Historically black colleges and universities
Black colleges and universities are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of serving the African-American community. This was because the overwhelming majority of predominantly white institutions of higher-learning disqualified African Americans from enrollment during segregation. From the time of slavery in the 19th century through to the second half of the 20th century, majority schools in the Southern United States prohibited all African Americans from attending, while historic schools in other parts of the country employed quotas to limit admissions of blacks. There are 101 HBCUs including public and private institutions; this figure is down from the 121 institutions. Of these remaining HBCU institutions in the United States, 27 offer doctoral programs, 52 schools offer master's programs, 83 colleges offer bachelor's degree programs and 38 schools offer associate degrees. Most HBCUs were established in the Southern United States after the American Civil War with the assistance of northern United States religious missionary organizations.
However, Cheyney University of Pennsylvania and Lincoln University, were established for blacks before the American Civil War. In 1856 the African Methodist Episcopal Church of Ohio collaborated with the Methodist Episcopal Church, a predominantly white denomination, in sponsoring Wilberforce University, the third college in Ohio. Established in 1865, Shaw University was the first HBCU in the South to be established after the American Civil War; the year 1865 saw the foundation of Storer College at Harper's Ferry, WV. Storer has now been incorporated into Harper's Ferry National Park. In 1862, the federal government's Morrill Act provided for land grant colleges in each state; some educational institutions in the North or West were open to blacks. But 17 states in the South, required their systems to be segregated and excluded black students from their land grant colleges. In response, Congress passed the second Morrill Act of 1890 known as the Agricultural College Act of 1890, requiring states to establish a separate land grant college for blacks if blacks were being excluded from the existing land grant college.
Many of the HBCUs were founded by states to satisfy the Second Morrill Act. These land grant schools continue to receive annual federal funding for their research and outreach activities. In the 1920s and 1930s the black colleges developed a strong interest in athletics. Sports were expanding at state universities, but few black stars were recruited there. Race newspapers hailed athletic success as a demonstration of racial progress. Black schools hired coaches and featured stellar athletes, set up their own leagues. Many Jewish intellectuals fleeing Germany in the 1930s after the rise of Hitler to power in Nazi Germany immigrated to the United States and found work teaching in black colleges. HBCUs made great contributions to the war effort, including those of the Tuskegee Airmen, who trained and attended classes at Tuskegee University in Alabama. After the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954, the legislature of Florida, with support from various counties, started a series of eleven junior colleges serving the African-American population.
The purpose was to show that equal education was working in Florida. Prior to this, there had been only one junior college in Florida serving African Americans, Booker T. Washington Junior College, in Pensacola; the new ones, with their year of founding, are: Gibbs Junior College Roosevelt Junior College Volusia County Junior College Hampton Junior College Rosenwald Junior College Suwannee River Junior College Carver Junior College Collier-Blocker Junior College Lincoln Junior College Johnson Junior College Jackson Junior College The new junior colleges began as extensions of black high schools, using the same facilities and the same faculty. Some, over the next few years, did build their own buildings. After passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 mandating an end to school segregation, the colleges were all abruptly closed. Only a fraction of the students and faculty were able to transfer to the all-white junior colleges, where they found, at best, an indifferent reception; the Higher Education Act of 1965 established a program for direct federal grants to HBCUs, including federal matching of private endowment contributions.
The Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, defines a "part B institution" as: "...any black college or university, established before 1964, whose principal mission was, is, the education of black Americans, and, accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association determined by the Secretary to be a reliable authority as to the quality of training offered or is, according to such an agency or association, making reasonable progress toward accreditation." Part B of the 1965 Act provides for direct federal aid to Part B institutions. Some colleges with a predominantly black student body are not classified as a HBCU because they were founded after the implementation of the Sweatt v. Painter and Brown v. Board of Education rulings by the U. S. Supreme Court and the Higher Education Act of 1965. In 1980, Jimmy Carter signed an executive order to distribute adequate resources and funds to strengthen the nation's public and private HB
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Iva Toguri D'Aquino
Iva Ikuko Toguri D'Aquino was an American who participated in English-language radio broadcasts transmitted by Radio Tokyo to Allied soldiers in the South Pacific during World War II on The Zero Hour radio show. Toguri called herself "Orphan Ann", but she became identified with the name "Tokyo Rose", a name, coined by Allied soldiers and that predated her broadcasts. After the Japanese defeat, Toguri was detained for a year by the United States military before being released for lack of evidence. Department of Justice officials agreed that her broadcasts were "innocuous", but when Toguri tried to return to the US a popular uproar ensued, prompting the Federal Bureau of Investigation to renew its investigation of Toguri's wartime activities, she was subsequently charged by the United States Attorney's Office with eight counts of treason. Her 1949 trial resulted in a conviction on one count, making her the seventh American to be convicted on that charge, for which she spent more than six years out of a ten-year sentence in prison.
Journalistic and governmental investigators years pieced together the history of irregularities with the indictment and conviction, including confessions from key witnesses who had perjured themselves at the various stages of their testimonies. Toguri received a pardon in 1977 from U. S. President Gerald Ford. Iva Ikuko Toguri was born in a daughter of Japanese immigrants, her father, Jun Toguri, had come to the U. S. in 1899, her mother, Fumi, in 1913. Iva was a Girl Scout, was raised as a Christian, she began grammar schools in Mexico and San Diego before returning with her family to complete her education in Los Angeles, where she attended high school. Toguri graduated from the University of Los Angeles in 1940 with a degree in zoology. In 1940, she registered to vote as a RepublicanOn July 5, 1941, Toguri sailed for Japan from the San Pedro, Los Angeles area, to visit an ailing relative; the U. S. State Department issued her a Certificate of Identification. In August, Toguri applied to the U. S.
Vice Consul in Japan for a passport, stating she wished to return to her home in the U. S, her request was forwarded to the State Department, but following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the State Department refused to certify her citizenship in 1942. Toguri was pressured to renounce her United States citizenship by the Japanese central government with the beginning of American involvement in the Pacific War, like a number of other Americans in Japanese territory, she refused to do so, was subsequently declared an enemy alien and was refused a war ration card. To support herself, she found work as a typist at a Japanese news agency and worked in a similar capacity for Radio Tokyo. In November 1943, Allied prisoners of war were forced to broadcast propaganda, they selected her to host portions of the one-hour radio show The Zero Hour, her producer was Australian Army Major Charles Cousens, who had pre-war broadcast experience and had been captured at the fall of Singapore. Cousens had been coerced to work on radio broadcasts, worked with assistants U.
S. Army Captain Wallace Ince and Philippine Army Lieutenant Normando Ildefonso "Norman" Reyes. Toguri had risked her life smuggling food into the nearby prisoner of war camp where Cousens and Ince were held, gaining the inmates' trust. Toguri refused to broadcast anti-American propaganda, but she was assured by Major Cousens and Captain Ince that they would not write scripts having her say anything against the United States. True to their word, no such propaganda was found in her broadcasts. In fact, after she went on air in November 1943, she and Cousens tried to make a farce of the broadcasts; the Japanese propaganda officials had little feel for double entendres. Toguri performed in comedy sketches and introduced recorded music, but never participated in any actual newscasts, with on-air speaking time of about 2–3 minutes, she earned only 150 yen per month, or about $7, but she used some of her earnings to feed POWs, smuggling food in as she did before. She aimed most of her comments toward her fellow Americans, using American slang and playing American music.
At no time did Toguri call herself "Tokyo Rose" during the war, in fact there was no evidence that any other broadcaster had done so. The name was a catch-all used by Allied forces for all of the women who were heard on Japanese propaganda radio and was in general use by the summer of 1943, months prior to Toguri's debut as a broadcast host. Toguri hosted about 340 broadcasts of The Zero Hour under the stage names "Ann" and "Orphan Annie", in reference to the comic strip character Little Orphan Annie. After Japan's surrender, reporters Harry T. Brundidge of Cosmopolitan Magazine and Clark Lee of Hearst's International News Service offered $2,000 for an exclusive interview with "Tokyo Rose". Toguri was in need of money and was still trying to get home, so she stepped forward to accept the offer, but instead found herself arrested on September 5, 1945 in Yokohama. Brundidge reneged on the interview payment and tried to sell his transcript of the interview as Toguri's "confession", she was released after a year in prison when neither the FBI nor General Douglas MacArthur's staff found any evidence that she had aided the Japanese Axis forces.
The American and Australian prisoners of war who wrote her scripts told her and the Allied headquarters that she had committed no wrongdoing. The case history at the FBI's website states, "The FBI's investigation of activities had covered a period of some five y
The Minnesota Twins are an American professional baseball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The team competes in the Central division of the American League, is named after the Twin Cities area comprising Minneapolis and St. Paul; the franchise won the World Series in 1924 as the Washington Senators, in 1987 and 1991 as the Twins. The franchise moved from Washington, D. C. to Minnesota at the start of the 1961 season. The Twins played in Metropolitan Stadium from 1961 to 1981 and the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome from 1982 to 2009; the team played its inaugural game at Target Field on April 12, 2010. Through the 2017 season, the team has fielded 18 American League batting champions; the team has hosted five All-Star Games: 1937 and 1956 in Washington, D. C, 1965, 1985 and 2014 in Minneapolis-St. Paul; the team was founded in Washington, D. C. in 1901 as one of the eight original teams of the American League, named the Washington Senators or Washington Nationals. The team endured long bouts of mediocrity immortalized in the 1955 Broadway musical Damn Yankees.
The Washington Senators spent the first decade of their existence finishing near the bottom of the American League standings. Their fortunes began to improve with the arrival of 19-year-old pitcher, Walter Johnson, in 1907. Johnson blossomed in 1911 with 25 victories, although the Senators still finished the season in seventh place. In 1912, the Senators improved as their pitching staff led the league in team earned run average and in strikeouts. Johnson won 33 games while teammate Bob Groom added another 24 wins to help the Senators finish the season in second place. Manager Clark Griffith joined the team in 1912 and became the team's owner in 1920; the Senators continued to perform respectably in 1913 with Johnson posting a career-high 35 victories, as the team once again finished in second place. The Senators fell into another period of decline for the next decade; the team had a period of prolonged success in the 1920s and 1930s, led by Walter Johnson, as well as additional Hall-of-Famer Bucky Harris, Goose Goslin, Sam Rice, Heinie Manush, Joe Cronin.
In particular, a rejuvenated Johnson rebounded in 1924 to win 23 games with the help of his catcher, Muddy Ruel, as the Senators won the American League pennant for the first time in the history of the franchise. The Senators faced John McGraw's favored New York Giants in the 1924 World Series; the two teams traded wins forth with three games of the first six being decided by one run. In the deciding 7th game, the Senators were trailing the Giants 3 to 1 in the 8th inning when Bucky Harris hit a routine ground ball to third which hit a pebble and took a bad hop over Giants third baseman Freddie Lindstrom. Two runners scored on the play. An aging Walter Johnson came in to pitch the ninth inning, held the Giants scoreless into extra innings. In the bottom of the twelfth inning with Ruel at bat, he hit a high, foul ball directly over home plate; the Giants' catcher, Hank Gowdy, dropped his protective mask to field the ball but, failing to toss the mask aside, stumbled over it and dropped the ball, thus giving Ruel another chance to bat.
On the next pitch, Ruel hit a double and proceeded to score the winning run when Earl McNeely hit a ground ball that took another bad hop over Lindstrom's head. This would mark the only World Series triumph for the franchise during their 60-year tenure in Washington; the following season they repeated as American League champions but lost the 1925 World Series to the Pittsburgh Pirates. After Walter Johnson's retirement in 1927, he was hired as manager of the Senators. After enduring a few losing seasons, the team returned to contention in 1930. In 1933, Senators owner Clark Griffith returned to the formula that worked for him nine years prior: 26-year-old shortstop Joe Cronin became player-manager; the Senators posted a 99–53 record and cruised to the pennant seven games ahead of the New York Yankees, but in the 1933 World Series the Giants exacted their revenge winning in five games. Following the loss, the Senators sank all the way to seventh place in 1934 and attendance began to fall. Despite the return of Harris as manager from 1935–42 and again from 1950–54, Washington was a losing ball club for the next 25 years contending for the pennant only during World War II.
Washington came to be known as "first in war, first in peace, last in the American League", with their hard luck being crucial to the plot of the musical and film Damn Yankees. Cecil Travis, Buddy Myer, Roy Sievers, Mickey Vernon, Eddie Yost were notable Senators players whose careers were spent in obscurity due to the team's lack of success. In 1954, the Senators signed future Hall of Fame member Harmon Killebrew. By 1959 he was the Senators’ regular third baseman and led the league with 42 home runs earning him a starting spot on the American League All-Star team. After Griffith's death in 1955, his nephew and adopted son Calvin took over the team presidency. Calvin sold Griffith Stadium to the city of Washington and leased it back leading to speculation that the team was planning to move as the Boston Braves, St. Louis Browns and Philadelphia Athletics had all done in the early 1950s. By 1957, after an early flirtation with San Francisco, Griffith began courting Minneapolis–St. Paul, a prolonged process that resulted in his rejecting the Twin Cities' first offer before agreeing to relocate.
The American League opposed the move at first, but in 1960 a deal was reached
Agustin "Tino" Nuñez is an American soccer player who plays for Ontario Fury in the Major Arena Soccer League. Nuñez was a four-year letter-winner at Millikan High School in California. With Nuñez on the squad, Millikan ran to four consecutive Moore League Championships as well as one CIF Championship in Nuñez's junior year. Nuñez claimed numerous awards, including Freshman of the Year in his first year and First Team All-Moore League, All-CIF, league offensive player of the year in his last; as a senior, Nuñez scored a team high 25 goals and 18 assists. After high school, Nuñez moved on to Compton Community College's soccer team. With the Tartars for only the 2003 season, he earned team MVP honors with 15 goals. After the 2003 season, Nuñez transferred to the University of Santa Barbara. In 2004, his first season with the Gauchos, Nuñez played in 23 games, scoring 2 goals and adding 6 assists. In addition to Nuñez, the UCSB's 2004 team featured several other now-professional players including Tyler Rosenlund, Andy Iro, Bryan Byrne, Ivan Becerra, the Gauchos marched all the way to the 2004 Division I Men's College Cup, losing on penalties to Indiana University.
Nuñez had to redshirt the 2005 season to rehabilitate a torn ACL, but made a strong return the following season. In 2006, Nuñez played in 19 games, scoring 1 goal, as the Gauchos were crowned champions of Division I college soccer by beating the Bruins from the University of California, Los Angeles in the 2006 Division I Men's College Cup in St. Louis, Missouri; this marked UCSB's first national championship in soccer and only second overall. In 2007, Nuñez played in 21 games, adding 5 assists for the Gauchos. Nunez returned to his high school alma mater in 2010 and is head coach of Millikan's girls soccer team. Nuñez was drafted by Real Salt Lake in the 2nd Round of the 2008 MLS Supplemental Draft, his first action with the RSL first team came in the Lamar Hunt U. S. Open Cup against the San Jose Earthquakes on April 30, 2008, he came in as a 75th-minute substitute and assisted on the final goal of the game scored by Andy Williams. Nuñez's first Major League Soccer appearance came on May 31, 2008, again against the San Jose Earthquakes.
This time he was an 85th-minute substitute. His first MLS goal was a game-winner which came on 21 June 2008 against New England Revolution in the 60th minute. Nuñez finished his rookie season with 1 goal, he scored 5 goals in Reserve League play. The following season, Nuñez found playing time more difficult to come by, making just three appearances during RSL’s 2009 MLS Cup-winning campaign. Real Salt Lake waived Nuñez in March 2010. In April 2010, Nuñez signed with USSF D-2 Pro League club Rochester Rhinos for the 2010 season, he played with the Rhinos for one season. NSC Minnesota Stars of the North American Soccer League signed Nuñez on March 22, 2011, he was released by the club on November 29, 2011. Tino spent the 2012-13 Winter season with the Baltimore Blast of the MISL. In October 2013, Tino signed with the Ontario Fury of the Professional Arena Soccer League. In his first year, Nunez scored 22 goals with 6 assists. In his second year, Nunez scored 12 goals with 15 assists. In his third year, Nunez scored 12 goals with 8 assists.
In his fourth year, Nunez scored 9 goals with 5 assists. Major League Soccer MLS Cup: 2009 Major League Soccer Eastern Conference Championship: 2009 USSF Division 2 Pro League Regular Season Champions: 2010 NCAA Men's Division I Soccer Championship: 2006 Ontario Fury player profile PASL player profile Ontario Fury squad sheet at the Wayback Machine MISL player profile Baltimore Blast squad sheet at the Wayback Machine Pittsburgh Riverhounds squad sheet at the Wayback Machine NSC Minnesota Stars squad sheet at the Wayback Machine Rochester Rhinos player profile at the Wayback Machine Harrisburg City player profile Tino Nuñez at Major League Soccer Real Salt Lake player profile at the Wayback Machine Bakersfield Brigade player profile UC Santa Barbara player profile
The Washington Redskins are a professional American football team based in the Washington metropolitan area. The Redskins compete in the National Football League as a member of the National Football Conference East division; the team plays its home games at FedExField in Maryland. The Redskins have played more than one thousand games since their founding 87 years ago in 1932, are one of only five franchises in the NFL to record over six hundred regular season and postseason wins, reaching that mark in 2015; the Redskins have won five NFL Championships, have captured fourteen divisional titles and six conference championships. It was the first NFL franchise with an official marching band and the first with a fight song, Hail to the Redskins; the team began play in Boston as the Braves in 1932, became the "Redskins" the following year. In 1937, the team relocated to Washington, D. C; the Redskins won the 1937 and 1942 NFL championship games, as well as Super Bowls XVII, XXII, XXVI. They have been league runner-up six times, losing the 1936, 1940, 1943, 1945 title games, Super Bowls VII and XVIII.
With 24 postseason appearances, the Redskins have an overall postseason record of 23–18. Their three Super Bowl wins are tied with the Oakland Raiders and Denver Broncos, behind the Pittsburgh Steelers and New England Patriots, San Francisco 49ers and Dallas Cowboys, the Green Bay Packers and New York Giants. All of the Redskins' league titles were attained during two 10-year spans. From 1936 to 1945, the Redskins went to the NFL Championship six times; the second period lasted between 1982 and 1991 where the Redskins appeared in the postseason seven times, captured four Conference titles, won three Super Bowls out of four appearances. The Redskins have experienced failure in their history; the most notable period of general failure was from 1946 to 1970, during which the Redskins posted only four winning seasons and did not have a single postseason appearance. During this period, the Redskins went without a single winning season during the years 1956–1968. In 1961, the franchise posted their worst regular season record with a 1–12–1 showing.
Since their last Super Bowl victory following the end of the 1991 season, the Redskins have only won the NFC East three times, made five postseason appearances, had nine seasons with a winning record. According to Forbes, the Redskins are the fourth most valuable franchise in the NFL and the tenth most valuable overall in the world as of 2018, valued at US$3.1 billion. They set the NFL record for single-season attendance in 2007, have the top ten single-season attendance totals in the NFL. Over the team's history, the name and logo have drawn controversy, with many criticizing it as offensive to Native Americans; the team originated as the Boston Braves, based in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1932, under the ownership of George Preston Marshall. At the time the team played in Braves Field, home of the Boston Braves baseball team in the National League; the following year, the club moved to Fenway Park, home of the American League's Boston Red Sox, whereupon owners changed the team's name to "Boston Redskins."
To round out the change, Marshall hired William "Lone Star" Dietz, thought to be part Sioux, as the team's head coach. However, Boston wasn't much of a football town at the time and the team had difficulty drawing fans; the Redskins relocated south from New England after five years to the national capital of Washington, D. C. in 1937. Through 1960, the Redskins shared baseball's Griffith Stadium with the first Washington Senators baseball team of the American League. In their first game in Washington on September 16, the Redskins defeated the New York Giants in the season opener, 13–3. On December 5, they earned their first division title in Washington with a 49–14 win over the Giants in New York, for the Eastern Championship; the next week on December 12, the team won their first league championship, over the Chicago Bears. In 1940, the Redskins met the Bears again in the championship game on December 8; the result, 73–0 in favor of the Bears, is still the worst one-sided loss in NFL history. The other big loss for the Redskins that season occurred in September during the coin toss prior to the Giants game.
After calling the coin toss and shaking hands with the opposing team captain, lineman Turk Edwards attempted to pivot around to head back to his sideline. However, his cleats caught in the grass and his knee gave way, injuring him and bringing his season and hall of fame career to an unusual end. In what became an early rivalry in the NFL, the Redskins and Bears met two more times in the NFL Championship Game; the third time in 1942 on December 13, where the Redskins won their second championship, 14–6. The final time the two met was the 1943 on December 26, which the Bears won 41–21; the most notable accomplishment achieved during the Redskins' 1943 season was Sammy Baugh leading the NFL in passing and interceptions. The Redskins played in the NFL Championship one more time before a quarter-century drought that did not end until the 1972 season. With former Olympic gold medalist Dudley DeGroot as their new head coach, the Redskins went 8–2 during the 1945 season. One of the most impressive performances came from Sammy Baugh, who had a completion percentage of.703.
They ended the season by losing to the Cleveland Rams in the 1945 NFL Championship Game on December 16, 1945, 15–14. The one-point margin of victory came under scrutiny because of a safety that occurred early in the game. In the f