Compromise of 1850

The Compromise of 1850 was a package of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress in September 1850 that defused a political confrontation between slave and free states on the status of territories acquired in the Mexican–American War. It set Texas' western and northern borders and included provisions addressing fugitive slaves and the slave trade; the compromise was brokered by Whig senator Henry Clay and Democratic senator Stephen Douglas with the support of President Millard Fillmore. A debate over slavery in the territories had erupted during the Mexican–American War, as many Southerners sought to expand slavery to the newly-acquired lands and many Northerners opposed any such expansion; the debate was further complicated by Texas's claim to all former Mexican territory north and east of the Rio Grande, including areas it had never controlled. These issues prevented the passage of organic acts to create organized territorial governments for the land acquired in the Mexican–American War.

In early 1850, Clay proposed a package of bills that would settle most of the pressing issues before Congress. Clay's proposal was opposed by President Zachary Taylor, anti-slavery Whigs like William Seward, pro-slavery Democrats like John C. Calhoun, congressional debate over the territories continued. After Taylor died and was succeeded by Fillmore, Douglas took the lead in passing Clay's compromise through Congress as five separate bills. Under the compromise, Texas surrendered its claims to present-day New Mexico and other states in return for federal assumption of Texas's public debt. California was admitted as a free state, while the remaining portions of the Mexican Cession were organized into New Mexico Territory and Utah Territory. Under the concept of popular sovereignty, the people of each territory would decide whether or not slavery would be permitted; the compromise included a more stringent Fugitive Slave Law and banned the slave trade in Washington, D. C; the issue of slavery in the territories would be re-opened by the Kansas–Nebraska Act, but many historians argue that the Compromise of 1850 played a major role in postponing the American Civil War.

The Republic of Texas gained independence from Mexico following the Texas Revolution of 1836, because Texas had been settled by a large number of Americans, there was a strong sentiment in both Texas and the United States for the annexation of Texas by the United States. In December 1845, President James K. Polk signed a resolution annexing Texas, Texas became the 28th state in the union. Polk sought further expansion through the acquisition of the Mexican province of Alta California, which represented new lands to settle as well as a potential gateway to trade in Asia, his administration attempted to purchase California from Mexico, but the annexation of Texas stoked tensions between Mexico and the United States. Relations between the two countries were further complicated by Texas's claim to all land north of the Rio Grande. In March 1846, a skirmish broke out on the northern side of the Rio Grande, ending in the death or capture of dozens of American soldiers. Shortly thereafter, the United States declared war beginning the Mexican -- American War.

In August 1846, Polk asked Congress for an appropriation that he hoped to use as a down payment for the purchase of California in a treaty with Mexico, igniting a debate over the status of future territories. A freshman Democratic Congressman, David Wilmot of Pennsylvania, offered an amendment known as the Wilmot Proviso that would ban slavery in any newly acquired lands; the Wilmot Proviso was defeated in the Senate, but it injected the slavery debate into national politics. In September 1847, an American army under General Winfield Scott captured the Mexican capital in the Battle for Mexico City. Several months Mexican and American negotiators agreed to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, under which Mexico agreed to recognize the Rio Grande as Texas's southern border and to cede Alta California and New Mexico; the Missouri Compromise had settled the issue of the geographic reach of slavery within the Louisiana Purchase territories by prohibiting slavery in states north of 36°30′ latitude, Polk sought to extend this line into the newly acquired territory.

However, the divisive issue of slavery blocked any such legislation. As his term came to a close, Polk signed the lone territorial bill passed by Congress, which established the Territory of Oregon and banned slavery in it. Polk declined to seek re-election in the 1848 presidential election, the 1848 election was won by the Whig ticket of Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore. Three major types of issues were addressed by the Compromise of 1850: a variety of boundary issues, the status of territory issues, the issue of slavery. While capable of analytical distinction, the boundary and territory issues were included in the overarching issue of slavery. Pro-slavery and anti-slavery interests were each concerned with both the amount of land on which slavery was permitted and with the number of States in the slave or free camps. Since Texas was a slave state, not only the residents of that state but both camps on a national scale had an interest in the size of Texas; the independent Republic of Texas won the decisive Battle of San Jacinto against Mexico and captured Mexican president Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.

He signed the Treaties of Velasco, which recognized the Rio Grande as the boundary of the Republic of Texas. The treaties were repudiated by the government of Mexico, which insisted that Mexico remained sovereign over Texas since Santa Anna had signed the treaty under coercion, promised to reclaim the lost territories. To the extent that there was a

Hrádek (Frýdek-Místek District)

Hrádek is a village in Frýdek-Místek District, Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic, on the Olza River. It has a population of 1,756, 42.8% of whom are Poles, the highest percentage of all municipalities in the country. The village lies between the mountain ranges of the Silesian Beskids and the Moravian-Silesian Beskids, in the historical region of Cieszyn Silesia; the name of the village is a diminutive form of the word gord The beginnings of the village can be traced back to the 12th century, when a small fort was built on a trade route running through the Jablunkov Pass. A settlement grew up around the fort; the small fort and its neighboring settlement were destroyed by the Magyars in 1447. Gródek was first mentioned in a written document in 1577 as Grudek, it belonged to the Duchy of Teschen, a fee of the Kingdom of Bohemia and a part of the Habsburg Monarchy. The village began to develop more briskly at the end of the 18th century, when about 900 people working in agriculture lived there.

After 1880 sandstone was exploited. After Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire a modern municipal division was introduced in the re-established Austrian Silesia; the village as a municipality was subscribed to the political district of Cieszyn and the legal district of Jablunkov. According to the censuses conducted in 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910 the population of the municipality grew from 798 in 1880 to 886 in 1910 with the majority being native Polish-speakers accompanied by Czech-speaking and German-speaking people and in 1910 by 5 people speaking other languages. In terms of religion in 1910 the majority were Protestants, followed by Jews; the village was traditionally inhabited by Cieszyn Vlachs, speaking Cieszyn Silesian dialect. After World War I, fall of Austria-Hungary, Polish–Czechoslovak War and the division of Cieszyn Silesia in 1920, it became a part of Czechoslovakia. Following the Munich Agreement, in October 1938 together with the Zaolzie region it was annexed by Poland, administratively adjoined to Cieszyn County of Silesian Voivodeship.

It was annexed by Nazi Germany at the beginning of World War II. After the war it was restored to Czechoslovakia. From 1980 to 1990 the village was administratively a part of Jablunkov. There is a legend connected with the ancient fort. Notable local landmark Skała Bełki is supposed to be the place of death of the infamous legendary knight Bełko, who plundered merchants and murdered people. According to one version, he committed suicide. Władysław Młynek - Polish poet and writer, was born here Cicha, Irena. Olza od pramene po ujście. Český Těšín: Region Silesia. ISBN 80-238-6081-X. Official website

Wallace Stickney

Wallace Elmer Stickney was an American civil servant, most prominently as the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency under President George H. W. Bush. Stickney was born in New Hampshire, he graduated from New England College in 1959 and received master's degrees from Northeastern University and Harvard University. He died on June 2019 after a brief illness. In 1965 Stickney was unanimously chosen as the first professional town engineer for Salem and served on the Southern Rockingham Regional Planning Commission; as Salem's town engineer Stickney was instrumental in the planning of a new municipal core centered on Geremonty Drive including a new High School and Municipal Office Building as well as the construction of a new wastewater treatment plant and three elementary schools.. He moved to the US Department of the Interior water division in 1968 and became a Staff Environmental Engineer at the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency rising to the post of Environmental and Economic Office Director for U.

S. Environmental Protection Agency Region One in Boston, Massachusetts. From 1983 to 1985 he served as special assistant for environmental affairs to Governor of New Hampshire, John H. Sununu. In 1985 he was named as the first commissioner of the newly organized New Hampshire Department of Transportation, where he played a key role in the ending a three-decade battle over the completion of Interstate 93 through Franconia Notch State Park with the construction of the Franconia Notch Parkway, a narrow, speed-controlled 8-mile scenic parkway that required a special amendment to the standards applied across the rest of the U. S. interstate system. He was nominated to lead FEMA in 1990. At the time, a significant portion of FEMA's budget dealt with Cold War issues of nuclear survivability. Stickney was quoted "The evil empire had crumbled, the Warsaw Pact nations were becoming independent, it became clear that the most difficult situation we would have to handle wouldn't be a maximum lay-down but a partial one, in which only a part of the country was knocked out," says Stickney.

"It was a time of transition on the world scene." Stickney faced considerable resistance in his efforts to transform FEMA from a secretive organization obsessed with doomsday preparations into an agency capable of responding to natural disasters. According to Stickney, his efforts "...met with the full resistance of the security industry, as well as what might be called a'Security Cult' -- people who believed in what they'd been doing for ten years and longer. There are many ways to make things move when there are a lot of people working against it, only a few trying to make it happen." After his service with FEMA Stickney co-founded Municipal Resources, Inc. a consulting firm that providee professional and managerial services to local governments in New England, specializing in Community & Economic Development, Fire EMS & Emergency Management Services, Public Works & Transportation. In this capacity he held positions of Interim Fire Chief of Hudson NH, Interim Public Works Director of the City of Lebanon, NH and Interim Director of Lebanon’s Airport