Computer animation

Computer animation is the process used for digitally generating animated images. The more general term computer-generated imagery encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation only refers to moving images. Modern computer animation uses 3D computer graphics, although 2D computer graphics are still used for stylistic, low bandwidth, faster real-time renderings. Sometimes, the target of the animation sometimes film as well. Computer animation is a digital successor to stop motion techniques, but using 3D models, traditional animation techniques using frame-by-frame animation of 2D illustrations. Computer-generated animations are more controllable than other, more physically based processes, like constructing miniatures for effects shots, or hiring extras for crowd scenes, because it allows the creation of images that would not be feasible using any other technology, it can allow a single graphic artist to produce such content without the use of actors, expensive set pieces, or props.

To create the illusion of movement, an image is displayed on the computer monitor and replaced by a new image, similar to it but advanced in time. This technique is identical to how the illusion of movement is achieved with television and motion pictures. For 3D animations, objects are built on the computer monitor and 3D figures are rigged with a virtual skeleton. For 2D figure animations, separate objects and separate transparent layers are used with or without that virtual skeleton; the limbs, mouth, etc. of the figure are moved by the animator on key frames. The differences in appearance between key frames are automatically calculated by the computer in a process known as tweening or morphing; the animation is rendered. For 3D animations, all frames must be rendered. For 2D vector animations, the rendering process is the key frame illustration process, while tweened frames are rendered as needed. For pre-recorded presentations, the rendered frames are transferred to a different format or medium, like digital video.

The frames may be rendered in real time as they are presented to the end-user audience. Low bandwidth animations transmitted via the internet use software on the end-users computer to render in real time as an alternative to streaming or pre-loaded high bandwidth animations. To trick the eye and the brain into thinking they are seeing a smoothly moving object, the pictures should be drawn at around 12 frames per second or faster. With rates above 75-120 frames per second, no improvement in realism or smoothness is perceivable due to the way the eye and the brain both process images. At rates below 12 frames per second, most people can detect jerkiness associated with the drawing of new images that detracts from the illusion of realistic movement. Conventional hand-drawn cartoon animation uses 15 frames per second in order to save on the number of drawings needed, but this is accepted because of the stylized nature of cartoons. To produce more realistic imagery, computer animation demands higher frame rates.

Films seen in theaters in the United States run at 24 frames per second, sufficient to create the illusion of continuous movement. For high resolution, adapters are used. Early digital computer animation was developed at Bell Telephone Laboratories in the 1960s by Edward E. Zajac, Frank W. Sinden, Kenneth C. Knowlton, A. Michael Noll. Other digital animation was practiced at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In 1967, a computer animation named "Hummingbird" was created by James Shaffer. In 1968, a computer animation called "Kitty" was created with BESM-4 by Nikolai Konstantinov, depicting a cat moving around. In 1971, a computer animation called "Metadata" was created. An early step in the history of computer animation was the sequel to the 1973 film Westworld, a science-fiction film about a society in which robots live and work among humans; the sequel, used the 3D wire-frame imagery, which featured a computer-animated hand and face both created by University of Utah graduates Edwin Catmull and Fred Parke.

This imagery appeared in their student film A Computer Animated Hand, which they completed in 1972. Developments in CGI technologies are reported each year at SIGGRAPH, an annual conference on computer graphics and interactive techniques, attended by thousands of computer professionals each year. Developers of computer games and 3D video cards strive to achieve the same visual quality on personal computers in real-time as is possible for CGI films and animation. With the rapid advancement of real-time rendering quality, artists began to use game engines to render non-interactive movies, which led to the art form Machinima; the first full length computer animated television series was ReBoot, which debuted in September 1994. The first feature-length computer animated film was Toy Story, made by Pixar, it followed an adventure centered around their owners. This groundbreaking film was the first of many computer-animated movies. In most 3D computer animation systems, an animator creates a simplified representation of a character's anatomy, analogous to a skeleton or stick figure.

They are arranged into a default position known. The position of each segment of the skeletal model is defined by animation variables, or Avars for short. In human and animal characters, many parts of the skeletal mo

Thornton, Idaho

Thornton, Idaho called Texas Siding, is a townsite founded in 1917 and exists today as a township of Madison County, Idaho. Thornton was named in honor of William Ezra Thornton, prominent in the establishment of the townsite, and, for a time Thornton's Postmaster. Thornton once thrived as "an enterprising center of commerce." Thornton is now a rural community and is home to a potato warehouse and the original Thornton Merc convenience store. Thornton's original store was "The Country Store", owned by William Ezra Thornton and run by William and his wife, Wilhemina Hansas Lyman Thornton. At one time, Thornton "boasted of two fine general mercantile stores". Thornton's store was owned in the early 1900s by George Marler. A competing store in Thornton was owned by C. L. Galbraith. In 1971 the Thornton Merc, which had replaced the two prior mercantile stores was operated by Mrs. Geraldine Evans; as of 2010 it is still in operation, "Marler" can still be seen faintly painted on the north side. Descendants of the Marler family still own property in Thornton.

Thornton was once a place for recreation and amusement including a movie picture house operated by Mr. Fritz Hansen, a saloon, a dance hall. In the mid-forties the LDS Church purchased a grain elevator in Thornton from M. G. Koon and Sons; this elevator served to store welfare grain for church stakes until 1959, can still be seen from U. S. Highway 20 for many miles north and south of Thornton; when Thornton had a train depot, the Yellowstone Park Special passenger train would stop in Thornton on its way to Mack's Inn and Yellowstone Park. Visitors to Heise Hot Springs would arrive by railroad at Thornton and travel by horse-drawn vehicle to the nearby mineral springs. Thornton once had a community church directed by Reverend Baird, he presided over the church until religious services were discontinued due to insufficient numbers of attendees. The LDS Church for a time supported a primary and Sunday school service in Thornton for a few years; this was discontinued as the population of Thornton diminished.

The LDS Church continues to thrive in the nearby area, as expansion of Rexburg, Idaho has caused commuters including employees and students of Brigham Young University Idaho to seek available housing in Thornton and surrounding Archer and Lyman. Thornton lies seven miles south of Rexburg, Idaho and is bordered on the south by the Lorenzo Bridge, which crosses over the South Fork of the Snake River. Visible in the near west horizon are the Menan Buttes. Thornton lies on the Oregon Short Line Railroad and was built around what is now a remnant of U. S. Highway 191; this short segment of the original highway terminates at an old cement bridge. Since its original establishment, Thornton has been bisected by the construction of US Highway 20; the larger portion lies south of the highway. The northern portion has been nearly eliminated by the construction of the highway; the Archer-Lyman highway begins to the north and east of Thornton and meanders south and east towards Ririe, Idaho. The old brick Thornton Hotel has been abandoned due to disrepair.

The legal description of Thornton is "NE 4 NE 4 of Sec. 222, of SW 4 SW 4 of Sec. 14 and of SE 4 SE 4 of sec 15 all in TS 5 N R 39 E. B. M." Within Thornton next to the remaining Thornton Merc is an old Trailer Park, converted into an RV Park and accommodates both campers and longer-term residents, many of whom are migrant workers who labor in the nearby potato warehouses. Another RV Park lies south across the old concrete bridge nearer to the Snake River South Fork. A bed and breakfast appears on the map here as the Sheffield House The Thornton Shell gas station and convenience store lies between Highway 20 and the railroad and used to be known as the Mini Mart. Behind the Shell station is the old grain elevator. Marooned between the two highways is an older home, once owned by the Keith Wilcox family in the mid 1900s, has been stranded now due to the removal of a portion of South 3300 West. A nearby potato warehouse owned by Keith and his sons is no longer in operation, is vacant except for individuals who have taken residency in the office space.

Part of a community church still stands in Thornton. There is a quiet RV park across from the potato warehouse called Thompson RV Park, it is a small 25 space park that prefers seniors, owned by Linda Thompson. Mr. Thompson has lived in the house on this property all his life, it has full hook ups up to a laundry/shower/restroom building. Madison County Homepage Brigham Young University Idaho Rexburg, Idaho Homepage Rexburg Chamber of Commerce

Goldsmith C. Gilbert Historic District

Goldsmith C. Gilbert Historic District is a national historic district located at Muncie, Delaware County, Indiana, it is located in the oldest residential section of Muncie. The district includes notable examples of Late Victorian, Colonial Revival, Bungalow / American Craftsman style architecture. Located in the district is the separately listed J. C. Johnson House. Other notable buildings include the A. L. Johnson House, Meeks Mortuary Building, Joseph Hummel House, Miller Livery, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1988