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Composite video

Composite video is an analog video transmission that carries standard definition video at 480i or 576i resolution as a single channel. Video information is encoded on one channel, unlike the higher-quality S-video and the higher-quality component video. In all of these video formats, audio is carried on a separate connection. Composite video is known by the initials CVBS for composite video baseband signal or color, video and sync, or is referred to as SD video for the standard-definition television signal it conveys. There are three dominant variants of composite video: NTSC, PAL, SECAM. A composite video signal combines, on one wire, the video information required to recreate a color picture, as well as line and frame synchronization pulses; the color video signal is a linear combination of the luminance of the picture and a modulated subcarrier which carries the chrominance or color information, a combination of hue and saturation. Details of the combining process vary between the PAL and SECAM systems.

The frequency spectrum of the modulated color signal overlaps that of the baseband signal, separation relies on the fact that frequency components of the baseband signal tend to be near harmonics of the horizontal scanning rate, while the color carrier is selected to be an odd multiple of half the horizontal scanning rate. In other words, the combination of luma and chrominance is indeed a frequency-division technique, but it is much more complex than typical frequency-division multiplexing systems like the one used to multiplex analog radio stations on both the AM and FM bands. A gated and filtered signal derived from the color subcarrier, called the burst or colorburst, is added to the horizontal blanking interval of each line as a synchronizing signal and amplitude reference for the chrominance signals. In NTSC composite video, the burst signal is inverted in phase from the reference subcarrier. In PAL, the phase of the color subcarrier alternates on successive lines. Most home analog video equipment record a signal in composite format: LaserDiscs store a true composite signal, while consumer videotape formats and commercial and industrial tape formats use modified composite signals.

The professional D-2 videocassette format digitally records and reproduces composite video signals using PCM encoding of the analog signal on the magnetic tape. In home applications, the composite video signal is connected using an RCA connector yellow, it is accompanied with red and white connectors for right and left audio channels respectively. BNC connectors and higher quality coaxial cable are used in professional television studios and post-production applications. BNC connectors were used for composite video connections on early home VCRs accompanied by either RCA connector or a 5-pin DIN connector for audio; the BNC connector, in turn post dated the PL-259 connector featured on first-generation VCRs. Video cables are low in capacitance. Typical values run from 52 pF/m for an HDPE-foamed dielectric precision video cable to 69 pF/m for a solid PE dielectric cable; some devices that connect to a TV, such as VCRs, older video game consoles and home computers, output a composite signal. This may be converted to RF with an external box known as an RF modulator that generates the proper carrier.

Sometimes this modulator was built into the product and sometimes it was an external unit powered by the computer or with an independent power supply. Modern-day devices with analog outputs have omitted the modulator option in favor of composite and S-video outputs as composite and S-video have become more common as inputs for TVs. In addition, many TV sets sold these days no longer have analog television tuners and cannot accept channel 3/4 from a modulator, but because composite video has a well-established market for both devices that convert it to channel 3/4 outputs, as well as devices that convert things like VGA to composite, it has offered opportunities to repurpose older composite monitors for newer devices. The process of modulating RF with the original video signal, demodulating the original signal again in the TV, introduces losses including added noise or interference. For these reasons, it is best to use composite connections instead of RF connections if possible. Older video equipment and some low-end modern televisions have only RF input.

While RF modulators are no longer common, they are still available to translate composite signals for older equipment. Just as the modulation and demodulation of RF degrades quality, the combining of component signals to form the composite signal does the same, causing a checkerboard video artifact known as dot crawl. Dot crawl is a defect that results from crosstalk due to the intermodulation of the chrominance and luminance components of the signal; this is seen when chrominance is transmitted with high bandwidth, its spectrum reaches into the band of the luminance frequencies. Comb filters are used to separate signals and eliminate these artifacts f

Kozłówka Palace

Zamoyski Palace is a large rococo and neoclassical palace complex located in Kozłówka, Lubartów County in Lublin Voivodeship in eastern Poland. The palace is one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments, as designated May 16, 2007 and tracked by the National Heritage Board of Poland; the original palace was built in the first half of 18th century for Michał Bieliński, voivode of Chełmno. It represents the characteristic type of baroque suburban residence built jardin, its architecture is original - a merger of European art with old Polish building traditions. In 1799, the Palace was acquired by the aristocratic Zamoyski family, it belonged to the family up until 1944. The palace experienced a period of great prosperity during the times of Count Konstanty Zamoyski who remodelled the palace in order to turn it into one of the most monumental and representative magnate residences in Poland. In 1928, the chairman of the Polish Gymnastics Society Sokół, Count Adam Michał Zamoyski, organized a training camp in the palace gardens for the Polish national gymnastics team in preparation for the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam.

From November 1944, when the last owners Count Aleksander Zamoyski and his wife Countess Jadwiga Zamoyska were forced to flee their palace, it became the property of the Communist regime, whose grip on Poland ended in 1989. It hosts the Zamoyski family museum; the interiors of the palace were preserved despite the ravages of the German Nazi and Soviet Regimes from 1939-1989. The original opulent design and most of museum quality art from the Zamoyski family collections remain; the surroundings of the palace include a historic chapel, French Baroque garden, stables and a carriage house. List of Baroque residences Muzeum Zamoyskich w Kozłówce

Libratus

Libratus is an artificial intelligence computer program designed to play poker heads up no-limit Texas hold'em. Libratus' creators intend for it to be generalisable to non-Poker-specific applications, it was developed at Pittsburgh. While Libratus was written from scratch, it is the nominal successor of Claudico. Like its predecessor, its name is a Latin expression and means'balanced'. Libratus was built with more than 15 million core hours of computation as compared to 2-3 million for Claudico; the computations were carried out on the new'Bridges' supercomputer at the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center. According to one of Libratus' creators, Professor Tuomas Sandholm, Libratus does not have a fixed built-in strategy, but an algorithm that computes the strategy; the technique involved is a new variant of counterfactual regret minimization, namely the CFR+ method introduced in 2014 by Oskari Tammelin. On top of CFR+, Libratus used a new technique that Sandholm and his PhD student, Noam Brown, developed for the problem of endgame solving.

Their new method gets rid of the prior de facto standard in Poker programming, called "action mapping". As Libratus plays only against one other human or computer player, the special'heads up' rules for two-player Texas hold'em are enforced. From January 11 to 31, 2017, Libratus was pitted in a tournament against four top-class human poker players, namely Jason Les, Dong Kim, Daniel McAulay and Jimmy Chou. In order to gain results of more statistical significance, 120,000 hands were to be played, a 50% increase compared to the previous tournament that Claudico played in 2015. To manage the extra volume, the duration of the tournament was increased from 13 to 20 days; the four players were grouped into two subteams of two players each. One of the subteams was playing in the open, while the other subteam was located in a separate room nicknamed'The Dungeon' where no mobile phones or other external communications were allowed; the Dungeon subteam got the same sequence of cards as was being dealt in the open, except that the sides were switched: The Dungeon humans got the cards that the AI got in the open and vice versa.

This setup was intended to nullify the effect of card luck. The prize money of $200,000 was shared between the human players; each player received a minimum of $20,000, with the rest distributed in relation to their success playing against the AI. As written in the tournament rules in advance, the AI itself did not receive prize money though it won the tournament against the human team. During the tournament, Libratus was competing against the players during the days. Overnight it was perfecting its strategy on its own by analysing the prior gameplay and results of the day its losses. Therefore, it was able to continuously straighten out the imperfections that the human team had discovered in their extensive analysis, resulting in a permanent arms race between the humans and Libratus, it used another 4 million core hours on the Bridges supercomputer for the competition's purposes. Libratus had been leading against the human players from day one of the tournament; the player Dong Kim was quoted on the AI's strength as follows: "I didn’t realize how good it was until today.

I felt like I was playing against someone, cheating, like it could see my cards. I’m not accusing it of cheating, it was just that good."At the 16th day of the competition, Libratus broke through the $1,000,000 barrier for the first time. At the end of that day, it was ahead $1,194,402 in chips against the human team. At the end of the competition, Libratus was thus won resoundingly; as the big blind in the matches was set to $100, Libratus winrate is equivalent to 14.7 big blinds per 100 hands. This is considered an exceptionally high winrate in poker and is statistically significant. Of the human players, Dong Kim came first, MacAulay second, Jimmy Chou third, Jason Les fourth. While Libratus' first application was to play poker, its designers have a much broader mission in mind for the AI; the investigators designed the AI to be able to learn any game or situation in which incomplete information is available and "opponents" may be hiding information or engaging in deception. Because of this Sandholm and his colleagues are proposing to apply the system to other, real-world problems as well, including cybersecurity, business negotiations, or medical planning.

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