Composite armour is a type of vehicle armour consisting of layers of different material such as metals, ceramics or air. Most composite armours are lighter than their all-metal equivalent, but instead occupy a larger volume for the same resistance to penetration, it is possible to design composite armour stronger and less voluminous than traditional armour, but the cost is prohibitively high, restricting its use to vulnerable parts of a vehicle. Its primary purpose is to help defeat high explosive anti-tank projectiles. HEAT had posed a serious threat to armoured vehicles since its introduction in World War II. Lightweight and small, HEAT projectiles could penetrate hundreds of millimetres of the hardest steel armours; the capability of most materials for defeating HEAT follows the "density law", which states that the penetration of shaped charge jets is proportional to the square root of the shaped charge liner density divided by the square root of the target density. On a weight basis, lighter targets are more advantageous than heavier targets, but using large quantities of lightweight materials has obvious disadvantages in terms of mechanical layout.
Certain materials have an optimal compromise in terms of density that makes them useful in this role. The earliest known composite armour for armoured vehicles was developed as part of the US Army's T95 experimental series from the mid-1950s; the T95 featured "siliceous-cored armor" which contained a plate of fused silica glass between rolled steel plates. The stopping power of glass exceeds that of steel armour on a thickness basis and in many cases glass is more than twice as effective as steel on a thickness basis. Although the T95 never entered production, a number of its concepts were used on the M60 Patton, during the development stage the siliceous-cored armour was at least considered for use, although it was not a feature of the production vehicles; the first widespread use of a composite armour appears to have been on the Soviet T-64. It used an armour known as Combination K, glass-reinforced plastic sandwiched between inner and outer steel layers. Through a mechanism called thixotropy, the resin changes to a fluid under constant pressure, allowing the armour to be moulded into curved shapes.
Models of the T-64, along with newer designs, used a boron carbide-filled resin aggregate for improved protection. The Soviets invested in reactive armour, which allowed them some ability to control quality after production; the most common type of composite armour today is Chobham armour, first developed and used by the British in the experimental FV 4211 tank, based on Chieftain tank components. Chobham sandwiches a layer of ceramic between two plates of steel armour, shown to increase the resistance to HEAT projectiles in comparison to other composite armour designs. Chobham was such an improvement that it was soon used on the new U. S. M1 Abrams main battle tank as well, it is the fabrication of the ceramic in large tiles that gives the Challenger and Abrams their "slab sided" look. Chobham's precise mechanism for defeating HEAT projectiles was uncovered in the 1980s. High speed photography showed that the ceramic material shatters as the HEAT projectile penetrates, the energetic fragments destroying the geometry of the metal jet generated by the hollow shaped charge diminishing the penetration.
The effectiveness of the system was amply demonstrated in Desert Storm, where not a single British Army Challenger tank was lost to enemy tank fire. Chobham-type armour is in its third generation and is used on modern western tanks such as the British Challenger 2 and the American M1 Abrams; the Abrams is unique in its usage of depleted uranium armour plates in conjunction with composite armour, increasing overall vehicle protection. All modern third-generation main battle tanks use composite armour arrays in their construction. While many of these vehicles feature the composite armour permanently integrated with the vehicle, the Japanese Type 10 and Type 90 Kyū-maru MBTs, French Leclerc, Iranian Karrar, Turkish Altay, Indian Arjun, Italian Ariete and Chinese Type 96/98 and Type 99 tanks use a modular composite armour, where sections of the composite armour can be and switched out or upgraded with armour modules; the adoption of modular composite armour design facilitates far more efficient and easier upgrades and exchanges of the armour.
Soviet/Russian main battle tanks such as T-90s T-80Us and the Chinese Type 96/99s use composite armour in tandem with explosive reactive armour, making it hard for shaped charge munitions such as HEAT projectiles and missile warheads to penetrate the frontal and a portion of their side armour. The most advanced versions of these armours such as the Relikt and Kontakt-5 armour provide protection not only against shaped charges but kinetic energy penetrators by using the explosive force to shear the projectile apart. Applique armour has been used in conjunction with composite armour to provide increased amounts of protection and to supplant existing composite arrays on a vehicle; the German Leopard 2A5 featured distinctive arrowhead laminated armour modules, mounted directly onto the turret composite arrays, increasing protection markedly above the previous 2A4 model. Composite armour has since been applied to smaller vehicles, right down to jeep-sized automobiles. Many of these systems are applied as upgrades to existing armour, which makes them
The giant anteater known as the ant bear, is an insectivorous mammal native to Central and South America. It is one of four living species of anteaters, the only extant member of the genus Myrmecophaga, is classified with sloths in the order Pilosa; this species is terrestrial, in contrast to other living anteaters and sloths, which are arboreal or semiarboreal. The giant anteater is the biggest of its family, 182 to 217 cm in length, with weights of 33 to 50 kg for males and 27 to 47 kg for females, it is recognizable by its elongated snout, bushy tail, long fore claws, distinctively colored pelage. The giant anteater can be found including grassland and rainforest, it rests in more forested habitats. It feeds on ants and termites, using its fore claws to dig them up and its long, sticky tongue to collect them. Though giant anteaters live in overlapping home ranges, they are solitary except during mother-offspring relationships, aggressive interactions between males, when mating. Mother anteaters carry their offspring on their backs until weaning them.
The giant anteater is listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. It has been extirpated from many parts of its former range. Threats to its survival include habitat destruction and poaching for fur and bushmeat, although some anteaters inhabit protected areas. With its distinctive appearance and habits, the anteater has been featured in pre-Columbian myths and folktales, as well as modern popular culture; the giant anteater got its binomial name from Carl Linnaeus in 1758. Its generic name and specific name, are both Greek, meaning "anteater" and "three fingers", respectively. Myrmecophaga jubata was used as a synonym. Three subspecies have been tentatively proposed: M. t. tridactyla, M. t. centralis, M. t. artata. The giant anteater is grouped with the semiarboreal northern and southern tamanduas in the family Myrmecophagidae. Together with the family Cyclopedidae, whose only extant member is the arboreal silky anteater, the two families comprise the suborder Vermilingua.
Anteaters and sloths belong to order Pilosa and share superorder Xenarthra with the Cingulata. The two orders of Xenarthra split 66 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous epoch. Anteaters and sloths diverged between the Paleocene and Eocene epochs; the Cyclopes lineage emerged around 30 Mya in the Oligocene epoch, while the Myrmecophaga and Tamandua lineages split 10 Mya in the Late Miocene subepoch. During most of the Cenozoic era, anteaters were confined to South America, an island continent. Following the formation of the Isthmus of Panama about 3 Mya, anteaters of all three extant genera invaded Central America as part of the Great American Interchange; the fossil record for anteaters is sparse. Known fossils include the Pliocene genus Palaeomyrmidon, a close relative to the silky anteater, the sister taxon to the clade that includes the giant anteater and the tamanduas from the Miocene, Neotamandua, a sister taxon to Myrmecophaga. Protamandua was larger than the silky anteater, but smaller than a tamandua, while Neotamandua was larger, falling somewhere between a tamandua and a giant anteater.
Protamandua did not appear to have feet specialized for terrestrial or arboreal locomotion, but it may have had a prehensile tail. Neotamandua, though, is unlikely to have had a prehensile tail and its feet were intermediate in form between those of the tamanduas and the giant anteater; the species Neotamandua borealis was suggested to be an ancestor of the latter. Another member of the genus Myrmecophaga has been recovered from the Montehermosan Monte Hermoso Formation in Argentina and was described by Kraglievitch in 1934 as Nunezia caroloameghinoi; the species was reclassified as Myrmecophaga caroloameghinoi by S. E. Hirschfeld in 1976; the giant anteater is the most terrestrial of the living anteater species. Its ancestors may have been adapted to arboreal life. Both the giant anteater and the southern tamandua are well represented in the fossil record of the late Pleistocene and early Holocene; the giant anteater can be identified by its large size, elongated muzzle, long bushy tail. It has a total body length of 182 to 217 cm.
Males weigh 33 to 50 kg and females weigh 27 to 47 kg, making the giant anteater the biggest extant species in its suborder. The head of the giant anteater, at 30 cm long, is elongated when compared to other anteaters, its tubular snout, which ends in its tiny mouth opening and nostrils, takes up most of its head. Its eyes and ears are small, it has poor eyesight. Giant anteaters can live around 16 years in captivity. For an anteater, the neck is thick compared to the back of the head, a small hump can be found at the back of the neck; the coat is greyish, brown or black and salted with white. The forelimbs are white, with black bands around the wrists. Thick black bands with white outlines stretch from throat to shoulder, ending in triangular points. Th
Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law is an American animated sitcom, created by Michael Ouweleen and Erik Richter and aired on Cartoon Network's late night programming block, Adult Swim. The series is about the life and career of Harvey Birdman, an attorney for Sebben & Sebben law firm, who represents various Hanna-Barbera characters. An early version of the pilot episode aired months prior to the launch of Adult Swim on Cartoon Network unannounced on December 30, 2000, it made its official debut on Adult Swim on September 2, 2001 and ended on July 22, 2007, with a total of 39 episodes, over the course of 4 seasons. The entire series has been made available on DVD, other forms of home media, including on demand streaming on Hulu. A half-hour long special, entitled Harvey Birdman: Attorney General, premiered on Adult Swim on October 15, 2018. Official website Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law – list of episodes on IMDb List of Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law episodes at TV.com