A comprehensive school is a school type, principally in the United Kingdom. It is a school for secondary aged children that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, in contrast to the selective school system where admission is restricted on the basis of selection criteria; the term is used in relation to England and Wales, where comprehensive schools were introduced as state schools on an experimental basis in the 1940s and became more widespread from 1965. With the Blair educational reforms from 2003, they may be part of a local education authority or be a self governing academy or part of a multi-academy trust. About 90% of British secondary school pupils now attend comprehensive schools, they correspond broadly to the public high school in the United States and Australia and to the Gesamtschule in Germany. Comprehensive schools provide an entitlement curriculum to all children, without selection whether due to financial considerations or attainment. A consequence of, a wider ranging curriculum, including practical subjects such as design and technology and vocational learning, which were less common or non-existent in grammar schools.
Providing post-16 education cost-effectively becomes more challenging for smaller comprehensive schools, because of the number of courses needed to cover a broader curriculum with comparatively fewer students. This is why schools have tended to get larger and why many local authorities have organised secondary education into 11–16 schools, with the post-16 provision provided by sixth form colleges and further education colleges. Comprehensive schools do not select their intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, but there are demographic reasons why the attainment profiles of different schools vary considerably. In addition, government initiatives such as the City Technology Colleges and Specialist schools programmes have made the comprehensive ideal less certain. In these schools children could be selected on the basis of curriculum aptitude related to the school's specialism though the schools do take quotas from each quartile of the attainment range to ensure they were not selective by attainment.
A problem with this is whether the quotas should be taken from a normal distribution or from the specific distribution of attainment in the immediate catchment area. In the selective school system, which survives in several parts of the United Kingdom, admission is dependent on selection criteria, most a cognitive test or tests. Although comprehensive schools were introduced to England and Wales in 1965, there are 164 selective grammar schools that are still in operation.. Most comprehensives are secondary schools for children between the ages of 11 to 16, but in a few areas there are comprehensive middle schools, in some places the secondary level is divided into two, for students aged 11 to 14 and those aged 14 to 18 corresponding to the US middle school and high school, respectively. With the advent of key stages in the National Curriculum some local authorities reverted from the Middle School system to 11–16 and 11–18 schools so that the transition between schools corresponds to the end of one key stage and the start of another.
In principle, comprehensive schools were conceived as "neighbourhood" schools for all students in a specified catchment area. The first comprehensives were set up after the Second World War. In 1946, for example, Walworth School was one of five'experimental' comprehensive schools set up by the London County Council Another early comprehensive school was Holyhead County School in Anglesey in 1949. Coventry opened two Comprehensive School in 1954 by combining Grammar Schools and Secondary Modern Schools; these were Woodlands. Another early example was Tividale Comprehensive School in Tipton; the first, purpose-built comprehensive in the North of England was Colne Valley High School near Huddersfield in 1956. The largest expansion of comprehensive schools resulted from a policy decision taken in 1965 by Anthony Crosland, Secretary of State for Education in the 1964–1970 Labour government; the policy decision was implemented by Circular 10/65, an instruction to local education authorities to plan for conversion.
Students sat the 11+ examination in their last year of primary education and were sent to one of a secondary modern, secondary technical or grammar school depending on their perceived ability. Secondary technical schools were never implemented and for 20 years there was a virtual bipartite system which saw fierce competition for the available grammar school places, which varied between 15% and 25% of total secondary places, depending on location. In 1970 Margaret Thatcher, the Secretary of State for Education in the new Conservative government, ended the compulsion on local authorities to convert, many local authorities were so far down the path that it would have been prohibitively expensive to attempt to reverse the process, more comprehensive schools were established under Thatcher than any other education secretary. By 1975 the majority of local authorities in England and Wales had abandoned the 11-Plus examination and moved to a comprehensive system. Over that 10-year period many secondary modern schools and grammar schools were amalgamated to form large neighbourhood comprehensives, whilst a number of new schools were built to accommodate a growing school population.
By the mid-1970s the system had been fully implemented, with no secondary modern schools remaining. Many grammar schools were either changed to comprehensive status; some local authorities, inc
Baishnab Charan Parida, was a BJD politician and social activist. He represented Odisha. Socialism and secularism are his main mantras, he was elected to Rajya Sabha in July 2010 and his term ended on 1 July 2016. He fought to bring the Odisha Official Language Act, 1954, he was born on 15 February 1941 in Srirampur, P. S. Mangalpur of Jajpur district, Odisha, his father Jagbandhu Parida was a worker in jute mill in Kolkata and a folk singer and his mother Sulochana Parida was a housewife. His early School education was at Mangalpur primary School, he was admitted to Mahtab High School at Mangalpur He is now suffering from Cancer disease and under treatment. After his matriculation, he moved to Kolkata to continue his higher studies as his father was working there, he completed his Graduation in Kolkata from Bangabasi College and MA In Political Science from the University of Calcutta. He completed his M. Phil from Moscow University, he was a member of Communist Party of India from 1960 to 1992. A great follower of Karl Marx and his ideology, he and got involved in trade union and labour movement in West Bengal.
In 1964 he was elected as member of Executive Committee of West Bengal Students Federation. Before that in 1963 he established West Bengal Oriya Students Association and in 1965 established West Bengal Oriya Citizen Council at Kolkata. In 1965 he formed Soviet Land as a member of its editorial board, he continued as a member until 1975. He married Swarna Lata Parida on 3 March 1972. In 1974 Baishnab Parida moved to Moscow with his family for a special assignment for Indo-Soviet coordination, he stayed there until 1989. During his stay in Russia he held several positions, he was the correspondent of RIA Novosti from 1984 to 1989. He was elected as General Secretary of Indian Association in 1988. During that time he was special correspondent of the Samaja and Eastern Media for East European countries. After fifteen years in Moscow he returned to Odisha. A Marxist and socialist at heart, he had to leave CPI due to some differences on application of Marxist ideology in Indian reality. During his stay in Moscow he read literature on Mohandas K. Gandhi and Ambedkar and he was attracted towards Gandhian Philosophy and Lohia' s ideology.
And in 1993 he joined Indian National Congress. Until 1998 he was in Congress but due to his differences with the state party leadership he left congress and joined Samajwadi Party in 1999 as its State President, he was in Samajwadi party until he resigned in 2008. In 2008 he joined BJD. Caste System in India, S. A. Dange and Trade Union Movement in India, Octopus of Corruption, Political Economy and Jharkhand Movement and the Political Aspirations behind it, he died due to cancer on 22nd Nov 2018. Spokesperson, Biju Janata Dal Orissa State President, Samajwadi Party, 1999–2008 General Secretary, Orissa Pradesh Congress State Election Campaign Committee, 1995 and Indian Association of the Soviet Union, 1988 Spokesman, Orissa Pradesh Congress Committee.
Terri Walker is an English R&B and soul singer-songwriter. Walker has released four albums in the United Kingdom, Untitled, L. O. V. E, I Am and Entitled, she provided the majority of the vocals for Shanks & Bigfoot's debut album Swings and Roundabouts. Walker was born in the Wimbledon district of London, England to Jamaican parents, but moved to Regensburg, Germany when she was four, she speaks fluent German. In a 2007 interview with Soul Culture, Walker stated: "I love Deutschland, it's moulded me into what I am. I love here too and I came back to go to boarding-school. Walker moved back to the UK permanently to study at the Italia Conti Academy of Theatre Arts in London, a performing arts centre of excellence. Here, she began to sing opera, she stated: "I started to study opera when I was about 15 and I started to sing it professionally from about 18. It was always a life-long ambition of mine. I think classical training is the best kinda training you can get."Walker began working on music independently providing vocals for garage artists such as 187 Lockdown and TNT.
Walker provided vocals on the Shanks & Bigfoot album Swings and Roundabouts, most notably on the UK top 20 hit "Sing-A-Long". During this time, she was introduced to producers James Yarde, Sammy Jay and Amber Rene of Xosa Entertainment. Walker travelled to LA to record some demo tracks and returned to the UK, continuing her attempts at landing a deal. Receiving her demos from LA, months Walker's UK management sent the recordings to labels in the US, who requested to see her. However, due to 9/11, this was delayed. Def Jam were one of the labels to which they had sent Walker's demos and her management contacted their UK offices who signed her to'Def Soul UK'. Terri Walker released her debut album Untitled in 2003 to critical acclaim. In one review from the BBC, Denise Boyd stated that "In Ms Walker we have an artist who can bravely take on the US diva and who may come out unscathed on the other side. Terri Walker and Untitled can't be pigeon holed; this is not just urban, this is not just R&B, this is music for the soul."
The album received further acclaim when it was nominated for the 2003 Mercury Music Prize alongside Walker's nominations for Best R&B Act, UK Act of the Year, Best Album and Best Newcomer at the 2003 MOBO Awards. Walker's debut single and the first single from Untitled was "Guess You Didn't Love Me", a collaboration with Mos Def, released on 17 February 2003; the single debuted and peaked at number 60 on the UK Singles Chart and remains one of Walker's biggest hits to date. Although a collaboration with Mos Def, he did not appear in the song's music video; the second single from the album was "Ching Ching", which became her biggest hit single to date on the UK Singles Chart, reaching the top 40. Promotion included an appearance on Jools Holland, performing both "Ching Ching" and the album's third single "Drawing Board". Walker states that the album was called Untitled as "It's like when you go to an art gallery and see a piece of work called'Untitled'. That's. I want them to judge for themselves and make up their own minds."Despite critical acclaim, the album was not a commercial success when it was released on 3 March 2003, peaking at number 118 on the UK Albums Chart, leading Walker's record label to push her into a more commercial direction for second album L.
O. V. E. Walker was the guest vocalist on the single version of Jaimeson's "Common Ground", the fourth single taken from his album Think on Your Feet, it was released on 24 May 2004. Walker provided vocals on Lemon Jelly's single "Make Things Right", which peaked at number 33 on the UK singles chart. Following the critical success of her debut album, Walker released her second studio album L. O. V. E two years after the release of Untitled on 28 March 2005. During the promotion of Untitled, Walker spoke on her second album, stating "I'm gonna be doing my new album soon; the next one will be a bit more serious. I've grown up since writing some of my original material and I've seen a lot of things that I would like to write and sing about." Upon the release of the album, Walker explained the more commercial direction by stating, "A lot of people didn't know where to put me, I was 23 but everybody thought I was about 90 the way they were going on!". Producers that worked with Walker on the album included Copenhaniacs.
Reviews for L. O. V. E were positive with the Daily Mirror stating that "The opening track confidently predicts that This Is My Time and, with a voice that knocks competitors into the underachieving box and songs a cut above her substandard debut, Ms T is in the ascendant. Pop soul sweetness." Contactmusic.com gave the album 4/5 stars, explaining that "Terri's second album, picks up from where her debut album left off, but there is a different a huge step up in the quality of production... The lyrics and vocal performance are all jaw dropping. If you are 29 or younger view this as the female Lemar if you are over 30 be prepared to be shocked and have your breath taken away cause this album is something special special."The first single from the album was "Whoopsie Daisy", produced by Remee and Cutfather & Joe. The song missed the UK Top 40 by one place, peaking at number 41; the second single was "This Is My Time" which featured a sample of Dynasty's "Adventures in the Land of Music" but the song was not commercially released though a music video was produced for the song.
Despite a more mainstream direction, L. O. V. E performed worse on the UK Albums Chart than its predecessor, peaking at number 142; this lack of commercial success lead to Walker parting with Mercury R