Compulsory sterilization known as forced or coerced sterilization, is a term used for government-mandated programs which bring about sterilization of people. Several countries implemented sterilization programs in the early 20th century. Although such programs have been made illegal in most countries of the world, instances of forced or coerced sterilizations persist. Reasons for compulsory sterilization include: population size control, gender discrimination, limiting the spread of HIV, "gender-normalizing" surgeries for intersex people, ethnic genocide. In some countries, transgender individuals are required to undergo sterilization before gaining legal recognition of their gender. Juan E. Méndez is the United Nations Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, he describes this practice as a violation of the Yogyakarta Principles. Governmental family planning programs emerged in the late nineteenth century and have continued to progress through the twenty-first century.
During this time, feminists began advocating for reproductive choice, but eugenicists and hygienists were advocating for low income and disabled peoples to be sterilized or have their fertility regulated in order to clean or perfect nations. The second half of the twentieth century saw national governments uptake of neo-Malthusian ideology that directly linked population growth to increased poverty, which during the embrace of capitalism, meant that countries were unable to economically develop due to this poverty. Any type of birth control can count as a method of population control if once administered women have no control over its use; these contraceptive methods include sterilization, Depo-Provera, IUDs. Much of these governmental population control programs were focused on using sterilization as the main avenue to reduce high birth rates though public acknowledgement that sterilization made an impact on the population levels of the developing world is still lacking. Early population programs of the twentieth century were marked as part of the eugenics movement, with Nazi Germany providing the most well-known example of sterilization of disabled people, paired with encouraging white Germans who fit the “Aryan race” phenotype to reproduce.
In the 1970s, population control programs focused on the “third world” to help curtail over population of poverty areas that were beginning to “develop”. In May 2014, the World Health Organization, OHCHR, UN Women, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNFPA and UNICEF issued a joint statement on Eliminating forced and otherwise involuntary sterilization, An interagency statement; the report references the involuntary sterilization of a number of specific population groups. They include: Women in relation to coercive population control policies, including women living with HIV, indigenous and ethnic minority girls and women. Indigenous and ethnic minority women face "wrongful stereotyping based on gender and ethnicity". Funding of mothers on welfare by HEW covers 90% of cost and doctors are to concur with the compulsory sterilization of mothers on welfare. Threats to cease welfare occur. Disabled people perceived as asexual. Women with intellectual disabilities are "often treated as if they have no control, or should have no control, over their sexual and reproductive choices".
Other rationales include menstrual management for "women who have or are perceived to have difficulties coping with or managing menses, or whose health conditions or behaviour are negatively affected by menses." Intersex persons, who "are subjected to cosmetic and other non-medically indicated surgeries performed on their reproductive organs, without their informed consent or that of their parents, without taking into consideration the views of the children involved" as a "sex-normalizing" treatment. Transgender persons, "as a prerequisite to receiving gender-affirmative treatment and gender-marker changes"; the report recommends a range of guiding principles for medical treatment, including ensuring patient autonomy in decision-making, ensuring non-discrimination and access to remedies. Human population planning is the practice of artificially altering the rate of growth of a human population. Human population planning has been implemented by limiting the population's birth rate by government mandate, has been undertaken as a response to factors including high or increasing levels of poverty, environmental concerns, religious reasons, overpopulation.
While population planning can involve measures that improve people's lives by giving them greater control of their reproduction, some programs have exposed them to exploitation. In the 1977 textbook Ecoscience: Population, Environment, the authors discuss a variety of means to address human overpopulation, including the possibility of compulsory sterilization. A government might utilize sortition to select those to be sterilized in order to avoid accusations of bias or having any other adverse agenda. In Ecoscience, in the chapter entitled "The Human Predicament: Finding A Way Out", the authors speculate about pharmaceuticals that might be developed to sterilize people. Fox News has speculated about pharmaceuticals designed to permanently sterilize the gestating human fetus in utero; the Istanbul Convention prohibits forced sterilization in most European countries. Widespread or systematic forced sterilization has been recognized as a Crime against Humanity by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court in the explanatory memorandum.
This memorandum defines the jurisd
Local elections in Siquijor held on May 9, 2016 as part of the 2016 Philippine general election. Voters elected all local posts in the province: a town mayor, vice mayor, town councilors, as well as members of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan - three in each of the province's two administrative districts, the governor, vice governor, one representative for lone district of Siquijor. A total of 189 candidates are running for all local positions in the province and in six municipalities of Siquijor; the total number of registered voters in the province is 68,988. City: none Municipality: Enrique Villanueva, Lazi, San Juan, Siquijor Population: 91,066Marie Anne Pernes is the incumbent. Parties are stated in their certificates of candidacy. Zaldy Villa is the incumbent. Parties are stated in their certificates of candidacy. Fernando "Dingdong" Avanzado is the incumbent. However, he is not seeking for reelection. Municipalities: Enrique Villanueva, SiquijorParties are as stated in their certificates of candidacy.
Municipalities: Maria, San JuanParties are as stated in their certificates of candidacy. All municipalities of Siquijor elected vice-mayor and councilors this election; the mayor and vice mayor with the highest number of votes win the seat. Below is vice-Mayoral candidates of each municipalities of the province. Voter Population: 4,836Gerold Pal-ing is the incumbent. Leonardo Paculba is the incumbent. Voter Population: 10,393Dean Villa is the incumbent. Cyrus Gold Calibo is the incumbent. Voter Population: 14,279Orpheus Fua is the incumbent; however is ineligible for reelection due to term limits. James Monte is term limited, he is running for mayor. Voter Population: 10,079Meynard Asok is the incumbent. Orlando Fernando is the incumbent. Voter Population: 10,037Wilfredo Capundag Jr. is the incumbent. Lillian Fe Sumalpong is the incumbent. Voter Population: 19,364Mei Ling Quezon is term limited, she is running for vice-governor. Richard Quezon is term limited, he is running for mayor. COMELEC - Official website of the Philippine Commission on Elections NAMFREL - Official website of National Movement for Free Elections PPCRV - Official website of the Parish Pastoral Council for Responsible Voting
Riddlewood is a residential housing development in Middletown Township, Delaware County, United States, a suburb of Philadelphia. The name comes from famous racehorse owner Samuel D. Riddle, who owned the property before it was developed in the 1950s; the names of the streets in Riddlewood are named after Sam Riddle's horses as follows: Man o' War, War Admiral, War Trophy, Rampart East, Rampart West and Soldier Song. There is a Riddlewood Drive and a Palmer's Lane; the land for Riddlewood was purchased from the estate of Sam Riddle by the Arters Brothers. They, along with architect George Hay, developed the 218-acre site. There are three types of houses in the neighborhood, split-level, a few Cape Cods. Riddlewood is. Sam Riddle regained some notoriety in recent years because of his mention in the popular film and book Seabiscuit
Bouygues Telecom is a French mobile phone, Internet service provider and IPTV company, part of the Bouygues group. In terms of age, it is considered to be the third oldest mobile network operator in France, after Orange and SFR, before Free Mobile, its headquarters, designed by Arquitectonica, is located at the border of Paris and Issy-les-Moulineaux near the River Seine. In January 2016, Bouygues Telecom were subject to negotiations regarding an acquisition from mobile carrier Orange, which did not progress. Along with French Operators Orange SA and SFR, Bouygues Telecom was, in 2015, found by the Autorité de la concurrence to have acted against the best interests of consumers and the economy by sharing confidential information between 1997 and 2003; the three companies were collectively fined €535 million in total. In November 2007, Bouygues Telecom went to court seeking the annul the ruling. In February 2009, the company was ordered to take down a mobile phone mast due to uncertainty about its effect on health.
Residents in the commune Charbonnières in the Rhône department had sued the company claiming adverse health effects from the radiation emitted by the 19 meter tall antenna. The milestone ruling by the Versailles Court of Appeal reversed the burden of proof, usual in such cases by emphasizing the extreme divergence between different countries in assessing safe limits for such radiation; the court stated that, "Considering that, while the reality of the risk remains hypothetical, it becomes clear from reading the contributions and scientific publications produced in debate and the divergent legislative positions taken in various countries, that uncertainty over the harmlessness of exposure to the waves emitted by relay antennas persists and can be considered serious and reasonable". They sponsored the bicycle racing team Bbox Bouygues Telecom from 2005 to 2010. Official website Official Website for International Visitors
The Goslings were an American drone rock and noise rock band from Florida, United States, with releases on labels such as Not Not Fun Records, Crucial Blast Records, Archive Recordings. The core members of the band are Leslie Soren and Max Soren with a rotating roster of drummers which have included Brendan Grubb, Adel Souto, Rick Smith, Paul Leroy and Steve Carrera; the Goslings' sound is characterized as "lo-fi," noisy, heavy but beautiful and psychedelic. The group self-records all of their own albums on cassette tape or reel-to-reel tape, are somewhat reclusive and do not tour, they have had a number of releases since forming in 2002 but their signature album to date is considered to be "Grandeur of Hair". Sister and Son / Death Garage, Rotting Chapel, 2010. "Split 7" w/ Yellow Swans, 2007. For Whom The Casio Tolls, Asaurus Records, 2004 - Label Comp. Watermelons Should Asaurus Records, 2003 - Label comp. Something to Replace Bowling, Asaurus Records, 2002 - Label comp. Il Programma Di Religione, Boyarm, 2005 - Label comp.
Songs for the End of the World, 2002 - Label comp. Gorgon EP, Tin Cans and Twine, 2005 Oleta EP, Tin Cans and Twine, 2004 Not Not Fun Records Crucial Blast Records Archive Recordings The Goslings' Official Website
When a quantity grows towards a singularity under a finite variation it is said to undergo hyperbolic growth. More the reciprocal function 1 / x has a hyperbola as a graph, has a singularity at 0, meaning that the limit as x → 0 is infinite: any similar graph is said to exhibit hyperbolic growth. If the output of a function is inversely proportional to its input, or inversely proportional to the difference from a given value x 0, the function will exhibit hyperbolic growth, with a singularity at x 0. In the real world hyperbolic growth is created by certain non-linear positive feedback mechanisms. Like exponential growth and logistic growth, hyperbolic growth is nonlinear, but differs in important respects; these functions can be confused, as exponential growth, hyperbolic growth, the first half of logistic growth are convex functions. Certain mathematical models suggest that until the early 1970s the world population underwent hyperbolic growth, it was shown that until the 1970s the hyperbolic growth of the world population was accompanied by quadratic-hyperbolic growth of the world GDP, developed a number of mathematical models describing both this phenomenon, the World System withdrawal from the blow-up regime observed in the recent decades.
The hyperbolic growth of the world population and quadratic-hyperbolic growth of the world GDP observed till the 1970s have been correlated by Andrey Korotayev and his colleagues to a non-linear second order positive feedback between the demographic growth and technological development, described by a chain of causation: technological growth leads to more carrying capacity of land for people, which leads to more people, which leads to more inventors, which in turn leads to yet more technological growth, on and on. It has been demonstrated that the hyperbolic models of this type may be used to describe in a rather accurate way the overall growth of the planetary complexity of the Earth since 4 billion BC up to the present. Other models suggest logistic growth, or other functions. Another example of hyperbolic growth can be found in queueing theory: the average waiting time of randomly arriving customers grows hyperbolically as a function of the average load ratio of the server; the singularity in this case occurs when the average amount of work arriving to the server equals the server's processing capacity.
If the processing needs exceed the server's capacity there is no well-defined average waiting time, as the queue can grow without bound. A practical implication of this particular example is that for loaded queuing systems the average waiting time can be sensitive to the processing capacity. A further practical example of hyperbolic growth can be found in enzyme kinetics; when the rate of reaction between an enzyme and substrate is plotted against various concentrations of the substrate, a hyperbolic plot is obtained for many simpler systems. When this happens, the enzyme is said to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the function x = 1 t c − t exhibits hyperbolic growth with a singularity at time t c: in the limit as t → t c, the function goes to infinity. More the function x = K t c − t exhibits hyperbolic growth, where K is a scale factor. Note that this algebraic function can be regarded as analytical solution for the function's differential: d x d t = K 2 = x 2 K This means that with hyperbolic growth the absolute growth rate of the variable x in the moment t is proportional to the square of the value of x in the moment t.
The quadratic-hyperbolic function looks as follows: x = K 2. Exponential growth Logistic growth Mathematical singularity GeneralAlexander V. Markov, Andrey V. Korotayev. "Phanerozoic marine biodiversity follows a hyperbolic trend". Palaeoworld. Volume 16. Issue 4. Pages 311-318]. Kremer, Michael. 1993. "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B. C. to 1990," The Quarterly Journal of Economics 108: 681-716. Korotayev A. Malkov A. Khaltourina D. 2006. Introduction to Social Macrodynamics: Compact Macromodels of the World System Growth. Moscow