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In legal terminology, a complaint is any formal legal document that sets out the facts and legal reasons that the filing party or parties believes are sufficient to support a claim against the party or parties against whom the claim is brought that entitles the plaintiff to a remedy. For example, the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure that govern civil litigation in United States courts provide that a civil action is commenced with the filing or service of a pleading called a complaint. Civil court rules in states that have incorporated the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure use the same term for the same pleading. In Civil Law, a “complaint” is the first formal action taken to begin a lawsuit; this written document contains the allegations against the defense, the specific laws violated, the facts that led to the dispute, any demands made by the plaintiff to restore justice. In some jurisdictions, specific types of criminal cases may be commenced by the filing of a complaint sometimes called a criminal complaint or felony complaint.

Most criminal cases are prosecuted in the name of the governmental authority that promulgates criminal statutes and enforces the police power of the state with the goal of seeking criminal sanctions, such as the State or Crown. In the United States, the complaint is associated with misdemeanor criminal charges presented by the prosecutor without the grand jury process. In most U. S. jurisdictions, the charging instrument presented to and authorized by a grand jury is referred to as an indictment. Every U. S. state has some forms available on the web for most common complaints for lawyers and self-representing litigants. Several United States federal courts publish general guidelines for the petitioners and Civil Rights complaint forms. A complaint has the following structural elements: Caption and Heading - lists name and telephone number of the filing attorney or self-representing litigant at the top of the complaint; the case caption also indicates the court in which the case originates, names of the parties and a brief description of the document.

Jurisdiction and venue - this section describes why the case should be heard in the selected court rather than some other court or forum. Parties - identifies plaintiffs and defendants. Definitions - optional section which defines some terms used throughout the document; the main purpose of a definition is to achieve clarity without needless repetition. Statement of facts - lists facts that brought the case to the court. Cause of Action - a numbered list of legal allegations, with specific details about application of the governing law to each count. In this section the plaintiff cites existing Law, previous decisions of the court where the case is being processed, decisions of the higher appellate courts, cases from other courts, - as an analogy to resolve similar questions of law. Injury - plaintiff explains to the judge how the actions of the defendant harmed his rights. Demand for relief - describes the relief; the relief can include a request for declaratory judgment, a request for injunctive relief and actual damages, punitive damages, other relief.

After the complaint has been filed with the court, it has to be properly served to the opposite parties, but petitioners are not allowed to serve the complaint personally. The court can issue a summons – an official summary document which the plaintiff needs to have served together with the complaint; the defendants have limited time to respond, depending on the State or Federal rules. A defendant's failure to answer a complaint can result in a default judgment in favor of the petitioner. For example, in United States federal courts, any person, at least 18 years old and not a party may serve a summons and complaint in a civil case; the defendant must submit an answer within 21 days after being served with the summons and complaint, or request a waiver, according to FRCP Rule 12. After the civil complaint has been served to the defendants, the plaintiff must, as soon as practicable initiate a conference between the parties to plan for the rest of the discovery process and the parties should submit a proposed discovery plan to the judge within 14 days after the conference.

In many U. S. jurisdictions, a complaint submitted to a court must be accompanied by a Case Information Statement, which sets forth specific key information about the case and the lawyers representing the parties. This allows the judge to make determinations about which deadlines to set for different phases of the case, as it moves through the court system. There are freely accessible web search engines to assist parties in finding court decisions that can be cited in the complaint as an example or analogy to resolve similar questions of law. Google Scholar is the biggest database of full text state and federal courts decisions that can be accessed without charge; these web search engines allow one to select specific state courts to search. Federal courts created the Public Access to Court Electronic Records system to obtain case and docket information from the United States district courts, United States courts of appeals, United States bankruptcy courts; the system is managed by the Administrative Office of the United States Courts.

Hairspray: The School Musical

Hairspray: The School Musical is a 2008 reality TV series, broadcast on Sky1 in the UK, charting the development of a comprehensive school's production of the Broadway and West End musical Hairspray. The series is presented by musical theatre actor Denise van Outen, narrated by Rich Rust and features vocal coach Zoë Tyler and choreographer Stacey Haynes as mentors to the students of Kingsmead School, a comprehensive secondary school with specialist performing and visual arts status in Enfield, North London, it follows the production from auditions to its first performance, held at London's Lyric Theatre on 31 August 2008. There was a behind-the-scenes section of the programme, posted online, hosted by Ben James-Ellis, the West End's Link Larkin. Two members of the Broadway production team - Benjamin Endsley Klein and Danny Austin - serve as consultants to the school production. In The Guardian, Lucy Mangan said that although she was not expecting the programme to provide "an enjoyable hour's entertainment", "the unforced charm and ebullience of London's juvenile population swept the viewer up" and that she would be watching "another gloriously uplifting hour next week".

Theatre columnist Mark Shenton, having seen the finished production, suggested that although the series shows "inevitably a heightened version of the experience of putting on a show it will encourage to do so again". He noted that the West End production of Hairspray "is sure to be the first winner, as audiences follow the TV experience by seeing it live for themselves"; the first episode attracted 500,000 viewers, leading Richard Woolfe, the controller of Sky1, to suggest that the series could continue with other productions: "I have a sneaking suspicion we will be coming back for a bit more. Whatever the viewing figures... we have changed lives."The next Series appeared one year called Grease: The School Musical and was broadcast between 31 August and October on Sky 1. Official site at Hairspray the Musical - West End production Kingsmead School

Smilkovci lake killings

The Smilkovci Lake killings took place on 12 April 2012. Five ethnic-Macedonian civilians were shot and killed at a man-made lake near the village of Smilkovci, outside the Macedonian capital Skopje. According to the Macedonian Ministry of Internal Affairs, the attack was carried out with the intent to "incite fear and insecurity" and the ministry called it a "deliberate terrorist act aimed at destabilizing the country"; the Helsinki Committee for Human Rights criticized the ministry for prematurely judging the suspects guilty. On 30 June 2014, after an 18-month trial, Alil Demiri, Afrim Ismailoviq, Agim Ismailoviq, Fejzi Aziri, Haki Aziri and Sami Luta were sentenced to life imprisonment. Demiri and Ismailoviq were tried in absentia, since they were imprisoned in Kosovo for unlawful possession of weapons, extradition procedures were underway. One defendant, Rami Sejdi, was released for lack of evidence. On 1 December 2017, Macedonia's Supreme Court ordered a retrial over the 5 murders. Judges found that key facts in the men's earlier trial had been "wrongly and incompletely established" and prosecution witnesses had offered contradictory testimony.

The defense has long insisted that the men have been used as scapegoats. Four of the five men killed were between 18 and 20 years of age, the fifth was 45 years old. After the residents of the villages where the victims lived heard about the killings, angry crowds blocked the highway near the Smilkovci lake. An OSCE vehicle was attacked after an OSCE employee drove the vehicle towards an angry crowd of ethnic Macedonians. Interior Minister Gordana Jankuloska said in a press conference that "more than one perpetrator" killed five fishermen and that "by this point we are still unable to say that the killings were ethnic-related because the police have no suspects". On 15 April, the Macedonian police contacted police in neighboring countries and found a car thought to have been used by the killers near the border with Kosovo; the Interior Minister had not identified them. In the early hours of 1 May 2012 about 800 police officers raided 26 properties, arresting 20 people on a variety of charges.

They were confirmed by Macedonian Interior Minister Gordana Jankuloska as Islamic fundamentalists, some of whom had fought in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The arrests took place in the villages of Šuto Orizari, Jaja Paša and Aračinovo, weapons were found in the residences of the suspects. Among the seized items, National Liberation Army propraganda was present; the police used phone tapping during the operation. In addition to primary assailants Afrim Ismailoviq, Agim Ismailoviq, Alil Demiri, Fejzi Aziri and Rami Sejdi, police charged a number of co-conspirators and associates. At the home of Nazif Memeti, police found a ammunition. Ibrahim Zajdini possessed several magazines of ammunition and a hand grenade. Sixty-year-old grandmother Feride Bilalli possessed substantial ammunition for automatic firearms, ammunition belts for machine guns, military camouflage clothing with National Liberation Army insignia and symbols, NLA identity cards and photo albums. Father and son Isni and Ramadan Asani had weapons in their home.

A special report to the public prosecutor was filed against Qezmedin Demiri, Haki Aziri, Muamer Qailovski, Besim Hajdari, Mervan Memeti, Abdula Rashitov, Suraj Asipi, Mirvet Ismailoviq, Kimet Demiri, Qani Aziri and Rami Xhaviti. On 3 May 2012, 13 of the 20 arrested suspects were released and charges were brought against four others for weapons possession. Protests were organised in cities and towns throughout Macedonia, two of which turned violent: in the village of Smiljkovci and the city of Skopje; the Skopje protest was organized by young people, who wanted to march in the Saraj Municipality where there is an Albanian-speaking majority. The protesters were stopped by police, which sparked a 10-minute conflict between police and protesters; the protesters were recorded as chanting, "A good Albanian is a dead Albanian" and "Gas chambers for the Albanians". A large, peaceful protest was organised by Čkembari in Bitola, where Macedonian demonstrators marched through the main street of Širok Sokak and lit candles for the victims under the city's clock tower.

On 4 May 2012 fifteen to twenty thousand ethnic Albanians protested in Skopje in support of the accused, demanding the release of the arrested Albanians and chanting "To be an Albanian is not a crime", UÇK", "See you in the mountains". Protesters smashed the windows of a bus stop. Shukri Alia, blacklisted by the EU and wanted by Macedonian police for murder and armed attacks on two Skopje police stations, led efforts to organise protests. Kosovo Internal Affairs Minister Bajram Rexhepi said that any murder suspects hiding in Kosovo would be arrested; the following day, US Republican politician Joseph J. DioGuardi, ethnic Albanian by origin, said: "The Macedonian and Serbian governments have designed a well-orchestrated top secret plan, aiming to compromise and stain the freedom-loving Albanian people in front of the world public opinion. Albanians are facing brutal tortures; the Albanian people are not terrorists". Former NLA commander Xhezair Shaqiri said that he would begin a guerrilla war to protect Albanians in Macedonia and the Morava River valley.

Shaqiri met with former National Liberation Army and Kosovo Liberation Army members, discu

VS Hydro

VS Hydro is a company developing hydropower projects. VSHydro is part of VS Group of companies which includes Innova, VST, VSC, VSE and RemediumOne. VSHydro traces its roots back to 1972, when Premasiri Sumanasekera, a graduate in Physical Science from the University of Colombo, who became a teacher and meteorologist, started Vidya Silpa in the backyard of his residence to manufacture laboratory science equipment, imported at great cost from the developed Western countries. Manufacture of these intricate measurement instruments were started with two artisans using basic equipment and technology. Soon the company grew from a backyard workshop to be the foremost supplier of laboratory equipment for all schools in Sri Lanka; the two man workshop in the Sumanasekera backyard grew to a large factory with 150 workers. Projects: VS connected more than 100MW to grid in Africa and Asia, they are expanding their operation in to other regions in Africa. Uganda. Mpanga Hydropower Project, Uganda 2. Siti Hydropower Project, Uganda 3.

Lubilai Hydropower Project, Uganda 4. Nyamughasani 1&2 Hydropower Project, Uganda. VS is doing pre-implementation works for some other projects which are having capacity over 5MW. Rwanda. Gisenyi, Ghasashi, Rwanda. VS is doing their pre-implementation works for several other projects in Rwanda including Rukurara, Mushishito projects. Kenya. Gura Hydropower Project, Kenya. VS is doing their pre-implementation works for several other projects in Kenya including Nithi, Chania projects. Now VS Hydro expands their operations to Zimbabwe, Tanzania and some other African countries too

Ralf Teckentrup

Ralf Teckentrup is Chief Commercial Officer of Thomas Cook Group Airlines and CEO of Condor Flugdienst. After studying industrial engineering at the University of Hamburg and the Hamburg University of Technology in Hamburg-Harburg he joined in 1986 Deutsche Lufthansa AG as a project manager in the area of corporate organization. Up until 1994, his work focused on reorganization projects as well as programs for cost reduction and strategic corporate development. Afterwards, he headed the corporate organization of Lufthansa, before in 1996 he headed the controlling of the marketing and sales department. In 1997 he was appointed as Divisional Director for controlling and administration and for network management and marketing. In 2003, Teckentrup subsequently took over responsibility for the areas of network management, IT, airport infrastructure and the purchasing department of Lufthansa Passage. In 2004, Teckentrup was appointed to the Board of Thomas Cook AG and at the same time, as CEO, he took over the management of Condor Flugdienst, which he renovated in the following years, led back to the profit zone and leads until today.

In addition to his responsibilities in the Thomas Cook Group, Ralf Teckentrup holds mandates as a member of the Supervisory Board of Sixt, as a member of the Advisory Board of Deutsche Flugsicherung and as a member of the Executive Committee of the Bundesverband der Deutschen Tourismuswirtschaft. In addition, he acts as Chairman of Bundesverband der Deutschen Fluggesellschaften, based in Berlin, since 2007. Teckentrup has two children. Official website

The Ultra Zone

The Ultra Zone is a 1999 album from guitarist Steve Vai. The Ultra Zone is structurally similar to Vai's previous album, Fire Garden, in that the first half of the album consists of instrumentals, the second half of vocal songs; the Ultra Zone is notable for its tributes to two legendary guitarists: Frank Zappa, Stevie Ray Vaughan. Notable is the fact that this was Vai's last studio album of original material until 2005's Real Illusions: Reflections; this album includes the participations of Koshi Inaba and Tak Matsumoto from the Japanese band B'z on "Asian Sky". All songs written by Steve Vai. "The Blood & Tears" – 4:26 "The Ultra Zone" – 4:52 "Oooo" – 5:12 "Frank" – 5:09 "Jibboom" – 3:46 "Voodoo Acid" – 6:25 "Windows to the Soul" – 6:25 "The Silent Within" – 5:00 "I'll Be Around" – 4:57 "Lucky Charms" – 6:44 "Fever Dream" – 6:03 "Here I Am" – 4:12 "Asian Sky" – 5:34 Steve Vai – everything, everything else, vocals Koshi Inaba - vocals Tak Matsumoto - guitar Mike Keneally - keyboards John Sergio – bass Philip Bynoe – bass Bryan Beller – bass Gregg Bissonette - drums Mike Mangini - drums Robin DiMaggio - drums Andy Cleaves - trumpet Duane Benjamin - trombone Niels Bye Nielsen - orchestration