Filmmaking is the process of making a film in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, shooting, sound recording and reproduction and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic and political contexts, using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques, it involves a large number of people, can take from a few months to several years to complete. Film production consists of five major stages: Development: The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc. and the screenplay is written. Financing for the project has to be obtained. Pre-production: Arrangements and preparations are made for the shoot, such as hiring cast and film crew, selecting locations and constructing sets.
Production: The raw footage and other elements for the film are recorded during the film shoot. Post-production: The images and visual effects of the recorded film are edited and combined into a finished product. Distribution: The completed film is distributed and screened in cinemas and/or released to home video. In this stage, the project producer selects a story, which may come from a book, another film, true story, video game, comic book, graphic novel, or an original idea, etc. After identifying a theme or underlying message, the producer works with writers to prepare a synopsis. Next they produce a step outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure, they prepare a treatment, a 25-to-30-page description of the story, its mood, characters. This has little dialogue and stage direction, but contains drawings that help visualize key points. Another way is to produce a scriptment. Next, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months.
The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, structure, characters and overall style. However, producers skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which investors and other interested parties assess through a process called script coverage. A film distributor may be contacted at an early stage to assess the market and potential financial success of the film. Hollywood distributors adopt a hard-headed no approach and consider factors such as the film genre, the target audience and assumed audience, the historical success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film, potential directors. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience. Not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, so film companies take DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights into account; the producer and screenwriter prepare a film pitch, or treatment, present it to potential financiers. They will pitch the film to actors and directors in order to "attach" them to the project.
Many projects fail to enter so-called development hell. If a pitch succeeds, a film receives a "green light", meaning someone offers financial backing: a major film studio, film council, or independent investor; the parties involved negotiate a sign contracts. Once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period. By this stage, the film should have a defined marketing strategy and target audience. Development of animated films differs in that it is the director who develops and pitches a story to an executive producer on the basis of rough storyboards, it is rare for a full-length screenplay to exist at that point in time. If the film is green-lighted for further development and pre-production a screenwriter is brought in to prepare the screenplay. Analogous to most any business venture, financing of a film project deals with the study of filmmaking as the management and procurement of investments, it includes the dynamics of assets that are required to fund the filmmaking and liabilities incurred during the filmmaking over the time period from early development through the management of profits and losses after distribution under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty and risk.
The practical aspects of filmmaking finance can be defined as the science of the money management of all phases involved in filmmaking. Film finance aims to price assets based on their risk level and their expected rate of return based upon anticipated profits and protection against losses. In pre-production, every step of creating the film is designed and planned; the production company is created and a production office established. The film is pre-visualized by the director, may be storyboarded with the help of illustrators and concept artists. A production budget is drawn up to plan expenditures for the film. For major productions, insurance is procured to protect against accidents; the nature of the film, the budget, determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget, independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine; these are typical crew positions: Storyboard artist: creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.
Director: is primarily
Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers. The term refers to computer-generated image data created with the help of specialized graphical hardware and software, it is a vast and developed area of computer science. The phrase was coined in 1960, by computer graphics researchers Verne Hudson and William Fetter of Boeing, it is abbreviated as CG, though sometimes erroneously referred to as computer-generated imagery. Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, vector graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, implicit surface visualization with ray tracing, computer vision, among others; the overall methodology depends on the underlying sciences of geometry and physics. Computer graphics is responsible for displaying art and image data and meaningfully to the consumer, it is used for processing image data received from the physical world. Computer graphics development has had a significant impact on many types of media and has revolutionized animation, advertising, video games, graphic design in general.
The term computer graphics has been used in a broad sense to describe "almost everything on computers, not text or sound". The term computer graphics refers to several different things: the representation and manipulation of image data by a computer the various technologies used to create and manipulate images the sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content, see study of computer graphicsToday, computer graphics is widespread; such imagery is found in and on television, weather reports, in a variety of medical investigations and surgical procedures. A well-constructed graph can present complex statistics in a form, easier to understand and interpret. In the media "such graphs are used to illustrate papers, theses", other presentation material. Many tools have been developed to visualize data. Computer generated imagery can be categorized into several different types: two dimensional, three dimensional, animated graphics; as technology has improved, 3D computer graphics have become more common, but 2D computer graphics are still used.
Computer graphics has emerged as a sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content. Over the past decade, other specialized fields have been developed like information visualization, scientific visualization more concerned with "the visualization of three dimensional phenomena, where the emphasis is on realistic renderings of volumes, illumination sources, so forth with a dynamic component"; the precursor sciences to the development of modern computer graphics were the advances in electrical engineering and television that took place during the first half of the twentieth century. Screens could display art since the Lumiere brothers' use of mattes to create special effects for the earliest films dating from 1895, but such displays were limited and not interactive; the first cathode ray tube, the Braun tube, was invented in 1897 – it in turn would permit the oscilloscope and the military control panel – the more direct precursors of the field, as they provided the first two-dimensional electronic displays that responded to programmatic or user input.
Computer graphics remained unknown as a discipline until the 1950s and the post-World War II period – during which time the discipline emerged from a combination of both pure university and laboratory academic research into more advanced computers and the United States military's further development of technologies like radar, advanced aviation, rocketry developed during the war. New kinds of displays were needed to process the wealth of information resulting from such projects, leading to the development of computer graphics as a discipline. Early projects like the Whirlwind and SAGE Projects introduced the CRT as a viable display and interaction interface and introduced the light pen as an input device. Douglas T. Ross of the Whirlwind SAGE system performed a personal experiment in which a small program he wrote captured the movement of his finger and displayed its vector on a display scope. One of the first interactive video games to feature recognizable, interactive graphics – Tennis for Two – was created for an oscilloscope by William Higinbotham to entertain visitors in 1958 at Brookhaven National Laboratory and simulated a tennis match.
In 1959, Douglas T. Ross innovated again while working at MIT on transforming mathematic statements into computer generated 3D machine tool vectors by taking the opportunity to create a display scope image of a Disney cartoon character. Electronics pioneer Hewlett-Packard went public in 1957 after incorporating the decade prior, established strong ties with Stanford University through its founders, who were alumni; this began the decades-long transformation of the southern San Francisco Bay Area into the world's leading computer technology hub - now known as Silicon Valley. The field of computer graphics developed with the emergence of computer graphics hardware. Further advances in computing led to greater advancements in interactive computer graphics. In 1959, the TX-2 computer was developed at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory; the TX-2 integrated a number of new man-machine interfaces. A light pen could be used to draw sketches on the computer using Ivan Sutherland's revolutionary Sketchpad software.
Using a light pen, Sketchpad allowed one to draw simple shapes on the computer screen, save them and recall them later. The light pen itself had a small photoelectric cell in its tip. T
The Colosseum or Coliseum known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is an oval amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of travertine and brick-faced concrete, it is the largest amphitheatre built; the Colosseum is situated just east of the Roman Forum. Construction began under the emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed in AD 80 under his successor and heir, Titus. Further modifications were made during the reign of Domitian; these three emperors are known as the Flavian dynasty, the amphitheatre was named in Latin for its association with their family name. The Colosseum could hold, it is estimated, between 50,000 and 80,000 spectators, having an average audience of some 65,000; the building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was reused for such purposes as housing, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, a Christian shrine. Although ruined because of damage caused by earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is still an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome and is listed as one of the New7Wonders of the World.
It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and has links to the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum. The Colosseum is depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin; the Colosseum's original Latin name was Amphitheatrum Flavium anglicized as Flavian Amphitheatre, after Emperor Nero, whose statue once stood near its location. The building was constructed by emperors following the reign of Nero; this name is still used in modern English, but the structure is better known as the Colosseum. In antiquity, Romans may have referred to the Colosseum by the unofficial name Amphitheatrum Caesareum, but this name may have been poetic as it was not exclusive to the Colosseum; the name Colosseum is believed to be derived from a colossal statue of Nero nearby. This statue was remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Helios or Apollo, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown.
Nero's head was replaced several times with the heads of succeeding emperors. Despite its pagan links, the statue remained standing well into the medieval era and was credited with magical powers, it came to be seen as an iconic symbol of the permanence of Rome. In the 8th century, an epigram attributed to the Venerable Bede celebrated the symbolic significance of the statue in a prophecy, variously quoted: Quamdiu stat Colisæus, stat et Roma; this is mistranslated to refer to the Colosseum rather than the Colossus. However, at the time that the Pseudo-Bede wrote, the masculine noun coliseus was applied to the statue rather than to what was still known as the Flavian amphitheatre; the Colossus did fall being pulled down to reuse its bronze. By the year 1000 the name "Colosseum" had been coined to refer to the amphitheatre from the nearby Colossus Solis; the statue itself was forgotten and only its base survives, situated between the Colosseum and the nearby Temple of Venus and Roma. The name further evolved to Coliseum during the Middle Ages.
In Italy, the amphitheatre is still known as il Colosseo, other Romance languages have come to use similar forms such as Coloseumul, le Colisée, el Coliseo and o Coliseu. The site chosen was a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian and Palatine Hills, through which a canalised stream ran. By the 2nd century BC the area was densely inhabited, it was devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64, following which Nero seized much of the area to add to his personal domain. He built the grandiose Domus Aurea on the site, in front of which he created an artificial lake surrounded by pavilions and porticoes; the existing Aqua Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area and the gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to the Domus Aurea. Although the Colossus was preserved, much of the Domus Aurea was torn down; the lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new Flavian Amphitheatre. Gladiatorial schools and other support buildings were constructed nearby within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea.
Vespasian's decision to build the Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can be seen as a populist gesture of returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had appropriated for his own use. In contrast to many other amphitheatres, which were located on the outskirts of a city, the Colosseum was constructed in the city centre, in effect, placing it both symbolically and at the heart of Rome. Construction was funded by the opulent spoils taken from the Jewish Temple after the Great Jewish Revolt in 70 AD led to the Siege of Jerusalem. According to a reconstructed inscription found on the sit
Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time. People have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia and formally since the 19th century. Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere at a given place and using meteorology to project how the atmosphere will change. Once calculated by hand based upon changes in barometric pressure, current weather conditions, sky condition or cloud cover, weather forecasting now relies on computer-based models that take many atmospheric factors into account. Human input is still required to pick the best possible forecast model to base the forecast upon, which involves pattern recognition skills, knowledge of model performance, knowledge of model biases; the inaccuracy of forecasting is due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere, the massive computational power required to solve the equations that describe the atmosphere, the error involved in measuring the initial conditions, an incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes.
Hence, forecasts become less accurate as the difference between current time and the time for which the forecast is being made increases. The use of ensembles and model consensus help narrow the error and pick the most outcome. There are a variety of end uses to weather forecasts. Weather warnings are important forecasts because they are used to protect property. Forecasts based on temperature and precipitation are important to agriculture, therefore to traders within commodity markets. Temperature forecasts are used by utility companies to estimate demand over coming days. On an everyday basis, people use weather forecasts to determine. Since outdoor activities are curtailed by heavy rain and wind chill, forecasts can be used to plan activities around these events, to plan ahead and survive them. In 2009, the US spent $5.1 billion on weather forecasting. For millennia people have tried to forecast the weather. In 650 BC, the Babylonians predicted the weather from cloud patterns as well as astrology.
In about 350 BC, Aristotle described weather patterns in Meteorologica. Theophrastus compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the Book of Signs. Chinese weather prediction lore extends at least as far back as 300 BC, around the same time ancient Indian astronomers developed weather-prediction methods. In New Testament times, Christ himself referred to deciphering and understanding local weather patterns, by saying, "When evening comes, you say,'It will be fair weather, for the sky is red', in the morning,'Today it will be stormy, for the sky is red and overcast.' You know how to interpret the appearance of the sky, but you cannot interpret the signs of the times."In 904 AD, Ibn Wahshiyya's Nabatean Agriculture, translated into Arabic from an earlier Aramaic work, discussed the weather forecasting of atmospheric changes and signs from the planetary astral alterations. Ancient weather forecasting methods relied on observed patterns of events termed pattern recognition. For example, it might be observed that if the sunset was red, the following day brought fair weather.
This experience accumulated over the generations to produce weather lore. However, not all of these predictions prove reliable, many of them have since been found not to stand up to rigorous statistical testing, it was not until the invention of the electric telegraph in 1835 that the modern age of weather forecasting began. Before that, the fastest that distant weather reports could travel was around 100 miles per day, but was more 40–75 miles per day. By the late 1840s, the telegraph allowed reports of weather conditions from a wide area to be received instantaneously, allowing forecasts to be made from knowledge of weather conditions further upwind; the two men credited with the birth of forecasting as a science were an officer of the Royal Navy Francis Beaufort and his protégé Robert FitzRoy. Both were influential men in British naval and governmental circles, though ridiculed in the press at the time, their work gained scientific credence, was accepted by the Royal Navy, formed the basis for all of today's weather forecasting knowledge.
Beaufort developed the Wind Force Scale and Weather Notation coding, which he was to use in his journals for the remainder of his life. He promoted the development of reliable tide tables around British shores, with his friend William Whewell, expanded weather record-keeping at 200 British Coast guard stations. Robert FitzRoy was appointed in 1854 as chief of a new department within the Board of Trade to deal with the collection of weather data at sea as a service to mariners; this was the forerunner of the modern Meteorological Office. All ship captains were tasked with collating data on the weather and computing it, with the use of tested instruments that were loaned for this purpose. A storm in 1859 that caused the loss of the Royal Charter inspired FitzRoy to develop charts to allow predictions to be made, which he called "forecasting the weather", thus coining the term "weather forecast". Fifteen land stations were established to use the telegraph to transmit to him daily reports of weather at set times leading to the first gale warning service.
His warning service for shipping was initiated in February 1861, with the use of telegraph communications. The first daily weather forecasts were published in The Times in 1861. In the following year a system was introduced of hoistin
A character generator abbreviated as CG, is a device or software that produces static or animated text for keying into a video stream. Modern character generators are computer-based, can generate graphics as well as text. Monoscopes were used as character generators for text mode video rendering in computer displays for a short time in the 1960s; the CBS Laboratories Vidiac, the A. B. Dick 990 System, were among the earliest character generators for broadcast television. CBS Laboratories developed the more advanced Vidifont system in preparation for the 1968 US presidential elections, where a rapid method of all-electronic character generation was required so that news outlets could identify unexpected interviewees on the spot. A similar generator using analogue electronics, was developed by the BBC in 1970 and used in the general election that year. In the television business in North America, the digital on-screen graphics generated by character generators are often called "Chyrons", after the Chyron Corporation, whether or not Chyron made the character generator.
In the United Kingdom, such graphics are called "Astons", after Aston Broadcast Systems. These are examples of genericized trademarks. Character generators are used in the broadcast areas of live television sports or television news presentations, given that the modern character generator can generate high-resolution, animated graphics for use when an unforeseen situation in a broadcast dictates an opportunity for breaking news coverage—for example, when, in a football game, a unknown player begins to have what looks to become an outstanding day, the character generator operator can build a new graphic using the template "shell" of a similarly-designed graphic; the character generator is one of many technologies used to meet the demands of live television, where events on the field or in the newsroom dictate the direction of the coverage. As character generator development has progressed, the distinction between hardware and software generators has become less distinct as new platforms and operating systems evolve to meet the live television consumer's expectations.
Before character generators were available, the primary method of adding titles to video images was to dedicate one camera to shooting white letters on a black background, combined with the video from a live-action camera to form what appeared to be a single image with white letters superimposed over it. In fact, to this day some directors of live TV continue to order the technical director to "add the super" when they want the CG output "superimposed" over the image of another camera; as technology advanced, the ability to "key" these white letters over live video became available, involving electronically "cutting a hole" in the shape of the letters from the title camera and electronically adding the letters to the holes cut into the live action camera image. Again, some directors still call this "keying the graphic"; the modern CG allowed not only more precise and realistic "keying", but the addition of multiple picture elements from the CG to further the illusion of a 3-dimensional graphic physically overlying a video image.
The addition of full-motion graphics from the CG and the animation of graphic elements by the CG blur the line between "character generator" and "computer graphics", combining the CG's ability to elegantly present graphics and video with the computer's ability to interface with game scoring and timing systems, to keep running totals of an athlete's performance on the field or the court and to derive statistics both for individual players and the teams involved, to interface with computer systems located at other game venues or at a television network's master control central broadcast center. On televised sporting events, score bugs are present, they contain CG data from that game, CG data from other games in progress, other games completed, games yet to come, all in an effort to keep the viewer from having to "channel surf" to another station to watch another television program. Viewers who do not change channels watch the first channel's television advertising which generates revenue for the television network.
Although the distinction between hardware and software CGs is becoming less evident as technology advances, as consumer-grade computing equipment becomes more graphically sophisticated, it remains easiest to view CG's as either hardware- or software-dependent. Hardware character generators are used in television studios and video editing suites. A desktop publishing-like interface can be used to generate static and moving text or graphics, which the device encodes into some high-quality video signal, like digital Serial Digital Interface or analog component video, high definition or RGB video, they provide a key signal, which the compositing vision mixer can use as an alpha channel to determine which areas of the CG video are translucent. Software CGs run on standard off-the-shelf computer hardware and are integrated into video editing software such as non-linear editing system; some stand-alone character generator products are available, for applications that do not attempt to offer text generation on their own, as high-end video editing software does, or whose internal CG effects are not flexible and powerful enough.
Some software CGs can be used in live production with special software and computer video interface cards. In that case, they are equivalent to hardware generators. AJT Systems Sc
Photomontage is the process and the result of making a composite photograph by cutting, gluing and overlapping two or more photographs into a new image. Sometimes the resulting composite image is photographed so that a final image may appear as a seamless photographic print. A similar method, although one that does not use film, is realized today through image-editing software; this latter technique is referred to by professionals as "compositing", in casual usage is called "photoshopping". A composite of related photographs to extend a view of a single scene or subject would not be labeled as a montage. Author Oliver Grau in his book, Virtual Art: From Illusion to Immersion, notes that the creation of an artificial immersive virtual reality, arising as a result of technical exploitation of new inventions, is a long-standing human practice throughout the ages; such environments as dioramas were made of composited images. The first and most famous mid-Victorian photomontage was "The Two Ways of Life" by Oscar Rejlander, followed shortly thereafter by the images of photographer Henry Peach Robinson such as "Fading Away".
These works set out to challenge the then-dominant painting and theatrical tableau vivants. In late Victorian North America, William Notman of Montreal used photomontage to commemorate large social events which could not otherwise be captured on film. Fantasy photomontage postcards were popular in the late Victorian era and Edwardian era. One of the preeminent producers in this period was the Bamforth & Co Ltd, of Holmfirth, West Yorkshire, New York; the high point of its popularity came, during World War I, when photographers in France, Great Britain, Germany and Hungary produced a profusion of postcards showing soldiers on one plane and lovers, children, families, or parents on another. Many of the early examples of fine-art photomontage consist of photographed elements superimposed on watercolours, a combination returned to by George Grosz in about 1915. In 1916, John Heartfield and George Grosz experimented with pasting pictures together, a form of art named "Photomontage.” George Grosz wrote, “When John Heartfield and I invented photomontage in my South End studio at five o’clock on a May morning in 1916, neither of us had any inkling of its great possibilities, nor of the thorny yet successful road it was to take.
As so happens in life, we had stumbled across a vein of gold without knowing it.”John Heartfield and George Grosz were members of Berlin Club Dada. The German Dadists were instrumental in making montage into a modern art-form; the term "photomontage” became known at the end of World War I, around 1918 or 1919. Heartfield used photomontage extensively in his innovative book dust jackets for the Berlin publishing house Malik-Verlag, he revolutionized. Heartfield was the first to use photomontage to tell a “story” from the front cover of the book to the back cover, he employed groundbreaking typography to enhance the effect. From 1930-1938, John Heartfield used photomontage to create 240 “Photomontages of The Nazi Period” to use art as a weapon against fascism and The Third Reich; the photomontages appeared on street covers all over Berlin on the cover of the circulated AIZ magazine published by Willi Münzenberg, Heartfield lived in Berlin until April, 1933, when he escaped to Czechoslovakia after he was targeted for assassination by the SS.
Continuing to produce anti-fascist art in Czechoslovakia until 1938, Heartfield’s political photomontages earned him the number five position on the Gestapo’s Most Wanted List. Other major artists who were members of Berlin Club Dada and major exponents of photomontage were Hannah Höch, Kurt Schwitters, Raoul Hausmann, Johannes Baader. Individual photographs combined together to create a new subject or visual image proved to be a powerful tool for the Dadists protesting World War I and the interests that they believed inspired the war. Photomontage survived Dada and was a technique inherited and used by European Surrealists such as Salvador Dalí, its influence spread to Japan where avant-garde painter Harue Koga produced photomontage-style paintings based on images culled from magazines. The world's first retrospective show of photomontage was held in Germany in 1931. A term coined in Europe was, "photocollage", which referred to large and ambitious works that added typography, brushwork, or objects stuck to the photomontage.
Parallel to the Germans, Russian Constructivist artists such as El Lissitzky, Alexander Rodchenko, the husband-and-wife team of Gustav Klutsis and Valentina Kulagina created pioneering photomontage work as propaganda, such as the journal USSR in Construction, for the Soviet government. In the education sphere, media arts director Rene Acevedo and Adrian Brannan have left their mark on art classrooms the world over. Following his exile to Mexico in the late 1930s, Spanish Civil War activist and montage artist, Josep Renau Berenguer, compiled his acclaimed, Fata Morgana USA: the American Way of Life, a book of photomontage images critical of Americana and North American "consumer culture", his contemporary, Lola Alvarez Bravo, experimented with photomontage on life and social issues in Mexican cities. In Argentina during the late 1940s, the German exile, Grete Stern, began to contribute photomontage work on the theme of Sueños, as part of a regular psychoanalytical article in the magazine, Idilio.
The pioneering techniques of early photomontage artists were co-opted by the advertising industry from the late 1920s onward. The American photographer Alfred Gescheidt, while working in advertising and commerci
Gone with the Wind (film)
Gone with the Wind is a 1939 American epic historical romance film, adapted from Margaret Mitchell's 1936 novel of the same name. The film was produced by David O. Selznick of Selznick International Pictures and directed by Victor Fleming. Set in the American South against the backdrop of the American Civil War and the Reconstruction era, the film tells the story of Scarlett O'Hara, the strong-willed daughter of a Georgia plantation owner, it follows her romantic pursuit of Ashley Wilkes, married to his cousin, Melanie Hamilton, her subsequent marriage to Rhett Butler. The leading roles are played by Vivien Leigh, Clark Gable, Leslie Howard, Olivia de Havilland. Production was difficult from the start. Filming was delayed for two years because of Selznick's determination to secure Gable for the role of Rhett Butler, the "search for Scarlett" led to 1,400 women being interviewed for the part; the original screenplay was written by Sidney Howard and underwent many revisions by several writers in an attempt to get it down to a suitable length.
The original director, George Cukor, was fired shortly after filming began and was replaced by Fleming, who in turn was replaced by Sam Wood while Fleming took some time off due to exhaustion. The film received positive reviews upon its release in December 1939, although some reviewers found it overlong; the casting was praised, many reviewers found Leigh suited to her role as Scarlett. At the 12th Academy Awards, it received ten Academy Awards from thirteen nominations, including wins for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Actress, Best Supporting Actress, it set records for the total number of nominations at the time. Gone with the Wind was immensely popular when first released, it became the highest-earning film made up to that point, held the record for over a quarter of a century. When adjusted for monetary inflation, it is still the most successful film in box-office history, it became ingrained in popular culture. The film is regarded as one of the greatest films of all time.
In 1989, the United States Library of Congress selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry. Part 1On the eve of the American Civil War in 1861, Scarlett O'Hara lives at Tara, her family's cotton plantation in Georgia, with her parents and two sisters and their many slaves. Scarlett learns that Ashley Wilkes—whom she secretly loves—is to be married to his cousin, Melanie Hamilton, the engagement is to be announced the next day at a barbecue at Ashley's home, the nearby plantation Twelve Oaks. At the Twelve Oaks party, Scarlett declares her feelings to Ashley, but he rebuffs her by responding that he and Melanie are more compatible. Scarlett is incensed when she discovers another guest, Rhett Butler, has overheard their conversation; the barbecue is disrupted by the declaration of war and the men rush to enlist. As Scarlett watches Ashley kiss Melanie goodbye, Melanie's younger brother Charles proposes to her. Although she does not love him, Scarlett consents and they are married.
Scarlett is widowed when Charles dies from a bout of pneumonia and measles while serving in the Confederate Army. Scarlett's mother sends her to the Hamilton home in Atlanta to cheer her up, although the O'Haras' outspoken house slave Mammy tells Scarlett she knows she is going there only to wait for Ashley's return. Scarlett, who should not attend a party while in mourning, attends a charity bazaar in Atlanta with Melanie where she meets Rhett again, now a blockade runner for the Confederacy. Celebrating a Confederate victory and to raise money for the Confederate war effort, gentlemen are invited to bid for ladies to dance with them. Rhett makes an inordinately large bid for Scarlett and, to the disapproval of the guests, she agrees to dance with him; the tide of war turns against the Confederacy after the Battle of Gettysburg in which many of the men of Scarlett's town are killed. Scarlett makes another unsuccessful appeal to Ashley while he is visiting on Christmas furlough, although they do share a private and passionate kiss in the parlor on Christmas Day, just before he returns to war.
Eight months as the city is besieged by the Union Army in the Atlanta Campaign and her young house slave Prissy must deliver Melanie's baby without medical assistance after she goes into premature labor. Afterwards, Scarlett calls upon Rhett to take her home to Tara with Melanie, her baby, Prissy. Upon her return home, Scarlett finds Tara deserted, except for her father, her sisters, two former slaves: Mammy and Pork. Scarlett learns that her mother has just died of typhoid fever and her father has become incompetent. With Tara pillaged by Union troops and the fields untended, Scarlett vows she will do anything for the survival of her family and herself. Part 2As the O'Haras work in the cotton fields, Scarlett's father is killed after he is thrown from his horse in an attempt to chase away a scalawag from his land. With the defeat of the Confederacy, Ashley returns, but finds he is of little help at Tara; when Scarlett begs him to run away with her, he confesses his desire for her and kisses her passionately, but says he cannot leave Melanie.
Unable to pay the taxes on Tara implemented b