FourFourTwo is a football magazine published by Future. Issued monthly, it published its 200th edition in February 2011, it takes its name from the football formation of the same name, 4-4-2. In 2008, it was announced that FourFourTwo had entered into a three-year shirt sponsorship deal with Swindon Town, which commenced in the 2008–09 season. Although based in the United Kingdom, the magazine is available in 16 other languages; the following people are amongst the regular contributors to FourFourTwo: Uli Hesse James Horncastle Martin Mazur Michael Cox James Richardson, who presents the European Football Show on BT Sport and Football Italia on Channel 4, who used to give his views on Italian football before being replaced. Henry Winter — Leading football journalist. Brian Clough — Ex-player and manager, until his death in 2004. Bobby Robson — Ex-player and manager who replaced Brian Clough. Stan Bowles — The ex-Queens Park Rangers and England player, who wrote an anecdotal column. Robbie Savage — The former Wales midfielder, who wrote about the game from a current Premiership footballer's perspective.
Sam Allardyce — Ex-Newcastle United manager who answered readers' questions. David Platt — who wrote columns discussing tactics for particular matches or teams. Michel Salgado, footballer of Real Madrid and Blackburn Rovers. Arsène Wenger — Arsenal manager. FourFourTwo's 5-a-side "guru", questioned by two people every month and gives tips on the 5-a-side game. Diego Forlán, International striker; the Player, a mystery columnist, with an article each month. His anonymity allows him to write about the unseen aspects of football - drink, mistresses, etc.. Notable editors of FourFourTwo have included Hugh Sleight and Hitesh Ratna; the founding editor was Karen Buchanan. The magazine is split up in the following sections: Upfront, Action Replay and The Mixer. FourFourTwo has a number of annual awards. In 2007, the magazine put together its first FFT100, a list of the 100 best footballers in the world - according to them. At the end of the 2012–13 Premier League season, FourFourTwo announced its first Stats Zone Awards.
In May 2015, the inaugural list of the 50 best Asian players in world football was announced. They do a top 50 of players from the Football League. Australian edition - FourFourTwo launched an Australian edition in October 2005, to coincide with the new A-League; the launch publicity ran with the tagline of "It's footy, but not as you know it," a reference to the popularity of Australian rules football and rugby league and the fact that association football is referred to as soccer in Australia. This referred to the launch slogan of the A-League: "It's football, but not as you know it" — part of the work Football Australia is doing to rebrand and relaunch the game. Further to this, the first edition's frontpage contained the motto "Goodbye Soccer, Hello Football." The current editor is Kevin Airs. The magazine closed in August 2018. Brazilian edition - First published in 2009, by Brazilian publishing company Cadiz. Bulgarian edition - First published in April 2010, having pre-World Cup information about the England national football team and coach Fabio Capello for its cover story.
Croatian edition - First published in October 2010. Dutch edition - First published in November 2018, by F&L Media Egyptian edition - First published in June 2010, by Egyptian publishing company Omedia. Hungarian edition - First published in March 2010. Indonesian edition - First published in 2009, by PT Tunas Bola. Italian edition - First published in December 2013. Editor Xavier Jacobelli. Korean edition - First published in June 2007, by Korean publishing company MediaWill. Articles on domestic football take up about half of the 190-pages. Malaysian/Singapore edition - In 2009, Measat publications took over the license of the Malaysian edition, on sale in Singapore. On 11 August 2009, a weekly FourFourTwo TV Show began on affiliated television station, Astro SuperSport, hosted by former ESPN anchor Jason Dasey. There are now two weekly editions: FourFourTwo EuroZone and FourFourTwo EuroGoals, as well as a monthly version, FourFourTwo Performance. Nigerian edition - First published in 2006, relaunched May 2008 with Samm Audu as the editor.
It is the biggest-selling soccer magazine in West Africa. It sells in South Africa. Polish edition - First published in May 2010, by Arskom Group. Portuguese edition - First published in November 2013, by the company'Goody S. A.'. Swedish edition - First published in April 2008. Thai edition - First published in November 2009, by Plus One Media Co. Ltd. on 3rd day of the month. Now, FourFourTwo are published by Siam Sport Syndicate Co. Ltd, on early of the month. Turkish edition - First published in April 2006. Vietnamese edition - First published in May 2010. Official website Hungarian edition FourFourTwo on Twitter Turkish edition Australian edition Portuguese edition Swedish edition Thai edition UK Subscription Site
A conspiracy theory is the fear of a nonexistent or alleged conspiracy or the unnecessary assumption of conspiracy when other explanations are more probable. Evidence showing it to be false, or the absence of proof of the conspiracy, is interpreted by believers as evidence of its truth, thus insulating it from refutation. According to the political scientist Michael Barkun, conspiracy theories rely on the view that the universe is governed by design, embody three principles: nothing happens by accident, nothing is as it seems, everything is connected. Another common feature is that conspiracy theories evolve to incorporate whatever evidence exists against them, so that they become, as Barkun writes, a closed system, unfalsifiable, therefore "a matter of faith rather than proof". On a psychological level, studies show Machiavellianism and paranoia are correlated with conspiratorial thinking; the Oxford English Dictionary defines conspiracy theory as "the theory that an event or phenomenon occurs as a result of a conspiracy between interested parties.
A belief that some covert but influential agency is responsible for an unexplained event". It cites a 1909 article in The American Historical Review as the earliest usage example, although it appears in journals as early as April 1870; the word "conspiracy" derives from the Latin con- and spirare. Robert Blaskiewicz notes examples of the term were used as early as the nineteenth century and states that its usage has always been derogatory. Lance deHaven-Smith suggested that the term entered everyday language in the United States after 1964, the year in which the Warren Commission shared its findings, with The New York Times running five stories that year using the term. A conspiracy theory is not a conspiracy. Barkun writes that conspiracies are "actual covert plots planned and/or carried out by two or more persons". A conspiracy theory, on the other hand, is "an intellectual construct", a "template imposed upon the world to give the appearance of order to events". Positing that "some small and hidden group" has manipulated events, a conspiracy theory can be local or international, focused on single events or covering multiple incidents and entire countries and periods of history.
Conspiracy theorists see themselves as having privileged access to special knowledge or a special mode of thought that separates them from the masses who believe the official account. A conspiracy theory may take any matter as its subject, but certain subjects attract greater interest than others. Favored subjects include famous deaths, government activities, new technologies and questions of alien life. Among the longest-standing and most recognized conspiracy theories are notions concerning the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the 1969 Apollo moon landings and the 9/11 terrorist attacks, as well as numerous theories pertaining to alleged plots for world domination by various groups both real and imaginary; some scholars argue that conspiracy theories once limited to fringe audiences have become commonplace in mass media, contributing to conspiracism emerging as a cultural phenomenon in the United States of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. According to anthropologists Todd Sanders and Harry G. West, evidence suggests that a broad cross-section of Americans today gives credence to at least some conspiracy theories.
For instance, a study conducted in 2016 found that 10% of Americans think the chemtrail conspiracy theory is "completely true" and 20-30% think it is "somewhat true". This puts "the equivalent of 120 million Americans in the “chemtrails are real” camp". Belief in conspiracy theories has therefore become a topic of interest for sociologists and experts in folklore. Conspiracy theories are present on the Web in the form of blogs and YouTube videos, as well as on social media. Whether the Web has increased the prevalence of conspiracy theories or not is an open research question; the presence and representation of conspiracy theories in search engine results has been monitored and studied, showing significant variation across different topics, a general absence of reputable, high-quality links in the results. Jesse Walker has identified five kinds of conspiracy theories: The "Enemy Outside" refers to theories based on figures alleged to be scheming against a community from without; the "Enemy Within" finds the conspirators lurking inside the nation, indistinguishable from ordinary citizens.
The "Enemy Above" involves powerful people manipulating events for their own gain. The "Enemy Below" features the lower classes working to overturn the social order; the "Benevolent Conspiracies" are angelic forces that work behind the scenes to improve the world and help people. Barkun has identified three classifications of conspiracy theory: Event conspiracy theories; this refers to well-defined events. Examples may include such conspiracies theories as those concerning the Kennedy assassination, 9/11, the spread of AIDS. Systemic conspiracy theories; the conspiracy is believed to have broad goals conceived as securing control of a country, a region, or the entire world. The goals are sweeping, whilst the conspiratorial machinery is simple: a single, evil organization implements a plan to infiltrate and subvert existing institutions; this is a common scenario in conspiracy theories that focus on the alleged machinations of Jews, Communism, or the Catholic Church. Superconspiracy theories. For Barkun, such theories link multiple alleged conspiracies together hierarchically.
At the summit is a distant but all-powerful evil force. His cited examples are the ideas of Milton William Cooper. Murray
T3 magazine is a UK-based technology magazine, which specialises in gadgets and other technology. T3 stood for Tomorrow's Technology Today, but this is not used anywhere in the magazine or on the website anymore except for on the side of the magazine, it is referred to as T3 or T3.com. The magazine is popular among UK gadget magazines. T3 magazine is available in most countries, has syndicated/localised versions in over 20 countries; the first issue of T3 magazine went on sale around September 1996. The magazine was a spin-off of a science magazine launched as Frontiers, but the publishers decided to have a look at future technology; the reasoning was that there wasn't an all-round consumer technology magazine in the UK market and that people love reading about technology and gadgets. The magazine started off as a celebration of the best new technologies that were appearing, to explain how it all works, how the technologies and products would impact the readers' lives, but evolved into a glossy entertainment magazine as well.
Many of the readers started buying the magazine to read about items that were outrageously expensive and outlandish, the magazine was seen as a'licence to drool' over bleeding-edge technology. The first issue of the magazine featured the first DVD player to be imported into the UK. Things started to become digital around 1996 - DECT telephones, digital cameras, PDAs, DVD and digital television technology. With most technology going digital and dropping in price, general interest for gadgets rose, as did sales of the magazine; the magazine started moving away from pure technology coverage, started writing about anything innovative. As the editor at the time said: "A bigger TV, for example, wouldn't go in the magazine unless it was sexy or had clever features". Around the same time, the magazine became less geeky in its approach to technology, became much more of a magazine for design-conscious gadget-loving men. However, the addition of attractive models has drawn some limited suggestion that the publication still relies on a core readership of "sexually repressed nerds".
The first editor of T3 magazine was Steve Jarratt, who launched Edge. He was followed by Paul Pettengale, Rob Mead, Mark Higham, James Beechinor-Collins, Michael Brook, Luke Peters, Matt Hill, Tom Dennis and Rob Carney; the current editor is Matt Bolton. T3 is a franchise; the localised versions vary from country to country: Some editions are new magazines, created by a local team of journalists and designers under the T3 brand. Other syndications are adaptations of the UK version for a local market, or region: In some countries or markets, for example, the T3 cover girls are unacceptable, so they might be replaced with a more family-friendly or religion-friendly version. In other markets, the covers are re-shot with local models. Most syndicated versions of T3 magazine are a hybrid of both T3 UK content, content geared towards local markets, with reviews of companies and items relevant to the national market. Per October 2009, syndicated editions included Australia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Dubai, Indonesia, Lebanon, Philippines, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, Turkey and United Arab Emirates.
Apart from separate magazines, T3's stories appear in major newspapers, the T3 staff are featured on Radio and Television as industry experts. Articles are syndicated in the technology section of the O2 Active portal; the T3 web site started off as a running advertisement for the magazine, but that has changed quite radically over time. The web site now has a number of staff members separate from T3 magazine, it operates as a publication in its own right. T3.com now creates a lot of reviews for the web site, in addition to staying on top of gadget and technology stories as they happen. Due to its links with the T3 brand and close ties with the industry it covers, the T3 web site breaks news stories before any other outlets, it relaunched in December 2007 as t3.com. The T3 Podcast is an audio podcast published weekly on Fridays via iTunes, it is hosted by presenter Dan Maudsley with T3 Operations Editor, Duncan Bell, T3.com's Rhi Morgan. The 200th episode was broadcast live via Mixlr from the Hospital Club, London on 16 September 2011.
Stuff - T3's biggest magazine competitor in the UK Engadget - Large gadget blog Gizmodo - Large gadget blog The Gadget Show - popular weekly TV show Official website T3 Middle East
Computer Music (magazine)
Computer Music is a monthly magazine published by Future plc in the UK. It covers the topic of creating digital music on a computer; each issue includes a DVD-ROM with samples, plug-ins, software demos and other content related to the issue. Additional content is offered via a download website. Official website Computer Music Magazine Details
Home computers were a class of microcomputers that entered the market in 1977, that started with what Byte Magazine called the "trinity of 1977", which became common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the first time, were intended for the use of a single nontechnical user; these computers were a distinct market segment that cost much less than business, scientific or engineering-oriented computers of the time such as the IBM PC, were less powerful in terms of memory and expandability. However, a home computer had better graphics and sound than contemporary business computers, their most common uses were playing video games, but they were regularly used for word processing, doing homework, programming. Home computers were not electronic kits. There were, commercial kits like the Sinclair ZX80 which were both home and home-built computers since the purchaser could assemble the unit from a kit. Advertisements in the popular press for early home computers were rife with possibilities for their practical use in the home, from cataloging recipes to personal finance to home automation, but these were realized in practice.
For example, using a typical 1980s home computer as a home automation appliance would require the computer to be kept powered on at all times and dedicated to this task. Personal finance and database use required tedious data entry. By contrast, advertisements in the specialty computer press simply listed specifications. If no packaged software was available for a particular application, the home computer user could program one—provided they had invested the requisite hours to learn computer programming, as well as the idiosyncrasies of their system. Since most systems shipped with the BASIC programming language included on the system ROM, it was easy for users to get started creating their own simple applications. Many users found programming to be a fun and rewarding experience, an excellent introduction to the world of digital technology; the line between'business' and'home' computer market segments blurred or vanished once IBM PC compatibles became used in the home, since now both categories of computers use the same processor architectures, operating systems, applications.
The only difference may be the sales outlet through which they are purchased. Another change from the home computer era is that the once-common endeavour of writing one's own software programs has vanished from home computer use; as early as 1965, some experimental projects such as Jim Sutherland's ECHO IV explored the possible utility of a computer in the home. In 1969, the Honeywell Kitchen Computer was marketed as a luxury gift item, would have inaugurated the era of home computing, but none were sold. Computers became affordable for the general public in the 1970s due to the mass production of the microprocessor starting in 1971. Early microcomputers such as the Altair 8800 had front-mounted switches and diagnostic lights to control and indicate internal system status, were sold in kit form to hobbyists; these kits would contain an empty printed circuit board which the buyer would fill with the integrated circuits, other individual electronic components and connectors, hand-solder all the connections.
While two early home computers could be bought either in kit form or assembled, most home computers were only sold pre-assembled. They were enclosed in plastic or metal cases similar in appearance to typewriter or hi-fi equipment enclosures, which were more familiar and attractive to consumers than the industrial metal card-cage enclosures used by the Altair and similar computers; the keyboard - a feature lacking on the Altair - was built into the same case as the motherboard. Ports for plug-in peripheral devices such as a video display, cassette tape recorders and disk drives were either built-in or available on expansion cards. Although the Apple II series had internal expansion slots, most other home computer models' expansion arrangements were through externally accessible'expansion ports' that served as a place to plug in cartridge-based games; the manufacturer would sell peripheral devices designed to be compatible with their computers as extra cost accessories. Peripherals and software were not interchangeable between different brands of home computer, or between successive models of the same brand.
To save the cost of a dedicated monitor, the home computer would connect through an RF modulator to the family TV set, which served as both video display and sound system. By 1982, an estimated 621,000 home computers were in American households, at an average sales price of US$530. After the success of the Radio Shack TRS-80, the Commodore PET and the Apple II in 1977 every manufacturer of consumer electronics rushed to introduce a home computer. Large numbers of new machines of all types began to appear during the early 1980s. Mattel, Texas Instruments and Timex, none of which had any previous connection to the computer industry, all had short-lived home computer lines in the early 1980s; some home computers were more successful – the BBC Micro, Sinclair ZX Spectrum, Atari 800XL and Commodore 64, sold many units over several years and attracted third-party software development. Universally, home computers had a BASIC interpreter combined with a line editor in permanent read-only memory which one could use to type in BASIC programs and execute them
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K