SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Composer

A composer is a musician, an author of music in any form, including vocal music, instrumental music, electronic music, music which combines multiple forms. A composer may create music in any music genre, for example, classical music, musical theatre, folk music and popular music. Composers express their works in a written musical score using musical notation. Many composers are, or were skilled performers of music. Musical notation serves as a set of directions for a performer, but there is a whole continuum of possibilities concerning how much the performer determines the final form of the rendered work in performance. In a conventional Western piece of instrumental music, in which all of the melodies and basslines are written out in musical notation, the performer has a degree of latitude to add artistic interpretation to the work, by such means as by varying his or her articulation and phrasing, choosing how long to make fermatas or pauses, — in the case of bowed string instruments, woodwinds or brass instruments — deciding whether to use expressive effects such as vibrato or portamento.

For a singer or instrumental performer, the process of deciding how to perform music, composed and notated is termed "interpretation". Different performers' interpretations of the same work of music can vary in terms of the tempos that are chosen and the playing or singing style or phrasing of the melodies. Composers and songwriters who present their own music are interpreting, just as much as those who perform the music of others; the standard body of choices and techniques present at a given time and a given place is referred to as performance practice, whereas interpretation is used to mean the individual choices of a performer. Although a musical composition has a single author, this is not always the case. A work of music can have multiple composers, which occurs in popular music when a band collaborates to write a song, or in musical theatre, where the songs may be written by one person, the orchestration of the accompaniment parts and writing of the overture is done by an orchestrator, the words may be written by a third person.

A piece of music can be composed with words, images, or, in the 20th and 21st century, computer programs that explain or notate how the singer or musician should create musical sounds. Examples of this range from wind chimes jingling in a breeze, to avant-garde music from the 20th century that uses graphic notation, to text compositions such as Aus den sieben Tagen, to computer programs that select sounds for musical pieces. Music that makes heavy use of randomness and chance is called aleatoric music, is associated with contemporary composers active in the 20th century, such as John Cage, Morton Feldman, Witold Lutosławski; the nature and means of individual variation of the music is varied, depending on the musical culture in the country and time period it was written. For instance, music composed in the Baroque era in slow tempos was written in bare outline, with the expectation that the performer would add improvised ornaments to the melody line during a performance; such freedom diminished in eras, correlating with the increased use by composers of more detailed scoring in the form of dynamics, articulation et cetera.

Because of this trend of composers becoming specific and detailed in their instructions to the performer, a culture developed whereby faithfulness to the composer's written intention came to be valued. This musical culture is certainly related to the high esteem in which the leading classical composers are held by performers; the informed performance movement has revived to some extent the possibility of the performer elaborating in a serious way the music as given in the score for Baroque music and music from the early Classical period. The movement might be considered a way of creating greater faithfulness to the original in works composed at a time that expected performers to improvise. In genres other than classical music, the performer has more freedom. In Western art music, the composer orchestrates his or her own compositions, but in musical theatre and in pop music, songwriters may hire an arranger to do the orchestration. In some cases, a pop songwriter may not use notation at all, instead compose the song in his or her mind and play or record it from memory.

In jazz and popular music, notable recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written scores play in classical music. The study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical music, but the definition of composition is broad enough the creation of popular and traditional music songs and instrumental pieces and to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African percussionists such as Ewe drummers; the level of distinction between composers and other musicians varies, which affects issues such as copyright and the deference given to individual interpretations of a particular piece o

Wheatland, Missouri

Wheatland is a city in Hickory County, United States. The population was 371 at the 2010 census. Wheatland was platted in 1869; the village most was named after the retirement home of the fifteenth President, James Buchanan, who died June 1, 1868, at his home, called Wheatland, in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Wheatland is located at 37°56′36″N 93°24′11″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.61 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 371 people, 185 households, 95 families residing in the city; the population density was 608.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 242 housing units at an average density of 396.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.1% White, 1.6% African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.9% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population. There were 185 households of which 23.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.8% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 48.6% were non-families.

43.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.01 and the average family size was 2.67. The median age in the city was 44.4 years. 19.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 53.1 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 388 people, 192 households, 105 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,093.8 people per square mile. There were 226 housing units at an average density of 637.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.97% White, 0.52% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.26% of the population. There were 192 households out of which 22.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.0% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.8% were non-families. 42.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 30.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.02 and the average family size was 2.75. In the city, the population was spread out with 22.9% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 19.1% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 26.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 65.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $17,500, the median income for a family was $27,596. Males had a median income of $23,393 versus $14,375 for females; the per capita income for the city was $10,025. About 20.0% of families and 28.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.5% of those under age 18 and 29.8% of those age 65 or over. Wheatland is served by Wheatland R-II School District and Wheatland High School Lucas Oil Speedway is a motorsports complex that features a dirt oval, an off-road track and a motorboat racing lake. Mike Parson, Governor of Missouri, former Lieutenant Governor, born in Wheatland

The Four Musketeers (1963 film)

The Four Musketeers is a 1963 Italian-French adventure-comedy film co-written and directed by Carlo Ludovico Bragaglia and starring Aldo Fabrizi, Erminio Macario and Nino Taranto. It is a loose parody of Alexandre Dumas' The Three Musketeers. Aldo Fabrizi as Bouboule Erminio Macario as Dubois Nino Taranto as Frisson Carlo Croccolo as Lapin Peppino De Filippo as Cardinal Richelieu Carla Marlier as Costanza Bonacieux Béatrice Altariba as Queen Anne of Austria Lisa Gastoni as Milady de Winter Alberto Bonucci as Cyrano de Bergerac Francesco Mulè as Louis XIII Georges Rivière as D'Artagnan Nando Poggi as Athos Betto Di Paolo as Aramis Andrea Aureli as Porthos Franco Ressel as Lord Buckingham Nino Terzo as Rochefort John Francis Lane as Bonacieux Anna Campori as Marianna Milena Vukotic as Milady's Maid The Four Musketeers was released in 1963; the Four Musketeers on IMDb