History of the United States Democratic Party
The Democratic Party of the United States is the oldest voter-based political party in the world, tracing its heritage back to the 1820s. During the Second Party System, from 1832 to the mid-1850s, under presidents Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren, James K. Polk, both parties worked hard to build grassroots organizations and maximize the turnout of voters, which often reached 80 percent or 90 percent. Both parties used patronage extensively to finance their operations, which included emerging big city political machines as well as networks of newspapers. The Democratic party was a proponent for farmers across the country, urban workers and it was especially attractive to Irish immigrants who increasingly controlled the party machinery in the cities. The party was less attractive to businessmen, plantation owners, Evangelical Protestants. The party advocated westward expansion, Manifest Destiny, greater equality among all white men, from the start of the Democratic party which was in 1828, 6th President John Quincy Adams was a Democratic-Republican, and he was not a slave-holder.
The 7th through 15th Presidents were either Democratic or Whig and all slaveholders, finally, 16th President Abraham Lincoln was a Republican and the only non-slave-holding President, other than John and John Quincy Adams. Thus in 1860 the Civil War began between the mostly-Republican North against the mostly-Democratic, slaveholding South, the Democrats elected only two presidents to four terms of office for 72 years, Grover Cleveland and Woodrow Wilson. The Party was split between the Bourbon Democrats, representing Eastern business interests, and the elements comprising poor farmers in the South. The agrarian element, marching behind the slogan of free silver, captured the Party in 1896, both Bryan and Wilson were leaders of the Progressive Movement, 1890s–1920s. Starting with 32nd President Franklin D. Eisenhower. S, important Democratic progressive/liberal leaders included Presidents, 33rd – Harry S Truman, and 36th – Lyndon B. Since the Presidential Election of 1976, Democrats have won five out of the last ten presidential elections, winning in the elections of 1976,1992 and 1996.
The modern Democratic Party emerged in the 1830s from former factions of the Democratic-Republican Party and it was built by Martin Van Buren who assembled a cadre of politicians in every state behind war hero Andrew Jackson of Tennessee. The spirit of Jacksonian Democracy animated the party from the early 1830s to the 1850s, shaping the Second Party System, the new Democratic Party became a coalition of farmers, city-dwelling laborers, and Irish Catholics. Behind the party platforms, acceptance speeches of candidates, editorials and stump speeches, as Norton explains, The Democrats represented a wide range of views but shared a fundamental commitment to the Jeffersonian concept of an agrarian society. They viewed the government as the enemy of individual liberty. The 1824 corrupt bargain had strengthened their suspicion of Washington politics, Jacksonians feared the concentration of economic and political power. They believed that government intervention in the economy benefited special-interest groups and their definition of the proper role of government tended to be negative, and Jacksons political power was largely expressed in negative acts
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States. Louisiana is the 31st most extensive and the 25th most populous of the 50 United States and its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the state in the U. S. with political subdivisions termed parishes. The largest parish by population is East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana is bordered by Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, Texas to the west, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Much of the lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh. These contain a rich southern biota, typical examples include birds such as ibis, there are many species of tree frogs, and fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a process in the landscape. These support a large number of plant species, including many species of orchids. Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized.
Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, the current Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a period, a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century, many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa, thus concentrating their culture. Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715, when René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane. The suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to information relating to an individual, subject. Thus, Louis + ana carries the idea of related to Louis, the Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea. As Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened, Louisiana slowly developed, over millions of years, from water into land, and from north to south. The oldest rocks are exposed in the north, in such as the Kisatchie National Forest.
The oldest rocks date back to the early Tertiary Era, some 60 million years ago, the history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearings Roadside Geology of Louisiana. The sediments were carried north to south by the Mississippi River
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States. As Commanding General, Grant worked closely with President Abraham Lincoln to lead the Union Army to victory over the Confederacy in the American Civil War and he implemented Congressional Reconstruction, often at odds with President Andrew Johnson. His presidency has often criticized for tolerating corruption and for the severe economic depression in his second term. Grant graduated in 1843 from the United States Military Academy at West Point, after the war he married Julia Boggs Dent in 1848, their marriage producing four children. Grant initially retired from the Army in 1854 and he struggled financially in civilian life. When the Civil War began in 1861, he rejoined the U. S. Army, in 1862, Grant took control of Kentucky and most of Tennessee, and led Union forces to victory in the Battle of Shiloh, earning a reputation as an aggressive commander. He incorporated displaced African American slaves into the Union war effort, in July 1863, after a series of coordinated battles, Grant defeated Confederate armies and seized Vicksburg, giving the Union control of the Mississippi River and dividing the Confederacy in two.
After his victories in the Chattanooga Campaign, Lincoln promoted him to lieutenant general, Grant confronted Robert E. Lee in a series of bloody battles, trapping Lees army in their defense of Richmond. Grant coordinated a series of devastating campaigns in other theaters, as well, in April 1865, Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox, effectively ending the war. Historians have hailed Grants military genius, and his strategies are featured in history textbooks. After the Civil War, Grant led the armys supervision of Reconstruction in the former Confederate states and he used the army to build the Republican Party in the South. After the disenfranchisement of some former Confederates, Republicans gained majorities, in his second term, the Republican coalitions in the South splintered and were defeated one by one as redeemers regained control using coercion and violence. In May 1875, Grant authorized his Secretary of Treasury Benjamin Bristow to shut down and his peace policy with the Indians initially reduced frontier violence, but is best known for the Great Sioux War of 1876.
Grant responded to charges of corruption in executive offices more than any other 19th Century president and he appointed the first Civil Service Commission and signed legislation ending the corrupt moiety system. In foreign policy, Grant sought to trade and influence while remaining at peace with the world. His administration successfully resolved the Alabama claims by the Treaty of Washington with Great Britain, Grant avoided war with Spain over the Virginius Affair, but Congress rejected his attempted annexation of the Dominican Republic. His administration implemented a standard and sought to strengthen the dollar. Grant left office in 1877 and embarked on a two-year diplomatic world tour that captured the nations attention, in 1880, Grant was unsuccessful in obtaining the Republican presidential nomination for a third term
Nelson Poynter, former journalist and owner of the St. Petersburg Times, and his wife Henrietta, founded Congressional Quarterly in 1945. Poynter’s vision for Congressional Quarterly was to make transparent the happenings within the government and Washington, Poynter established the Modern Media Institute, now known as the Poynter Institute, with the mission of promoting democracy through education to journalists and other media leaders. After Poynter’s death in 1978, the Institute received controlling stock of the St. Petersburg Times, in May 2008, CQ Press was purchased from Congressional Quarterly by SAGE Publications in its entirety. SAGE is a publisher of journals and electronic media for academic, educational. A privately owned corporation, SAGE has offices in Los Angeles, New Delhi, CQ Press consistently ranks among the top commercial publishers in terms of quality, as evidenced by the numerous awards its products have won over the years. CQ Researcher, a print and online periodical covering todays most debated social and political issues, won the ABA Silver Gavel Award in 2002 for its series on liberty and justice.
The Society of Professional Journalists honored the publication with a Sigma Delta Chi Award of Excellence in 2000 for a series on health care, the group has recently expanded its offerings to include works on public administration, international studies and mass communication. The CQ Press Reference Information Group publishes authoritative content designed for the library market and these publications provide great information focusing on U. S. government, world affairs, political science, and business, with a growing focus on digital content. Included among the directories published is the CQ Press Staff Directories series, consisting of the Congressional Staff Directory, the Federal Staff Directory, and these publications contain authoritative and comprehensive contact information on the federal government. The Congressional Staff Directory has been published continuously since 1959, the Federal Staff Directory since 1982, each directory in the series features multiple print editions throughout the year and is complemented with Web-based daily updates.
In 2011, the division introduced its latest product, First Street, First Street was built on the data that fuels the directories and takes it to the next level by showing relationships among policymakers in one easy-to-find place. CQ Press offers a breadth of online and print government directories and these publications have provided users authoritative and comprehensive contact information for the federal government for over fifty years. The directories are known around the Nation’s capital as “Red Books”. Congressional Staff Directory, With over 16,000 records, Congressional Staff Directory contains detailed entries for all U. S, senators and Representatives with expanded biographies, leadership positions, staff members, and full contact information. Judicial Staff Directory, This essential directory is the guide to move than 28,000 individuals in National Courts, the Federal Court, Bankruptcy Courts. Federal Collection, CQ Press’s Federal Collection gives access to Washington’s most trusted Directories, the collection includes Congressional, Federal and Homeland Security Staff Directories online.
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Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford Birchard Hayes was the 19th President of the United States. He became President at the end of the Reconstruction Era of the United States through a complex Compromise of 1877, Hayes, an attorney in Ohio, was city solicitor of Cincinnati from 1858 to 1861. When the Civil War began, he left a political career to join the Union Army as an officer. Hayes was wounded five times, most seriously at the Battle of South Mountain and he earned a reputation for bravery in combat and was promoted to the rank of brevet major general. After the war, he served in the Congress from 1865 to 1867 as a Republican, Hayes left Congress to run for Governor of Ohio and was elected to two consecutive terms, from 1868 to 1872, and to a third term, from 1876 to 1877. In 1876, Hayes was elected president in one of the most contentious elections in national history and he lost the official popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden but he won an intensely disputed electoral college vote after a Congressional commission awarded him twenty contested electoral votes.
The result was the Compromise of 1877, in which the Democrats acquiesced to Hayess election, Hayes believed in meritocratic government, equal treatment without regard to race. He ordered federal troops to crush the Great Railroad Strike of 1877 and he implemented modest civil service reforms that laid the groundwork for further reform in the 1880s and 1890s. He vetoed the Bland–Allison Act, which would have put money into circulation and raised nominal prices. His policy toward Western Indians anticipated the assimilationist program of the Dawes Act of 1887, Hayes kept his pledge not to run for re-election, retired to his home in Ohio, and became an advocate of social and educational reform. Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born in Delaware, Ohio, on October 4,1822, Hayess father, a Vermont storekeeper, took the family to Ohio in 1817. He died ten weeks before Rutherfords birth, Sophia took charge of the family, bringing up Hayes and his sister, the only two of their four children to survive to adulthood.
She never remarried, Sophias younger brother, Sardis Birchard, lived with the family for a time and he was always close to Hayes and became a father figure to him, contributing to his early education. Through both his father and mother, Hayes was of New England colonial ancestry and his earliest American ancestor emigrated to Connecticut from Scotland in 1625. His mothers ancestors arrived in Vermont at a time. John Noyes, an uncle by marriage, had been his fathers partner in Vermont and was elected to Congress. His first cousin, Mary Jane Noyes Mead, was the mother of sculptor Larkin Goldsmith Mead, John Humphrey Noyes, the founder of the Oneida Community, was a first cousin. He became a member of the Sons of the American Revolution based on his descent from Daniel Austin, Hayes attended the common schools in Delaware and enrolled in 1836 at the Methodist Norwalk Seminary in Norwalk, Ohio
Roscoe Conkling was a politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate. While in the House, Representative Conkling served as guard for Representative Thaddeus Stevens, a sharp-tongued anti slavery representative. Conkling, who was temperate and detested tobacco, was known for being a body builder through regularly exercising and boxing, Conkling was elected to the Senate in 1867 as a leading Radical, who supported the rights of African Americans during Reconstruction. As leader of the Stalwarts, Conkling controlled patronage at the New York Customs House, although Senator Conkling was supported by President Ulysses S. Grant, Conkling did not support Grants Civil Service Commission reform initiative. Conkling refused to accept Grants nomination of him as Chief Justice of the United States, the control over patronage led to a bitter conflict between Senator Conkling and President Rutherford B. Conkling opposed Hayess appointment of William M.
Evarts as Secretary of State, Conkling publicly led opposition to President Hayess attempt to impose Civil Service Reform on the New York Customs House. In 1880, Conkling supported Ulysses S. Grant for President, Conklings conflict with President Garfield over New York Customs House patronage led to his resignation from the Senate in May 1881. After Garfields assassination in 1881, Vice President Chester A. Arthur became President, when President Arthur offered his friend Conkling an associate justiceship on the Supreme Court, Conkling accepted the offer and was approved by the Senate. However, Conkling changed his mind and refused to serve and he practiced law in New York until his death in 1888. Conkling was born on October 30,1829 in Albany, New York to Alfred Conkling and federal judge and his wife Eliza Cockburn. Raised in an atmosphere of law and politics, early associations with figures of the day left an impression on young Roscoe. Roscoe entered the Auburn Academy in 1843, where he remained for three years, even as a schoolboy, Roscoes intimidating appearance and intellect demanded attention.
At the age of seventeen, Roscoe opted to forego a college education in favor of studying law under Joshua A, spencer and Francis Kernan in Utica, New York. Roscoe immediately made an impression upon his preceptors, when asked to supply a Whig orator who could stand up to Democratic bullies at a local village meeting, Spencers response was I shall send Mr. Conkling, I think he will make himself heard. Quickly integrating himself into the society in Utica, Roscoe certainly made himself heard on a variety of issues, especially those concerning human rights. Additionally, as Theodore M. Pomeroy recalls, even fifteen years before the Civil War Roscoe displayed a deep abhorrence for slavery, or as he described it and he married Julia Catherine Seymour, sister of the Democratic politician and Governor of New York Horatio Seymour. His first political endeavor came in 1848, when he made speeches on behalf of Taylor. He was admitted to the bar in 1850, and in the year became district attorney of Oneida County by appointment of Governor Fish
New Orleans is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana. The population of the city was 343,829 as of the 2010 U. S. Census, the New Orleans metropolitan area had a population of 1,167,764 in 2010 and was the 46th largest in the United States. The New Orleans–Metairie–Bogalusa Combined Statistical Area, a trading area, had a 2010 population of 1,452,502. The city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723, as it was established by French colonists and it is well known for its distinct French and Spanish Creole architecture, as well as its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. New Orleans is famous for its cuisine and its celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras. The city is referred to as the most unique in the United States. New Orleans is located in southeastern Louisiana, straddling the Mississippi River, the city and Orleans Parish are coterminous. The city and parish are bounded by the parishes of St.
Tammany to the north, St. Bernard to the east, Plaquemines to the south, and Jefferson to the south and west. Lake Pontchartrain, part of which is included in the city limits, lies to the north, before Hurricane Katrina, Orleans Parish was the most populous parish in Louisiana. As of 2015, it ranks third in population, trailing neighboring Jefferson Parish, La Nouvelle-Orléans was founded May 7,1718, by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha. It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, who was Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time and his title came from the French city of Orléans. The French colony was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the Treaty of Paris, during the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the rebels, transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez successfully launched a campaign against the British from the city in 1779.
New Orleans remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted briefly to French oversight, nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré dates from the Spanish period, the most notable exception being the Old Ursuline Convent. Napoleon sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the city grew rapidly with influxes of Americans, French and Africans. Later immigrants were Irish and Italians, Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on large plantations outside the city. The Haitian Revolution ended in 1804 and established the republic in the Western Hemisphere. It had occurred several years in what was the French colony of Saint-Domingue
United States Postmaster General
The Postmaster General of the United States is the chief executive officer of the United States Postal Service. The office, in one form or another, is older than both the United States Constitution and the United States Declaration of Independence, benjamin Franklin was appointed by the Continental Congress as the first Postmaster General in 1775, serving just over 15 months. Until 1971, the general was the head of the Post Office Department. From 1829 to 1971, he was a member of the Presidents Cabinet, the Cabinet post of Postmaster General was often given to a new Presidents campaign manager or other key political supporter, and was considered something of a sinecure. The Postmaster General was in charge of the partys patronage. In 1971, the Post Office Department was re-organized into the United States Postal Service, the Postmaster General is no longer a member of the Cabinet and is no longer in Presidential succession. The Postmaster General is the second-highest paid U. S. government official, based on publicly available salary information, as of July 2016, there are seven living former Postmasters General, the oldest being W.
Marvin Watson. The most recent Postmaster General to die was Preston Robert Tisch, on November 15,2005
South Carolina /ˌsaʊθ kærəˈlaɪnə/ is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the south and west by Georgia across the Savannah River, South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution, doing so on May 23,1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote to secede from the Union on December 20,1860, after the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25,1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and the 23rd most populous U. S. state and its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3. 13%. The capital and largest city is Columbia with a 2013 population of 133,358, South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, under whose reign the English colony was first formed, with Carolus being Latin for Charles. There is evidence of activity in the area about 12000 years ago. Along the Savannah River were the Apalachee and the Yamasee, further west were the Cherokee, and along the Catawba River, the Catawba.
These tribes were village-dwellers, relying on agriculture as their food source. The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub houses made with wood and clay, about a dozen separate small tribes summered on the coast harvesting oysters and fish, and cultivating corn and beans. Travelling inland as much as 50 miles mostly by canoe, they wintered on the plain, hunting deer and gathering nuts. The names of these survive in place names like Edisto Island, Kiawah Island. The Spanish were the first Europeans in the area, in 1521, founding San Miguel de Gualdape, established with 500 settlers, it was abandoned within a year by 150 survivors. In 1562 French settlers established a settlement at what is now the Charlesfort-Santa Elena archaeological site on Parris Island, three years the Spanish built a fort on the same site, but withdrew following hostilities with the English navy. In 1629, King Charles I of England established the Province of Carolina an area covering what is now South and North Carolina, Georgia, in the 1670s, English planters from the Barbados established themselves near what is now Charleston.
Settlers built rice plantations in the South Carolina Lowcountry, east of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, settlers came from all over Europe. Plantation labor was done by African slaves who formed the majority of the population by 1720, another cash crop was the Indigo plant, a plant source of blue dye, developed by Eliza Lucas. Meanwhile, in Upstate South Carolina, west of the Fall Line, was settled by farmers and traders. Colonists overthrew the rule, seeing more direct representation
Thomas A. Scott
Thomas Alexander Scott was an American businessman, railroad executive, and industrialist. He was the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, the largest publicly traded corporation in the world. Scott was appointed in 1861 by President Abraham Lincoln as the U. S. Assistant Secretary of War during the American Civil War, Scott was born in 1823 in Peters Township near Fort Loudoun, in Franklin County, Pennsylvania. Scott joined the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1850 as a station agent, Scott took a special interest in mentoring aspiring railroad employees, such as Andrew Carnegie. In 1860, Scott became the first Vice President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, the 1846 state charter to the Pennsylvania Railroad diffused power within the company, by giving executive authority to a committee responsible to stockholders, and not to individuals. By the 1870s, officers directed by J. Edgar Thomson, J. Edgar Thomson was the President of the Pennsylvania Railroad for more than three decades, from 1852 until his death in 1874.
In 1860, Scott became the first Vice President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, from 1871 to 1872, he was briefly the president of the Union Pacific Railroad, the first transcontinental railroad owner. He was the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad from 1874, upon the death of his partner Thomson, the Pennsylvania Railroad expanded from a company of railway lines within Pennsylvania through the 1840s and 1850s, to a transportation empire from the 1860s onwards. Scott was notoriously secretive about his business dealings, conducting most of his business in private letters, the 1872 Crédit Mobilier scandal made Congress unwilling to grant railroad companies land grants in the west. The financial Panic of 1873 and subsequent economic depression made it impossible to finance Scott’s southern transcontinental railroad plans, at the outbreak of the American Civil War, Pennsylvania Governor Andrew Curtin called on Scott for his extensive knowledge of the rail and transportation systems of the state.
Scott received a commission as a colonel, and in August 1861. The next year, he helped organize the Loyal War Governors Conference in Altoona, on, Scott took on the task of equipping a substantial military force for the Union war effort. He assumed supervision of government railroads and other transportation lines and he, and made the movement of supplies and troops more efficient and effective for the war effort on behalf of the Union. In one instance, he engineered the movement of 25,000 troops in 24 hours from Nashville, Tennessee, to Chattanooga, Scott advised President Lincoln to travel covertly by rail to avoid Confederate spies and assassins. During the American Reconstruction in the aftermath of the Civil War, the Southern states needed their economy and infrastructure restored and they had lagged behind the North in railroad miles. The Northern-based railroads competed to acquire routes and construct rail lines in the South, federal assistance was sought by both special interest groups, but the Crédit Mobilier of America scandal made this difficult in 1872.
Congress became unwilling to grant railroad companies land grants in the Southwestern United States, Scott employed the expertise of Grenville Dodge in buying the support of newspaper editors as well as various politicians in order to build public support for the subsidies. The Scott Plan became part of the Compromise of 1877, an informal, however, it was never implemented, and railroad construction in the South remained at a low level after 1873 and its financial panic
Southern Pacific Transportation Company
The Southern Pacific Transportation Company, earlier Southern Pacific Railroad and Southern Pacific Company, and usually called the Southern Pacific or Espee, was an American Class I railroad. It was absorbed in 1988 by the company controlled the Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad. The railroad was founded as a holding company in 1865. By 1900 the Southern Pacific Company was a railroad system incorporating many smaller companies, such as the Texas and New Orleans Railroad and Morgans Louisiana. It extended from New Orleans through Texas to El Paso, across New Mexico and through Tucson, to Los Angeles, through most of California, including San Francisco, Central Pacific lines extended east across Nevada to Ogden and reached north through Oregon to Portland. By the 1980s route mileage had dropped to 10,423 miles, in 1988 the Southern Pacific was taken over by D&RGW parent Rio Grande Industries. The combined railroad kept the Southern Pacific name due to its recognition in the railroad industry.
Along with the addition of the SPCSL Corporation route from Chicago to St. Louis, by 1996 years of financial problems had dropped SPs mileage to 13,715 miles, and it was taken over by the Union Pacific Railroad. Southern Pacific founded important hospitals in San Francisco, Tucson, in the 1970s, it founded a telecommunications network with a state-of-the-art microwave and fiber optic backbone. This evolved into Sprint, a company name that came from the acronym for Southern Pacific Railroad Internal Networking Telephony. The original aim was to construct a railroad from Galveston Bay to a point on the Red River near a trading post known as Coffees Station, the GRR built 2 miles of track in Houston in 1855. Track laying began in earnest in 1856 and on 1 September 1856 GRR was renamed the Houston and Texas Central Railway. SP acquired H&TC in 1883 but it continued to operate as a subsidiary under its own management until 1927, when it was leased to another SP-owned railroad, the Texas and New Orleans Railroad.
The Buffalo Bayou and Colorado Railway, was chartered in Texas on 11 February 1850 by a group that included General Sidney Sherman, bBB&C was the first railroad to commence operation in Texas and the first component of SP to commence operation. Surveying of the route alignment commenced at Harrisburg, Texas in 1851, the first 20 miles of track opened in August 1853. SP was founded in San Francisco, California in 1865 by a group of businessmen led by Timothy Phelps with the aim of building a connection between San Francisco and San Diego, California. The company was purchased in September 1868 by a group of known as the Big Four, Charles Crocker, Leland Stanford, Mark Hopkins. The Big Four had, in 1861, created the Central Pacific Railroad, CPRR was merged into SP in 1870