titles such as despot and kesar. During foreign rule, under the Ottoman Empire, Habsburg Monarchy, Republic of Venice, in the Revolution, Principality the magnates were influential voivodes.
In Spain, since the late Middle Ages the highest class of nobility hold the appellation of Grandee of Spain. In Sweden, the wealthiest medieval lords were known as storman, "great men", a similar description and meaning as the English term magnate. Aristocracy Szlachta, in Poland Boyar, in Eastern Europe Velikaš, in Serbia and Croatia Magnat This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Magnate". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Magnates: How do they work
John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch
John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch and Lord of Lochaber or John "the Black" known as Black Comyn, a Scottish nobleman, was a Guardian of Scotland, one of the six Regents for Margaret, Maid of Norway. His father was John I Lord of Badenoch. In 1284 he joined with other Scottish noblemen who acknowledged Margaret of Norway as the heir of King Alexander, he was a Guardian of the Realm from 1286 to 1292. Comyn submitted to the English king in July 1296 at Montrose; as a descendant of King Donald III, Comyn was one of the thirteen Competitors for the Crown of Scotland. He did not aggressively push his claim for fear of jeopardising that of his brother-in-law John de Balliol, King of Scotland. Comyn, head of the most powerful noble family in Scotland, was a committed ally of Balliol and assisted him in his struggle against Edward I of England, it has been suggested that the Comyn family were the driving force behind both the Balliol kingship and the revolt against Edward's demands. John Comyn is credited with the building of several large castles or castle houses in and around Inverness.
Parts of Mortlach and Inverlochy Castle still stand today. John Comyn as his father was before him was entrusted by Alexander III of Scotland with the defence of Scotland's northern territories from invasion by the Vikings and the Danes. Comyn married Eleanor de Balliol, daughter of John I de Balliol of Barnard Castle, sister of King John of Scotland. Together they had several children, which included: Lord of Badenoch. Who married Lady Joan de Valence of Pembroke, daughter of William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke, the half-brother to Henry III of England, uncle of Edward I of England. One of their daughters, married Sir Andrew Moray of Petty. John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch died at Lochindorb Castle, in 1302. Tout, Thomas Frederick. "Comyn, John". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 11. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 459–460. Rymer, Thomas,Foedera Conventiones, Literae et cuiuscunque generis Acta Publica inter Reges Angliae. London. 1745. 4. Clan Galbraith History: http://www.clangalbraith.org/GalbraithHistory/GalbraithHistory.htm
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents. Through heredity, variations between individuals can accumulate and cause species to evolve by natural selection; the study of heredity in biology is genetics. In humans, eye color is an example of an inherited characteristic: an individual might inherit the "brown-eye trait" from one of the parents. Inherited traits are controlled by genes and the complete set of genes within an organism's genome is called its genotype; the complete set of observable traits of the structure and behavior of an organism is called its phenotype. These traits arise from the interaction of its genotype with the environment; as a result, many aspects of an organism's phenotype are not inherited. For example, suntanned skin comes from the interaction between a person's sunlight. However, some people tan more than others, due to differences in their genotype: a striking example is people with the inherited trait of albinism, who do not tan at all and are sensitive to sunburn.
Heritable traits are known to be passed from one generation to the next via DNA, a molecule that encodes genetic information. DNA is a long polymer; the sequence of bases along a particular DNA molecule specifies the genetic information: this is comparable to a sequence of letters spelling out a passage of text. Before a cell divides through mitosis, the DNA is copied, so that each of the resulting two cells will inherit the DNA sequence. A portion of a DNA molecule that specifies a single functional unit is called a gene. Within cells, the long strands of DNA form condensed structures called chromosomes. Organisms inherit genetic material from their parents in the form of homologous chromosomes, containing a unique combination of DNA sequences that code for genes; the specific location of a DNA sequence within a chromosome is known as a locus. If the DNA sequence at a particular locus varies between individuals, the different forms of this sequence are called alleles. DNA sequences can change through mutations.
If a mutation occurs within a gene, the new allele may affect the trait that the gene controls, altering the phenotype of the organism. However, while this simple correspondence between an allele and a trait works in some cases, most traits are more complex and are controlled by multiple interacting genes within and among organisms. Developmental biologists suggest that complex interactions in genetic networks and communication among cells can lead to heritable variations that may underlie some of the mechanics in developmental plasticity and canalization. Recent findings have confirmed important examples of heritable changes that cannot be explained by direct agency of the DNA molecule; these phenomena are classed as epigenetic inheritance systems that are causally or independently evolving over genes. Research into modes and mechanisms of epigenetic inheritance is still in its scientific infancy, this area of research has attracted much recent activity as it broadens the scope of heritability and evolutionary biology in general.
DNA methylation marking chromatin, self-sustaining metabolic loops, gene silencing by RNA interference, the three dimensional conformation of proteins are areas where epigenetic inheritance systems have been discovered at the organismic level. Heritability may occur at larger scales. For example, ecological inheritance through the process of niche construction is defined by the regular and repeated activities of organisms in their environment; this generates a legacy of effect that modifies and feeds back into the selection regime of subsequent generations. Descendants inherit genes plus environmental characteristics generated by the ecological actions of ancestors. Other examples of heritability in evolution that are not under the direct control of genes include the inheritance of cultural traits, group heritability, symbiogenesis; these examples of heritability that operate above the gene are covered broadly under the title of multilevel or hierarchical selection, a subject of intense debate in the history of evolutionary science.
When Charles Darwin proposed his theory of evolution in 1859, one of its major problems was the lack of an underlying mechanism for heredity. Darwin believed in the inheritance of acquired traits. Blending inheritance would lead to uniformity across populations in only a few generations and would remove variation from a population on which natural selection could act; this led to Darwin adopting some Lamarckian ideas in editions of On the Origin of Species and his biological works. Darwin's primary approach to heredity was to outline how it appeared to work rather than suggesting mechanisms. Darwin's initial model of heredity was adopted by, heavily modified by, his cousin Francis Galton, who laid the framework for the biometric school of heredity. Galton found no evidence to support the aspects of Darwin's pangenesis model, which relied on acquired traits; the inheritance of acquired traits was shown to have little basis in the 1880s when August Weismann cut the tails off many generations of mice and found that their offspring continued to develop tails.
Scientists in Antiquity had a variety of ideas about heredity: Theophrastus proposed that male flowers caused f
William II of Holland
William II was a Count of Holland and Zeeland from 1234 until his death. He was ruled as sole King of the Romans from 1254 onwards, he was his wife Matilda of Brabant. When his father was killed at a tournament at Corbie, William was only seven years old, his uncles and Otto, were his guardians until 1239. With the help of Duke Henry II of Brabant and the Cologne archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden, he was elected King of the Romans after the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II was excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV, he succeeded the Thuringian landgrave Henry Raspe who had died within a year after his election as anti-king in 1246. The next year, William decided to extend his father's hunting residence to a palace which met his new status; this would be called the Binnenhof and was the beginning of the city of The Hague. Meanwhile, after a siege of five months, William besieged Aachen for six months before capturing it from Frederick's followers. Only could he be crowned as king by Archbishop Konrad of Cologne.
He gained a certain amount of theoretical support from some of the German princes after his marriage to Elizabeth, daughter of the Welf duke Otto of Brunswick-Lüneburg, in 1252. He made. In July 1253, he defeated the Flemish army at Westkapelle and a year a cease-fire followed, his anti-Flemish policy worsened his relationship with France. From 1254 to his death he fought a number of wars against the West Frisians, he built some strong castles in Heemskerk and Haarlem and created roads for the war against the Frisians. William gave city rights to Haarlem, Delft,'s - Alkmaar. William married Elizabeth, daughter of Otto the Child, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, in 1252, they had: Floris V, Count of Holland. In battle near Hoogwoud on 28 January 1256, William tried to traverse a frozen lake by himself, because he was lost, but his horse fell through the ice. In this vulnerable position, William was killed by the Frisians, who secretly buried him under the floor of a house, his body was recovered 26 years by his son Floris V, who took terrible vengeance on the West-Frisians.
William was buried in Middelburg. Contemporary sources, including the chronicle of Melis Stoke, portray William as an Arthurian hero. A golden statue of William can be found on the Binnenhof in The Hague, the inner court of the parliamentary complex of the Netherlands. Counts of Holland family tree
David I of Scotland
David I or Dauíd mac Maíl Choluim was a 12th-century ruler, Prince of the Cumbrians from 1113 to 1124 and King of the Scots from 1124 to 1153. The youngest son of Malcolm III and Margaret of Wessex, David spent most of his childhood in Scotland, but was exiled to England temporarily in 1093. After 1100, he became a dependent at the court of King Henry I. There he was influenced by the Anglo-French culture of the court; when David's brother Alexander I died in 1124, David chose, with the backing of Henry I, to take the Kingdom of Scotland for himself. He was forced to engage in warfare against Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair. Subduing the latter seems to have taken David ten years, a struggle that involved the destruction of Óengus, Mormaer of Moray. David's victory allowed expansion of control over more distant regions theoretically part of his Kingdom. After the death of his former patron Henry I, David supported the claims of Henry's daughter and his own niece, Empress Matilda, to the throne of England.
In the process, he came into conflict with King Stephen and was able to expand his power in northern England, despite his defeat at the Battle of the Standard in 1138. The term "Davidian Revolution" is used by many scholars to summarise the changes which took place in Scotland during his reign; these included his foundation of burghs and regional markets, implementation of the ideals of Gregorian Reform, foundation of monasteries, Normanisation of the Scottish government, the introduction of feudalism through immigrant French and Anglo-French knights. The early years of David I are the most obscure of his life; as there is little documented evidence, historians can only guess at most of David's activities in this period. David was born on a date unknown in 1084 in Scotland, he was the eighth son of King Malcolm III, the sixth and youngest born by Malcolm's second wife, Margaret of Wessex. He was the grandson of the ill-fated King Duncan I. In 1093 King Máel Coluim and David's brother Edward were killed at the River Aln during an invasion of Northumberland.
David and his two brothers Alexander and Edgar, both future kings of Scotland, were present when their mother died shortly afterwards. According to medieval tradition, the three brothers were in Edinburgh when they were besieged by their paternal uncle Donald. Donald became King of Scotland, it is not certain what happened next, but an insertion in the Chronicle of Melrose states that Donald forced his three nephews into exile, although he was allied with another of his nephews, Edmund. John of Fordun wrote, centuries that an escort into England was arranged for them by their maternal uncle Edgar Ætheling. William Rufus, King of England, opposed Donald's accession to the northerly kingdom, he sent the eldest son of David's half-brother Duncan, into Scotland with an army. Duncan was killed within the year, so in 1097 William sent Donnchad's half-brother Edgar into Scotland; the latter was more successful, was crowned King by the end of 1097. During the power struggle of 1093–97, David was in England.
In 1093, he may have been about nine years old. From 1093 until 1103 David's presence cannot be accounted for in detail, but he appears to have been in Scotland for the remainder of the 1090s; when William Rufus was killed, his brother Henry Beauclerc seized power and married David's sister, Matilda. The marriage made David the brother-in-law of the ruler of England. From that point onwards, David was an important figure at the English court. Despite his Gaelic background, by the end of his stay in England, David had become a full-fledged Normanised prince. William of Malmesbury wrote that it was in this period that David "rubbed off all tarnish of Scottish barbarity through being polished by intercourse and friendship with us". David's time as Prince of the Cumbrians and Earl marks the beginning of his life as a great territorial lord, his earldom began in 1113, when Henry I arranged David's marriage to Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon, the heiress to the Huntingdon–Northampton lordship. As her husband, David used the title of earl, there was the prospect that David's children by her would inherit all the honours borne by Matilda's father Waltheof.
1113 is the year when David, for the first time, can be found in possession of territory in what is now Scotland. David's brother, King Edgar, had visited William Rufus in May 1099 and bequeathed to David extensive territory to the south of the river Forth. On 8 January 1107, Edgar died, his younger brother Alexander took the throne. It has been assumed that David took control of his inheritance – the southern lands bequeathed by Edgar – soon after the latter's death. However, it cannot be shown that he possessed his inheritance until his foundation of Selkirk Abbey late in 1113. According to Richard Oram, it was only in 1113, when Henry returned to England from Normandy, that David was at last in a position to claim his inheritance in southern "Scotland". King Henry's backing seems to have been enough to force King Alexander to recognise his younger brother's claims; this occurred without bloodshed, but through threat of force nonetheless. David's aggression seems to have inspired resentment amongst some native Scots.
A Middle Gaelic quatrain from this period complains that: If "divided from" is anything to go by, this quatrain may have been written in David's new territories in southern Scotland. The lands in question consisted of the pre-1975 counties of Roxburghshire, Berwickshire and Lanarkshire. David, gained the title princeps Cumbrensis, "Prince of the Cumbrians", as attested in David's charters from this era. Although this was a large slice o
A civil war known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war between organized groups within the same state or country. The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region or to change government policies; the term is a calque of the Latin bellum civile, used to refer to the various civil wars of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC. A civil war is a high-intensity conflict involving regular armed forces, sustained and large-scale. Civil wars may result in the consumption of significant resources. Most modern civil wars involve intervention by outside powers. According to Patrick M. Regan in his book Civil Wars and Foreign Powers about two thirds of the 138 intrastate conflicts between the end of World War II and 2000 saw international intervention, with the United States intervening in 35 of these conflicts. Civil wars since the end of World War II have lasted on average just over four years, a dramatic rise from the one-and-a-half-year average of the 1900–1944 period.
While the rate of emergence of new civil wars has been steady since the mid-19th century, the increasing length of those wars has resulted in increasing numbers of wars ongoing at any one time. For example, there were no more than five civil wars underway in the first half of the 20th century while there were over 20 concurrent civil wars close to the end of the Cold War. Since 1945, civil wars have resulted in the deaths of over 25 million people, as well as the forced displacement of millions more. Civil wars have further resulted in economic collapse. James Fearon, a scholar of civil wars at Stanford University, defines a civil war as "a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies". Ann Hironaka further specifies; the intensity at which a civil disturbance becomes a civil war is contested by academics. Some political scientists define a civil war as having more than 1,000 casualties, while others further specify that at least 100 must come from each side.
The Correlates of War, a dataset used by scholars of conflict, classifies civil wars as having over 1000 war-related casualties per year of conflict. This rate is a small fraction of the millions killed in the Second Sudanese Civil War and Cambodian Civil War, for example, but excludes several publicized conflicts, such as The Troubles of Northern Ireland and the struggle of the African National Congress in Apartheid-era South Africa. Based on the 1,000-casualties-per-year criterion, there were 213 civil wars from 1816 to 1997, 104 of which occurred from 1944 to 1997. If one uses the less-stringent 1,000 casualties total criterion, there were over 90 civil wars between 1945 and 2007, with 20 ongoing civil wars as of 2007; the Geneva Conventions do not define the term "civil war". This includes civil wars; the International Committee of the Red Cross has sought to provide some clarification through its commentaries on the Geneva Conventions, noting that the Conventions are "so general, so vague, that many of the delegations feared that it might be taken to cover any act committed by force of arms".
Accordingly, the commentaries provide for different'conditions' on which the application of the Geneva Convention would depend. The conditions listed by the ICRC in its commentary are as follows: That the Party in revolt against the de jure Government possesses an organized military force, an authority responsible for its acts, acting within a determinate territory and having the means of respecting and ensuring respect for the Convention; that the legal Government is obliged to have recourse to the regular military forces against insurgents organized as military and in possession of a part of the national territory. That the de jure Government has recognized the insurgents as belligerents; that the insurgents have an organization purporting to have the characteristics of a State. That the insurgent civil authority exercises de facto authority over the population within a determinate portion of the national territory; that the armed forces act under the direction of an organized authority and are prepared to observe the ordinary laws of war.
That the insurgent civil authority agrees to be bound by the provisions of the Convention. According to a 2017 review study of civil war research, there are three prominent explanations for civil war: greed-based explanations which center on individuals’ desire to maximize their profits, grievance-based explanations which center on conflict as a response to socioeconomic or political injustice, opportunity-based explanations which center on factors that make it easier to engage in violent mobilization. According to the study, the most influential explanation for civil war onset is the opportunity-based explanation by James Fearon a
Floris V, Count of Holland
Floris V reigned as Count of Holland and Zeeland from 1256 until 1296. His life was documented in detail in the Rijmkroniek by his chronicler, he is credited with a peaceful reign, modernizing administration, policies beneficial to trade acting in the interests of his peasants at the expense of nobility, reclaiming land from the sea. His dramatic murder, engineered by King Edward I of England and Guy, Count of Flanders, made him a hero in Holland. Floris was the son of Count William II, slain in 1256 by Frisians when Floris was just two years old, Elisabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg. First his uncle his aunt fought over custody of Holland. At the battle of Reimerswaal on 22 January 1263, Count Otto II, Count of Guelders defeated Aleidis and was chosen regent by the nobles who opposed Aleidis. Otto II served as Floris V's guardian until he was twelve years old and considered capable of administering Holland himself. Floris’s mother continued to reside in Holland after her husband’s death in 1256, she is buried in Middelburg abbey church.
She died in the same year that Count Floris V was declared old enough to rule without guardianship, on 10 July 1266. Floris was supported by the count of Hainaut of the house of Avesnes, an arch-enemy of the count of Flanders of the house of Dampierre. Floris married Beatrix of Dampierre, the daughter of Guy of Dampierre, count of Flanders, in 1269. In 1272 Floris unsuccessfully attacked the Frisians in a first attempt to retrieve the body of his father. In 1274 he faced an uprising by nobles led by the powerful lords Gijsbrecht IV of Amstel, Zweder of Abcoude, Arnoud of Amstel, Herman VI van Woerden, who held lands on the border with the adjacent bishopric of Utrecht at the expense of the bishop. Gijsbrecht and Herman were supported by the craftsmen of Utrecht, the peasants of Kennemerland and Amstelland and the West Frisians, he assisted John I of Nassau, by making a treaty with the craftsmen. The bishop would become dependent on Holland's support, added the lands of the rebellious lords to Holland in 1279.
He gave concessions to the peasants of Kennemerland. Kennemerland was a duneland. Floris switched allegiance to the Dampierres. In 1282 Floris again attacked the troublesome Frisians in the north, defeating them at the battle of Vronen, succeeded in retrieving the body of his father. After a campaign in 1287–1288 he defeated the Frisians. In the meantime he had received Zeeland-bewester-Schelde as a loan from the Holy Roman King Rudolf I of Germany in 1287, but the local nobility sided with the count of Flanders who invaded in 1290. Floris arranged a meeting with count Guy of Flanders, but he was taken prisoner in Biervliet and was forced to abandon his claims and set free. Floris wanted to resume war, but King Edward I of England, who had an interest in access to the great rivers for wool and other English goods, convinced Floris to stop hostilities with Flanders; when in 1292 Floris claimed the throne of Scotland in the Great Cause, he did not receive the expected support from Edward, but England did support his claims in a new, this time more successful, war on Flanders.
After Edward I moved his trade in wool from Dordrecht in Holland to Mechelen in Brabant, to gain Flanders's support against France, Floris switched sides to France in 1296. Edward I now prohibited all English trade with Holland and conspired with Guy of Flanders to have Floris kidnapped and taken to France; the humiliated lords Gijsbrecht IV of Amstel and Herman of Woerden enter the scene again as part of the conspiracy. Together with Gerard van Velsen they captured Floris during a hunting party and brought him to Muiderslot castle; the news of the capture spread quickly. They were stopped by an angry mob of local peasants. In panic Gerard of Velzen killed the count, the lords fled. Gerard of Velzen was captured and killed in Leiden; the other conspirators fled to Brabant, Flanders and to Prussia, to which many colonists and crusaders from Holland migrated. The life and death of Floris V inspired songs and books in the Netherlands. Best known is the play Gijsbrecht van Aemstel by 17th century playwright and poet Joost van den Vondel, about the sacking of Amsterdam in the days after the death of Floris V.
The nickname "God of the Peasants" was introduced after Floris' death in the nobility, was intended to be an insult. He earned the name because he behaved "as if he were the Good Lord himself with his peasants", he knighted 40 peasants as members of the Order of St. James without permission of the church, provoking the anger of the church and of the 12 existing noble members of that knightly order; this story has no historical basis, just like another story that claims that Gerard of Velzen participated in the conspiracy because Floris raped his wife. What is certain is that Floris was remembered as a saint by the peasants of Holland, that the "God of the Peasants" became a symbolic hero in the struggle for independence from Spain in the Eighty Years' War. Floris V was the son of Count William II of Holland and El