A card reader is a data input device that reads data from a card-shaped storage medium. The first were punched card readers, which read the paper or cardboard punched cards that were used during the first several decades of the computer industry to store information and programs for computer systems. Modern card readers are electronic devices that can read plastic cards embedded with either a barcode, magnetic strip, computer chip or another storage medium. A memory card reader is a device used for communication with a memory card. A magnetic card reader is a device used to read magnetic stripe cards, such as credit cards. A business card reader is a device used to electronically save printed business cards. See also: Contact smart card and Contactless smart card. A smart card reader is an electronic device that reads smart cards and can be found in the following form: Some keyboards have a built-in card reader. External devices and internal drive bay card reader devices exist for personal computers.
Some laptop models utilize flash upgradeable firmware. External devices that can read a Personal identification number or other information may be connected to a keyboard; this model works by supplying the integrated circuit on the smart card with electricity and communicating via protocols, thereby enabling the user to read and write to a fixed address on the card. If the card does not use any standard transmission protocol, but uses a custom/proprietary protocol, it has the communication protocol designation T=14; the latest PC/SC CCID specifications define a new smart card framework. This framework works with USB devices with the specific device class 0x0B. Readers with this class do not need device drivers when used with PC/SC-compliant operating systems, because the operating system supplies the driver by default. PKCS#11 is an API designed to be platform-independent, defining a generic interface to cryptographic tokens such as smart cards; this allows applications to work without knowledge of the reader details.
A memory card reader is a device having a USB interface, for accessing the data on a memory card such as a CompactFlash, Secure Digital or MultiMediaCard. Most card readers offer write capability, together with the card, this can function as a pen drive. Access control card readers are used in physical security systems to read a credential that allows access through access control points a locked door. An access control reader can be a magnetic stripe reader, a bar code reader, a proximity reader, a smart card reader, or a biometric reader. Access control readers are classified by functions they are able to perform and by identification technology: A barcode is a series of alternating dark and light stripes that are read by an optical scanner; the organization and width of the lines is determined by the bar code protocol selected. There are many different protocols, such as the prevalent Code 39. Sometimes the digits represented by the dark and light bars are printed to allow people to read the number without an optical reader.
The advantage of using barcode technology is that it is cheap and easy to generate the credential and it can be applied to cards or other items. However the same affordability and simplicity makes the technology susceptible to fraud, because fake barcodes can be created cheaply and for example by photocopying real ones. One attempt to reduce fraud is to print the barcode using carbon-based ink, cover the bar code with a dark red overlay; the barcode can be read with an optical reader tuned to the infrared spectrum, but can not be copied by a copy machine. This does not address the ease with which barcode numbers can be generated from a computer using any printer. There are several forms of biometric identification employed in access control: fingerprint, hand geometry, Voice Recognition, facial recognition. Biometric technology has been promoted for its ability to increase the security level of systems. Proponents claim that the technology eliminates such problems as lost, stolen or loaned ID cards and forgotten PINs.
All biometric readers work by comparing the template stored in memory to the scan obtained during the process of identification. If there is a high enough degree of probability that the template in the memory is compatible with the live scan, the ID number of that person is sent to a control panel; the control panel checks the permission level of the user and determines whether access should be allowed. The communication between the reader and the control panel is transmitted using the industry standard Wiegand interface; the only exception is the intelligent biometric reader, which does not require any panels and directly controls all door hardware. Biometric templates may be stored in the memory of readers, limiting the number of users by the reader memory size. User templates may be stored in the memory of the smart card, thereby removing all limits to the number of system users, or a central server PC can act as the template host. For systems where a central server is employed, known as "server-based verification", readers first read the biometric data of the user and forward it to the main computer for processing.
Server-based systems support a large number of users but are dependent on the reliability of the central server, as well as communication lines. 1-to-1 and 1-to-many are the two possible modes of operation of a biometric reader: In th
AsusTek Computer Inc. is a Taiwan-based multinational computer and phone hardware and electronics company headquartered in Beitou District, Taiwan. Its products include desktops, netbooks, mobile phones, networking equipment, monitors, WIFI routers, motherboards, graphics cards, optical storage, multimedia products, wearables, servers and tablet PCs; the company is an original equipment manufacturer. Asus is the world's 5th-largest PC vendor by 2017 unit sales. Asus appears in BusinessWeek's "InfoTech 100" and "Asia's Top 10 IT Companies" rankings, it ranked first in the IT Hardware category of the 2008 Taiwan Top 10 Global Brands survey with a total brand value of $1.3 billion. Asus has a primary listing on the Taiwan Stock Exchange under the ticker code 2357 and a secondary listing on the London Stock Exchange under a ticker code ASKD; the company is referred to as "Asus" or Huáshuò in Chinese According to the company website, the name Asus originates from Pegasus, the winged horse of Greek mythology.
Only the last four letters of the word were used in order to give the name a high position in alphabetical listings. The company's slogan/tagline was "Rock Solid. Heart Touching" "Inspiring Innovation. Persistent Perfection." It is "In Search of Incredible." Rock Solid. Heart Touching Inspiring Innovation. Persistent Perfection In Search of Incredible Asus was founded in Taipei in 1989 by T. H. Tung, Ted Hsu, Wayne Hsieh and M. T. Liao, all four having worked at Acer as hardware engineers. At this time, Taiwan had yet to establish a leading position in the computer-hardware business. Intel Corporation would supply any new processors to more established companies like IBM first, Taiwanese companies would have to wait for six months after IBM received their engineering prototypes. According to the legend, the company created a prototype for a motherboard using an Intel 486, but it had to do so without access to the actual processor; when Asus approached Intel to request a processor to test it, Intel itself had a problem with its own 486 motherboard.
Asus solved Intel's problem and it turned out that Asus' own motherboard worked without the need for further modification. Since Asus was receiving Intel engineering samples ahead of its competitors. In September 2005, Asus released the first PhysX accelerator card. In December 2005, Asus entered the LCD TV market with the TLW32001 model. In January 2006, Asus announced that it would cooperate with Lamborghini to develop the VX laptop series. On 9 March 2006, Asus was confirmed as one of the manufacturers of the first Microsoft Origami models, together with Samsung and Founder Technology. On 8 August 2006, Asus announced a joint venture with Gigabyte Technology. On 5 June 2007, Asus announced the launch of the Eee PC at COMPUTEX Taipei. On 9 September 2007, Asus indicated support for Blu-ray, announcing the release of a BD-ROM/DVD writer PC drive, BC-1205PT. ASUS subsequently released several Blu-ray based notebooks. In January 2008, Asus began a major restructuring of its operations, splitting into three independent companies: Asus.
In the process of the restructuring, a criticized pension-plan restructuring zeroed out the existing pension balances. The company paid out all contributions made by employees. On 9 December 2008, the Open Handset Alliance announced that Asus had become one of 14 new members of the organization; these "new members will either deploy compatible Android devices, contribute significant code to the Android Open Source Project, or support the ecosystem through products and services that will accelerate the availability of Android-based devices."On 1 June 2010, Asus spun off Pegatron Corp. In October 2010, Asus and Garmin announced that they would be ending their smartphone partnership as a result of Garmin deciding to exit the product category; the two companies had produced six Garmin-ASUS branded smartphones over the prior two years. In December 2010, Asus launched the world's thinnest notebook, the Asus U36, with Intel processor voltage standard Intel core i3 or i5 with a thickness of only 19 mm.
In January 2013, Asus ended production of its Eee PC series due to declining sales caused by consumers switching to tablets and Ultrabooks. Asus has its headquarters in Beitou District, Taiwan; as of 2009 Asus had manufacturing facilities in Taiwan, mainland China and the Czech Republic. The Asus Hi-Tech Park, located in Suzhou, covers 540,000 m2. Asus operates around 50 service sites across 32 countries and has over 400 service partners worldwide. Asus' products include 2-in-1s, tablet computers, desktop computers, personal digital assistants, computer monitors, graphics cards, sound cards, DVD disc drives, computer networking devices, computer cases, computer components and computer cooling systems. One of Asus main lineup is the Vivo lineup consisting of laptops, All-in-Ones, Stick PCs, Mini PCs, computer mouse and tablets. Asus launched many Android-based smartphones, p
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves, it conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, the roots. Wood may refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel, as a construction material, for making tools and weapons and paper. More it emerged as a feedstock for the production of purified cellulose and its derivatives, such as cellophane and cellulose acetate.
As of 2005, the growing stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters, 47% of, commercial. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy. In 1991 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for building construction. A 2011 discovery in the Canadian province of New Brunswick yielded the earliest known plants to have grown wood 395 to 400 million years ago. Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to determine when a wooden object was created. People have used wood for thousands of years for many purposes, including as a fuel or as a construction material for making houses, weapons, packaging and paper. Known constructions using wood date back ten thousand years. Buildings like the European Neolithic long house were made of wood. Recent use of wood has been enhanced by the addition of bronze into construction; the year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the prevailing climate at the time a tree was cut.
Wood, in the strict sense, is yielded by trees, which increase in diameter by the formation, between the existing wood and the inner bark, of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem, living branches, roots. This process is known as secondary growth; these cells go on to form thickened secondary cell walls, composed of cellulose and lignin. Where the differences between the four seasons are distinct, e.g. New Zealand, growth can occur in a discrete annual or seasonal pattern, leading to growth rings. If the distinctiveness between seasons is annual, these growth rings are referred to as annual rings. Where there is little seasonal difference growth rings are to be indistinct or absent. If the bark of the tree has been removed in a particular area, the rings will be deformed as the plant overgrows the scar. If there are differences within a growth ring the part of a growth ring nearest the center of the tree, formed early in the growing season when growth is rapid, is composed of wider elements.
It is lighter in color than that near the outer portion of the ring, is known as earlywood or springwood. The outer portion formed in the season is known as the latewood or summerwood. However, there are major differences, depending on the kind of wood; as a tree grows, lower branches die, their bases may become overgrown and enclosed by subsequent layers of trunk wood, forming a type of imperfection known as a knot. The dead branch may not be attached to the trunk wood except at its base, can drop out after the tree has been sawn into boards. Knots affect the technical properties of the wood reducing the local strength and increasing the tendency for splitting along the wood grain, but may be exploited for visual effect. In a longitudinally sawn plank, a knot will appear as a circular "solid" piece of wood around which the grain of the rest of the wood "flows". Within a knot, the direction of the wood is up to 90 degrees different from the grain direction of the regular wood. In the tree a knot is either the base of a dormant bud.
A knot is conical in shape with the inner tip at the point in stem diameter at which the plant's vascular cambium was located when the branch formed as a bud. In grading lumber and structural timber, knots are classified according to their form, size and the firmness with which they are held in place; this firmness is affected by, among other factors, the length of time for which the branch was dead while the attaching stem continued to grow. Knots materially affect cracking and warping, ease in working, cleavability of timber, they are defects which weaken timber and lower its value for structural purposes where strength is an important consideration. The weakening effect is much more serious when timber is subjected to forces perpendicular to the grain and/or tension than when under load along the grain and/or compression; the extent to which knots affect the strength of a beam depends upon their position, size and condition. A knot on the upper side is compressed. If there is a season check
USB is an industry standard that establishes specifications for cables and protocols for connection and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices. Released in 1996, the USB standard is maintained by the USB Implementers Forum. There have been three generations of USB specifications: USB 2.0 and USB 3.x. USB was designed to standardize the connection of peripherals like keyboards, pointing devices, digital still and video cameras, portable media players, disk drives and network adapters to personal computers, both to communicate and to supply electric power, it has replaced interfaces such as serial ports and parallel ports, has become commonplace on a wide range of devices. USB connectors have been replacing other types for battery chargers of portable devices; this section is intended to allow fast identification of USB receptacles on equipment. Further diagrams and discussion of plugs and receptacles can be found in the main article above; the Universal Serial Bus was developed to simplify and improve the interface between personal computers and peripheral devices, when compared with existing standard or ad-hoc proprietary interfaces.
From the computer user's perspective, the USB interface improved ease of use in several ways. The USB interface is self-configuring, so the user need not adjust settings on the device and interface for speed or data format, or configure interrupts, input/output addresses, or direct memory access channels. USB connectors are standardized at the host, so any peripheral can use any available receptacle. USB takes full advantage of the additional processing power that can be economically put into peripheral devices so that they can manage themselves; the USB interface is "hot pluggable", meaning devices can be exchanged without rebooting the host computer. Small devices can be powered directly from displacing extra power supply cables; because use of the USB logos is only permitted after compliance testing, the user can have confidence that a USB device will work as expected without extensive interaction with settings and configuration. Installation of a device relying on the USB standard requires minimal operator action.
When a device is plugged into a port on a running personal computer system, it is either automatically configured using existing device drivers, or the system prompts the user to locate a driver, installed and configured automatically. For hardware manufacturers and software developers, the USB standard eliminates the requirement to develop proprietary interfaces to new peripherals; the wide range of transfer speeds available from a USB interface suits devices ranging from keyboards and mice up to streaming video interfaces. A USB interface can be designed to provide the best available latency for time-critical functions, or can be set up to do background transfers of bulk data with little impact on system resources; the USB interface is generalized with no signal lines dedicated to only one function of one device. USB cables are limited in length, as the standard was meant to connect to peripherals on the same table-top, not between rooms or between buildings. However, a USB port can be connected to a gateway.
USB has "master-slave" protocol for addressing peripheral devices. Some extension to this limitation is possible through USB On-The-Go. A host cannot "broadcast" signals to all peripherals at once, each must be addressed individually; some high speed peripheral devices require sustained speeds not available in the USB standard. While converters exist between certain "legacy" interfaces and USB, they may not provide full implementation of the legacy hardware. For a product developer, use of USB requires implementation of a complex protocol and implies an "intelligent" controller in the peripheral device. Developers of USB devices intended for public sale must obtain a USB ID which requires a fee paid to the Implementers' Forum. Developers of products that use the USB specification must sign an agreement with Implementer's Forum. Use of the USB logos on the product require annual fees and membership in the organization. A group of seven companies began the development of USB in 1994: Compaq, DEC, IBM, Microsoft, NEC, Nortel.
The goal was to make it fundamentally easier to connect external devices to PCs by replacing the multitude of connectors at the back of PCs, addressing the usability issues of existing interfaces, simplifying software configuration of all devices connected to USB, as well as permitting greater data rates for external devices. Ajay Bhatt and his team worked on the standard at Intel; the original USB 1.0 specification, introduced in January 1996, defined data transfer rates of 1.5 Mbit/s Low Speed and 12 Mbit/s Full Speed. Microsoft Windows 95, OSR 2.1 provided OEM support for the devices. The first used version of USB was 1.1, released in September 1998. The 12 Mbit/s data rate was intended for higher-speed devices such as disk drives, the lower 1.5 Mbit/s rate for low data
Beige is variously described as a pale sandy fawn color, a grayish tan, a light-grayish yellowish brown, or a pale to grayish yellow. It takes its name from French, where the word meant natural wool, neither bleached nor dyed, hence the color of natural wool, it has come to be used to describe a variety of light tints chosen for their neutral or pale warm appearance. Beige was used as a color term in the modern sense in France beginning 1855-60; the first recorded use of beige as a color name in English was in 1887. Beginning in the 1920s, the meaning of beige expanded so that it is now used not only for pale yellowish-brown colors, but for a wide range of pale brown and light brown shades; some of more notable of these tints and shades are shown below. Beige is notoriously difficult to produce in traditional offset CMYK printing due to the low levels of inks used on each plate. Cosmic latte is a name assigned in 2002 to the average color of the universe, given by a team of astronomers from Johns Hopkins University.
Cream is the color of the cream produced by cattle grazing on natural pasture with plants rich in yellow carotenoid pigments, some of which are incorporated into the cream, to give a yellow tone to white. The first recorded use of cream as a color name in English was in 1590. Unbleached silk is one of the Japanese traditional colors in use since beginning in 660 CE in the form of various dyes that are used in designing kimonos; the name of this color in Japanese is shironeri. The first recorded use of Tuscan as a color name in English was in 1887. Buff is a pale yellow-brown color. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, buff as a descriptor of a color was first used in the London Gazette of 1686, describing a uniform to be "A Red Coat with a Buff-colour'd lining"; the color desert sand may be regarded as a deep shade of beige. It is a pale tint of a color called desert; the color name "desert" was first used in 1920. In the 1960s the American Telephone & Telegraph Company marketed desert sand colored telephones for offices and homes.
However, they described the color as "beige". It is therefore common for many people to refer to the color desert sand as "beige". In the 19th century and up to at least 1930, the color ecru meant the same color as beige, the word is used to refer to such fabrics as silk and linen in their unbleached state. Ecru comes from the French word écru, which means literally'raw' or'unbleached'. Since at least the 1950s, the color ecru has been regarded as a different color from beige in order to allow interior designers a wider palette of colors to choose from. Khaki was designated in the 1930 book A Dictionary of Color, the standard for color nomenclature before the introduction of computers; the first recorded use of khaki as a color name in English was in 1848. Light French beige is the color called beige on the pourpre.com website, a color list popular in France. The first recorded use of French beige as a color name in English was in 1927; the source of this color is the following website: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names --Color Sample of French beige Mode beige is a dark shade of beige.
Two other alternative names for this exact color are drab and sand dune, in use since 1686 and 1925. The first recorded use of mode beige as a color name in English was in 1928; the color mode beige is a masterpiece of rebranding—taking the color "drab", a color whose name had become a synonym for dullness, remaking it into the exciting, fun color "mode beige". Fish Beige catshark Beige is sometimes used as a metaphor for something, bland, boring or conventional. In this sense it is used in contradistinction to more exciting colors. List of colors Off-white Drab Beige box
Mini-ITX is a 17 × 17 cm motherboard, developed by VIA Technologies in 2001. They are used in small-configured computer systems, they were a niche product, designed for fan-less cooling with a low power consumption architecture, which made them useful for home theater PC systems, where fan noise can detract from the cinema experience. The four mounting holes in a Mini-ITX board line up with four of the holes in ATX-specification motherboards, the locations of the backplate and expansion slot are the same. Mini-ITX boards can therefore be used in cases designed for ATX, micro-ATX and other ATX variants if desired; the design provides one expansion slot. Earlier motherboards conventionally have a standard 33 MHz 5V 32-bit PCI slot. Many older case designs use riser cards and some have two-slot riser cards, although the two-slot riser cards are not compatible with all boards; some boards based around non-x86 processors have a 3.3V PCI slot, the Mini-ITX 2.0 boards have a PCI-Express ×16 slot. In March 2001, the chipset manufacturer VIA Technologies released a reference design for an ITX motherboard, to promote the low power C3 processor they had bought from Centaur Technology, in combination with their chipsets.
Designed by Robert Kuo, VIA's chief R&D expert, the 215×191 mm VT6009 ITX Reference Board was demonstrated in "Information PC" and set-top box configurations. He designed the Mini-ITX specification. At that point, few manufacturers took up the ITX design, but Shuttle, etc. produced many ITX based cube computers. Other manufactures instead produced smaller boards based on the similar 229×191 mm FlexATX configuration. In October 2001, VIA announced their decision to create a new motherboard division, to provide standardized infrastructure for lower-cost PC iterations, focus on embedded devices; the result was the November 2001 release of the VT6010 Mini-ITX reference design, once again touted as an "Information PC", or low cost entry level x86 computing platform. Manufacturers were still reluctant, but customer response was much more receptive, so VIA decided to manufacture and sell the boards themselves. In April 2002 the first Mini-ITX motherboards—VIA's EPIA 5000 and EPIA 800 —were sold to industrial customers.
Enthusiasts soon noticed the advantages of small size, low noise and power consumption, started to push the boundaries of case modding into something else—building computers into nearly every object imaginable, sometimes creating new cases altogether. Hollowed out vintage computers, toys, musical instruments, a 1960s-era toaster have become homes to quiet, or silent Mini-ITX systems, capable of many of the tasks of a modern desktop PC. Mini-ITX boards appeal to the industrial and embedded PC markets, with the majority sold as bulk components or integrated into a finished system for single-purpose computing applications, they are produced with a much longer sales life-cycle than consumer boards, a quality that industrial users require. Manufacturers can prototype using standard cases and power supplies build their own enclosures if volumes get high enough. Typical applications include playing music in supermarkets, powering self-service kiosks, driving content on digital displays. VIA continues to expand its Mini-ITX motherboard line.
Some earlier generations included the original PL133 chipset boards, CLE266 chipset boards, CN400 boards. Second generation boards featured the EPIA M, MII, CL, PD, TC and MS — all tailored to different markets. Legacy VIA boards use their x86-compatible CPUs — the C3, C7 or low-power Eden variants, with newer boards featuring the VIA Nano CPU, launched in May 2008. Other manufacturers have produced boards designed around the same layout, using VIA, but Intel, AMD, Transmeta and PowerPC technology. Intel introduced a line of Mini-ITX boards for the Atom CPU, which demonstrates a significant increase in processing performance over older VIA C3 and C7 offerings and helps make the design viable for personal computers. Other manufacturers saw the potential of the design, followed suit, some not limiting themselves to the Atom, as evidenced by Zotac GeForce 9300-ITX board that supports Core 2 Duo CPUs with FSB frequencies up to 1333 MHz, two separate-channeled 800 MHz memory slots and functional PCI Express 2.0 x16 slot that could connect through SLI to the onboard video.
This new wave of offerings made Mini-ITX much more popular among home users and overclockers. Intel is one of few Mini-ITX mainboard manufacturers that list mechanical dimensions in their manuals. A number of manufacturers have released Mini-ITX motherboards that feature embedded CPUs mobile or low-TDP versions; these processors are designed to draw minimal power resulting in lower TDP ideal for fanless configurations and embedded applications. Starting from LGA 775, socketed Intel Mini-ITX motherboards have been released by Zotac; this was followed by LGA 1156 motherboards Starting from LGA 1155, Mini-ITX motherboards have started to become mainstream, with many different manufacturers releasing products. This is because all Sandy Bridge and Ivy Bridge Intel Celeron and Core series CPUs have integrated processor graphics, eliminating the need for motherboard graphics or discrete graphics car
ATX is a motherboard and power supply configuration specification developed by Intel in 1995 to improve on previous de facto standards like the AT design. It was the first major change in desktop computer enclosure and power supply design in many years, improving standardization and interchangeability of parts; the specification defines the key mechanical dimensions, mounting point, I/O panel and connector interfaces between a computer case, a motherboard and a power supply. ATX is the most common motherboard design. Other standards for smaller boards keep the basic rear layout but reduce the size of the board and the number of expansion slots. Dimensions of a full-size ATX board are 12 × 9.6 in, which allows many ATX chassis to accept microATX boards. The official ATX specifications were released by Intel in 1995 and have been revised numerous times since; the most recent ATX motherboard specification is version 2.2. The most recent ATX12V power supply unit specification is 2.4, released in April 2013.
EATX is a bigger version of the ATX motherboard with 12 x 13 inch dimensions. Advantages of having an EATX motherboard is dual socket support. In 2004, Intel announced the BTX standard, intended as a replacement for ATX; as of 2018, the ATX design still remains popular, while BTX has been introduced by some manufacturers. On the back of the computer case, some major changes were made to the AT standard. AT style cases had only a keyboard connector and expansion slots for add-on card backplates. Any other onboard interfaces had to be connected via flying leads to connectors which were mounted either on spaces provided by the case or brackets placed in unused expansion slot positions. ATX allowed each motherboard manufacturer to put these ports in a rectangular area on the back of the system with an arrangement they could define themselves, though a number of general patterns depending on what ports the motherboard offers have been followed by most manufacturers. Cases are fitted with a snap-out panel known as an I/O plate or I/O shield, in one of the common arrangements.
If necessary, I/O plates can be replaced to suit a motherboard, being fitted. The computer will operate without a plate fitted, although there will be open gaps in the case which may compromise the EMI/RFI screening and allow ingress of dirt and random foreign bodies. Panels were made; some ATX motherboards come with an integrated I/O plate. ATX made the PS/2-style mini-DIN keyboard and mouse connectors ubiquitous. AT systems used a 5-pin DIN connector for the keyboard and were used with serial port mice. Many modern motherboards are phasing out the PS/2-style keyboard and mouse connectors in favor of the more modern Universal Serial Bus. Other legacy connectors that are being phased out of modern ATX motherboards include 25-pin parallel ports and 9-pin RS-232 serial ports. In their place are onboard peripheral ports such as Ethernet, FireWire, eSATA, audio ports, extra USB ports, Wi-Fi. Several ATX-derived designs have been specified that use the same power supply and basic back panel arrangement, but set different standards for the size of the board and number of expansion slots.
Standard ATX provides seven slots at 0.8 in spacing. Here width refers to the distance along the external connector edge, while depth is from front to rear. Note each larger size inherits all previous colors area. Note: AOpen has conflated the term Mini ATX with a more recent 15 × 15 cm design. Since references to Mini ATX have been removed from ATX specifications since the adoption of microATX, the AOpen definition is the more contemporary term and the one listed above is only of historical significance. A number of manufacturers have added one, two or three additional expansion slots to the standard 12-inch ATX motherboard width. Form factors considered obsolete in 1999 included Baby-AT, full size AT, the semi-proprietary LPX for low-profile cases. Proprietary motherboard designs such as those by Compaq, Packard-Bell, Hewlett Packard and others existed, were not interchangeable with multi-manufacturer boards and cases. Portable and notebook computers had custom motherboards unique to their particular products.
Although true E-ATX is 12 × 13 in most motherboard manufacturers refer to motherboards with measurements 12 × 10.1 in, 12 × 10.4 in, 12 × 10.5 in and 12 × 10.7 in as E-ATX. While E-ATX and SSI EEB share the same dimensions, the screw holes of the two standards do not all align. In 2008, Foxconn unveiled a Foxconn F1 motherboard prototype, which has the same width as a standard ATX motherboard, but an extended 14.4" length to accommodate 10 slots. The firm called the new 14.4 × 9.6 in design of this motherboard "Ultra ATX" in its CES 2008 showing. Unveiled during the January 2008 CES was the Lian Li Armorsuit PC-P80 case with 10 slots designed for the motherboard; the name "XL-ATX" has been used by at least three companies in different ways. In September 2009, EVGA Corporation had released a