Computational fluid dynamics is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical analysis and data structures to analyze and solve problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to simulate the free-stream flow of the fluid, the interaction of the fluid with surfaces defined by boundary conditions. With high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved, are required to solve the largest and most complex problems. Ongoing research yields software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as transonic or turbulent flows. Initial validation of such software is performed using experimental apparatus such as wind tunnels. In addition performed analytical or empirical analysis of a particular problem can be used for comparison. A final validation is performed using full-scale testing, such as flight tests. CFD is applied to a wide range of research and engineering problems in many fields of study and industries, including aerodynamics and aerospace analysis, weather simulation, natural science and environmental engineering, industrial system design and analysis, biological engineering, fluid flows and heat transfer, engine and combustion analysis.
The fundamental basis of all CFD problems is the Navier–Stokes equations, which define many single-phase fluid flows. These equations can be simplified by removing terms describing viscous actions to yield the Euler equations. Further simplification, by removing terms describing vorticity yields the full potential equations. For small perturbations in subsonic and supersonic flows these equations can be linearized to yield the linearized potential equations. Methods were first developed to solve the linearized potential equations. Two-dimensional methods, using conformal transformations of the flow about a cylinder to the flow about an airfoil were developed in the 1930s. One of the earliest type of calculations resembling modern CFD are those by Lewis Fry Richardson, in the sense that these calculations used finite differences and divided the physical space in cells. Although they failed these calculations, together with Richardson's book "Weather prediction by numerical process", set the basis for modern CFD and numerical meteorology.
In fact, early CFD calculations during the 1940s using ENIAC used methods close to those in Richardson's 1922 book. The computer power available paced development of three-dimensional methods; the first work using computers to model fluid flow, as governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, was performed at Los Alamos National Lab, in the T3 group. This group was led by Francis H. Harlow, considered as one of the pioneers of CFD. From 1957 to late 1960s, this group developed a variety of numerical methods to simulate transient two-dimensional fluid flows, such as Particle-in-cell method,Fluid-in-cell method,Vorticity stream function method, Marker-and-cell method. Fromm's vorticity-stream-function method for 2D, incompressible flow was the first treatment of contorting incompressible flows in the world; the first paper with three-dimensional model was published by John Hess and A. M. O. Smith of Douglas Aircraft in 1967; this method discretized the surface of the geometry with panels, giving rise to this class of programs being called Panel Methods.
Their method itself was simplified, in that it did not include lifting flows and hence was applied to ship hulls and aircraft fuselages. The first lifting Panel Code was described in a paper written by Paul Rubbert and Gary Saaris of Boeing Aircraft in 1968. In time, more advanced three-dimensional Panel Codes were developed at Boeing, Douglas, McDonnell Aircraft, NASA and Analytical Methods; some were higher order codes, using higher order distributions of surface singularities, while others used single singularities on each surface panel. The advantage of the lower order codes was. Today, VSAERO has grown to be a multi-order code and is the most used program of this class, it has been used in the development of many submarines, surface ships, helicopters and more wind turbines. Its sister code, USAERO is an unsteady panel method, used for modeling such things as high speed trains and racing yachts; the NASA PMARC code from an early version of VSAERO and a derivative of PMARC, named CMARC, is commercially available.
In the two-dimensional realm, a number of Panel Codes have been developed for airfoil analysis and design. The codes have a boundary layer analysis included, so that viscous effects can be modeled. Professor Richard Eppler of the University of Stuttgart developed the PROFILE code with NASA funding, which became available in the early 1980s; this was soon followed by MIT Professor Mark Drela's XFOIL code. Both PROFILE and XFOIL incorporate two-dimensional panel codes, with coupled boundary layer codes for airfoil analysis work. PROFILE uses a conformal transformation method for inverse airfoil design, while XFOIL has both a conformal transformation and an inverse panel method for airfoil design. An intermediate step between Panel Codes and Full Potential codes were codes that used the Transonic Small Disturbance equations. In particular, the three-dimensional WIBCO code, developed by Charlie Boppe of Grumman Aircraft in the early 1980s has seen heavy use
The Leaside Bridge the East York Leaside Viaduct, commemorated as the Confederation Bridge, spans the Don River in the City of Toronto, Ontario. The Truss bridge carrying Millwood Road was built to connect the Town of Leaside, including Thorncliffe Park, to the Township of East York, was completed on October 29, 1927; the construction time of only 10 months was record breaking at the time. During the 1920s, as the new communities surrounding Toronto grew several bridges were constructed to overcome the barrier of the Don Valley. Among these were the Vale of Avoca and the East York – Leaside Viaduct; the town of Leaside, built by Canadian Northern Railway in the late teens and early 1920s, sought to attract investors and homebuyers. A connection over the Don Valley to the town of Todmorden Mills and on to Toronto would provide this. Sod was turned in mid-December and active construction began in January 1927 under the direction of bridge designer Frank Barber; the bridge was assembled throughout the spring and summer, inaugurated on October 29 as the Confederation Bridge, in honour of the sixtieth anniversary of that event.
The tiled mosaic handrail was designed by New York architect Calude Bragdon with tiles supplied by Italian Mosaic and Tile Company. In the late 1960s, as the first of numerous plans appeared to extend Leslie Street south of Eglinton, plans were initiated to widen the bridge to support six lanes of traffic; the bridge was closed beginning September 16, 1968, reopened February 8, 1969. Girders were attached to the sides of the bridge to widen the deck to either side and the piers were reinforced on the corners to carry the additional weight. Between 2004 and 2006, the bridge was rehabilitated; the second of two contracts to rehabilitate the bridge was awarded in 2005 and included the restoration of the decorative handrail from the original 1927 design. Engineer: Frank Barber Associate architect: Claude Bragdon Height: 45.4 metres or 143.8 feet Prince Edward Viaduct Sewells Road Bridge - another less significant bridge in Toronto designed by Frank Barber Leaside Bridge Leaside Bridge Receives Historic Designation 2004 to 2006 reconstruction Leaside Bridge Rehabilitiation Project
Kilcumreragh is a civil parish which spans the counties of Westmeath and Offaly in Ireland. It is located about 23.23 kilometres west–south–west of Mullingar and 18.28 kilometres north–north–west of Tullamore. Kilcumreragh spans three baronies, it is one of 8 civil parishes in the barony of Moycashel, 4 civil parishes in the barony of Clonlonan and 4 civil parishes in the Offaly barony of Kilcoursey, all in the Province of Leinster. The civil parish covers 9,280.6 acres, 6,964.9 acres in County Westmeath and 2,315.7 acres in County Offaly. Kilcumreragh civil parish comprises the village of Rosemount and 32 townlands: Ballagh, Ballinlig, Ballybeg, Ballybroder, Ballynagrenia, Brackagh, Burrow or Glennanummer, Cartron Glebe, Coolatoor or Grouselodge, Curragh, Custorum, Curraghanana, Faheeran, Feargarrow, Grouselodge or Coolatoor, Kilcumeragh, Laragh, Lisnagree Newtown and Parkwood; the neighbouring civil parishes are: Killare to the north, Ardnurcher or Horseleap to the east, Kilmanaghan and Kilmanaghan to the south, Ballyloughloe to the west and Ballymore to the west and north.
Kilcumreragh civil parish at the IreAtlas Townland Data Base Kilcumreragh civil parish, County Westmeath at townlands.ie Kilcumreragh civil parish, County Offaly at townlands.ie Kilcumreragh civil parish, County Westmeath at The Placenames Database of Ireland Kilcumreragh civil parish, County Offaly at The Placenames Database of Ireland
The 2017 IIHF Inline Hockey World Championship Division I was an international inline hockey tournament run by the International Ice Hockey Federation. The Division I tournament ran alongside the 2017 IIHF Inline Hockey World Championship tournament and took place between 25 June and 1 July 2017 in Bratislava, Slovakia at the Ondrej Nepela Arena Rink 2 and Ondrej Nepela Arena; the tournament was won by Slovenia who upon winning gained promotion to the 2019 IIHF Inline Hockey World Championship. While New Zealand and Brazil were relegated to the Qualifications after losing their placement round games along with Hungary who lost the relegation game against Argentina. Thirteen teams attempted to qualify for the three remaining spots in the 2017 IIHF Inline Hockey World Championship Division I tournament; the other five nations automatically qualified based on their results from the 2015 Championship and 2015 Division I tournament. Two qualification tournaments were held with a place awarded to the winner of each tournament.
The Asia/Oceania Qualification tournament was contested between Chinese Taipei, India and New Zealand with New Zealand winning promotion and returning to Division I after being relegated in 2012. Malaysia and Singapore were announced to be competing in the tournament however withdrew and were replaced by Chinese Taipei; the Europe Qualification tournament was contested between Austria, Bulgaria, Latvia, Macedonia and Turkey with Latvia winning promotion and returning to Division I after being relegated in 2015. Ireland was announced to be competed in the tournament however withdrew. A third qualification tournament representing the regions of the Americas and Africa was planned however Brazil was the only registered participant and so gained automatic qualification to Division I; the 2016 IIHF Inline Hockey Qualification Asia/Oceania was held in New Plymouth, New Zealand from 21 to 23 April 2016. New Zealand gained promotion to Division I after winning their three games and finishing first in the standings.
Japan finished in Chinese Taipei in third. All times are local; the 2016 IIHF Inline Hockey Qualification Europe was held in Steindorf, Austria from 22 to 25 June 2016. Latvia gained promotion after defeating Austria 4–2 in the final. Israel finished third place after defeating Macedonia in the 10–5 in the third place match. Group A Group B 7th/8th game 5th/6th game 3rd/4th game 1st/2nd game The seeding in the preliminary round was based on the final standings at the 2015 IIHF Inline Hockey World Championship and 2015 IIHF Inline Hockey World Championship Division I, the qualification tournaments. Division I's groups are named Group C and Group D while the 2017 IIHF Inline Hockey World Championship use Group A and Group B, as both tournaments are held in Bratislava, Slovakia; the teams were grouped accordingly by seeding at the previous year's tournament: Eight participating teams were placed in the following two groups. After playing a round-robin, every team advanced to the Playoff round. All times are local.
All eight teams advanced into the playoff round and were seeded into the quarterfinals according to their result in the preliminary round. The winning quarter finalists advanced through to the semifinals, while the losing teams moved through to the classification round. New Zealand and Brazil were relegated to the Qualifications after losing their classification round games and finished the tournament in seventh and eighth respectively. After winning their classification games Hungary and Argentina competed in the relegation game with Hungary being relegated to the Qualifications after losing 4–5 after a shootout. In the semifinals Slovenia defeated Great Britain and Latvia beat Australia, both advancing to the gold medal game. After losing the semifinals Great Britain and Australia played off for the bronze medal with Australia winning 7–3. Slovenia defeated Latvia 6–3 in the gold medal game and earned promotion to the 2019 IIHF Inline Hockey World Championship. All times are local. List shows the top skaters sorted by points goals.
If the list exceeds 10 skaters because of a tie in points, all of the tied skaters are shown. Only the top five goaltenders, based on save percentage, who have played at least 40% of their team's minutes are included in this list. Division I at IIHF.com
Vartan Gregorian is an Armenian-American academic and historian. He has been serving as president of the Carnegie Corporation since 1997. An Armenian born in Iran, Gregorian moved to the United States at 22, he graduated with dual PhD from Stanford University. He subsequently taught at several universities and his work as a historian focused on the Muslim world, he went on to join the University of Pennsylvania faculty as its provost. From 1981 to 1989 he served as president of the New York Public Library during which he succeeded in financially stabilizing the institution and revitalizing its cultural importance. From 1989 to 1997 he served as the first foreign-born president of Brown University. Gregorian's work has been acknowledged, he has received dozens of honorary doctorates, the National Humanities Medal and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Vartan Gregorian was born on April 8, 1934 in the city of Tabriz in northern Iran to Christian Armenian parents Samuel B. Gregorian and Shushanik, his father worked for the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in Abadan.
His mother died of pneumonia when he was six and his father remarried. Vartan and his younger sister were raised by his maternal grandmother, his grandfather owned an inn for camel caravans. He first went to an Armenian elementary school in Tabriz a Russian one when northern Iran was under Soviet occupation; when Iran regained control of the area, he learned Persian. His grandmother was illiterate and his parents only had high school education, he was told by Edgar Maloyan, French vice-council in Tabriz of Armenian origin, that he had to go to Beirut because he was "too smart to stay in Tabriz." He continued his studies at Collège Armenien in Beirut, graduating in 1955. Among his teachers there was Simon Vratsian, the last prime minister of the First Republic of Armenia, he briefly worked as a reporter in Beirut before emigrating to the United States in 1956. Gregorian came to the US with the initial intention to return to Beirut to teach Armenian history in a high school. In another interview, Gregorian said he studied Portuguese so he could become the principal of an Armenian high school in São Paulo, Brazil.
In 1956 He enrolled at Stanford University and completed his BA in history and humanities in just two years, graduating with honors in 1958. In a sense, I wrote the book as a tribute to my grandmother and all the other people who played such a crucial role in my life. Without them, I would not be here. Gregorian earned a dual PhD in history and humanities from Stanford University in 1964, his dissertation was titled "Traditionalism and Modernism in Islam." He began his teaching career at University of California, Berkeley where he was instructor in Armenian history and culture in 1960. He taught European and Middle Eastern history at San Francisco State University between 1962 and 1968, he was instructor in 1964 he was named assistant professor and, in 1966, associate professor of history. He was a visiting associate professor of history at University of California, Los Angeles in 1968, before moving to University of Texas at Austin as associate professor in 1968-70 and professor of history in 1970-72.
Gregorian joined the University of Pennsylvania faculty in 1972 as Tarzian Professor of Armenian and Caucasian History and Professor of South Asian history. In 1974 he became the founding dean of UPenn's Faculty of Arts and Sciences until 1978, he subsequently served as the 23rd provost of UPenn from January 1979 to October 1980. In 1980 Gregorian was considered to be the most probable candidate for president of the University of Pennsylvania as he had the "resounding support of most of the deans, the Faculty Senate, the Undergraduate Assembly." Gregorian was seen as a charismatic leader and one with "flamboyant style and ever-present brilliance." However, the university trustees chose Sheldon Hackney instead. In 1984–89 Gregorian was professor of history and Near Eastern studies at New York University and at the New School for Social Research, he taught European intellectual history at the New School. From 1981 to 1989 Gregorian served as president of the New York Public Library, a network that contained four research libraries and 83 circulating libraries.
He was successful in the position as a fundraiser. He nearly doubled its budget and by the end of his tenure, he had secured $327 to $400 million for the NYPL from individuals and corporations, he has been credited with restoring the "crumbling landmark to a vibrant cultural nexus" and rescuing one of America's "known public institutions from financial and cultural crisis and thereby restor the stature of public libraries nationwide." According to Michael Gorman Gregorian is one of the few "shining exceptions" of academics running libraries well. He notes that as the head of the NYPL Gregorian "can be said to have rescued that venerable and valuable institution from pauperism."During Gregorian tenure, the Main Branch in Manhattan was restored with $42 million. He succeeded in getting approval from city planning authorities to restore the nearby Bryant Park. Upon his departure, The New York Times wrote that as president of the NYPL, Gregorian "revived an empire of learning, more than a national treasure."
Barlow Der Mugrdechian noted that Gregorian "transformed what was a decaying and underfinanced institution into a center of New York cultural life." His tenure at the NYPL made Gregorian a reputable institutional leader. In May 1999 a hall of the Main Branch was named after Gregorian. Brown University awarded Gregorian an honorary doctorate in 1984 for h
Reflected appraisal is a term used in psychology to describe a person's perception of how others see and evaluate him or her. The reflected appraisal process concludes that people come to think of themselves in the way they believe others think of them; this process has been deemed important to the development of a person's self-esteem because it includes interaction with people outside oneself, is considered one of the main influences on the development of self-concept. Harry Stack Sullivan first coined the term reflected appraisal in 1953 when he published The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry, though Charles H. Cooley was the first to describe the process of reflected appraisal when he discussed his concept of the looking-glass self. Although some of our self-views are gained by direct experience with our environment, most of what we know about ourselves is derived from others. In 1979, Shrauger and Shoeneman found that rather than our self-concepts resembling the way others see us, our self-concepts are filtered through our perceptions and resemble how we think others see us.
Felson explained that individuals are not accurate in judging what others think of them. Among the causes of the discrepancy is the apprehension of others about revealing their views. At best, they may reveal favorable views rather than both favorable and unfavorable views. Consistent with other research, Felson found that individuals have a better idea of how groups see them than of how specific individuals see them. Individuals learn the group standards and apply those standards. In turn, when group members judge individuals, they use the same standards that individuals applied to themselves, thus we find a correspondence in other's appraisals of the self. The extent to which reflected appraisals affect the person being appraised depends upon characteristics of the appraiser and his or her appraisal. Greater impact on the development of a person's self-concept is said to occur when: the appraiser is perceived as a credible source the appraiser takes a personal interest in the person being appraised the appraisal is discrepant with the person's self-concept at the moment the number of confirmations of a given appraisal is high the appraisals coming from a variety of sources are consistent and appraisals are supportive of the person's own beliefs about himself or herself.
Several studies have been conducted on the way reflected appraisal affects various relationships in a person's life. The idea that a person's self-concept is related to what that person perceives as another's opinion holds more weight with significant others. Appraisals from significant others such as parents, close friends, trusted colleagues, other people the individual admires, influences self-concept development and has more influence than a stranger on a child's developing self-esteem. Study of this topic has led to the realization that people sometimes tend to anticipate what will happen in the future based on a previous perception. Reflected appraisals are present among family members. All family members have opinions about one another and are less reticent to express them to each other than is the case outside of family relations. Siblings may be only too eager to give critical feedback regarding each other's behavior, social skills, intelligence. Not all of these appraisals, of course, are significant for one's self-esteem.
Both what is being appraised and who does the appraising, are important qualifiers. For children, on most things, the reflected appraisals of their parents may matter much more than those of their siblings. Reflected appraisal has been the main process examined in studies of self-esteem within families; the bulk of this research has focused on the effects of parental behavior on children's self-esteem. In general, these studies find that parental support and encouragement and use of inductive control are related positively to children's self-esteem. Most of these parental variables could be considered indicators of positive reflected appraisals of the child, they are the parental behaviors found to be associated with the development of other positive socialization outcomes in children and adolescents. In the investigation of the reflected appraisal process with newly married couples, social status derived from one's position in the social structure influences the appraisal process; the spouse with the higher status in the marriage is more to not only influence their partner's self-views, but their partner's views of them.
Spouses with a lower status in the marriage have less influence on the self-view of their higher status counterparts or on how their higher-status counterparts view them. Through reflected appraisals, we are given lines to speak in everyday situations that are sometimes so specific that some people refer to them as scripts. Through these scripts, we are given our lines, our gestures, our characterizations; the scripts tell us how to act in future scenarios, what is expected of us. Others tell us what they expect from us, how we should look, how we should behave, how we should say our lines; the messages we receive about ourselves during the process of reflected appraisal can become self-fulfilling prophecies. The Pygmalion effect, Rosenthal effect, observer-expect