Computer chess includes both hardware and software capable of playing chess. Computer chess provides opportunities for players to practice in the absence of human opponents, provides opportunities for analysis and training. Computer chess applications that play at the level of a chess master or higher are available on hardware from super-computers to smart phones. Standalone chess-playing machines are available. Stockfish, GNU Chess and other free open source applications are available for various platforms. Computer chess applications, whether implemented in hardware or software, employ a different paradigm than humans to choose their moves: they use heuristic methods to build and evaluate trees representing sequences of moves from the current position and attempt to execute the best such sequence during play; such trees are quite large, thousands to millions of nodes. The computational speed of modern computers, capable of processing tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of nodes or more per second, in conjunction with extension and reduction heuristics that narrow the tree to relevant nodes, make such an approach effective.
The first chess machines capable of playing chess or reduced chess-like games were software programs running on digital computers early in the vacuum tube computer age. The early programs played so poorly that a beginner could defeat them. Within 50 years, in 1997, chess engines running on super-computers or specialized hardware were capable of defeating the best human players. In 2010, Monroe Newborn, Professor of Computer Science at McGill University, declared: "the science has been done". Solving chess is not possible for modern computers due to the game's large number of possible variations. Chess machines/programs are available in several different forms: as stand-alone chess machines, software programs running on standard PCs, apps for mobile devices. Online and webapps are available. Programs run on everything from super-computers to smartphones. Hardware requirements for programs are minimal: the apps are no larger than a few megabytes on disk, use a few megabytes of memory, any processor 300Mhz or faster is sufficient.
Performance will vary modestly with processor speed, but sufficient memory to hold a large transposition table is more important to playing strength than processor speed. Most available commercial chess programs and machines are super-grandmaster playing strength, take advantage of multi-core and hyperthreaded computer CPU architectures. Top programs such as Stockfish have surpassed world champion caliber players. Most chess engines interface to a GUI like Winboard or Chessbase and playing strength, time controls, other performance-related settings are adjustable from the GUI. Most GUI's allow you to set up and edit positions, take back moves and accept draws, have a "coach" function to recommend a move when you are in doubt, show the engine's analysis as the game progresses. There are a few chess engines such as Sargon, IPPOLIT, Crafty, Fruit and GNU Chess that can be downloaded from the Internet free of charge; the most common type of chess software are programs that play chess. You make a move on the board, the AI calculates and plays a response, back and forth until one player resigns.
Sometimes the chess engine, which calculates the moves, the graphical user interface are separate programs. A variety of engines can be imported into the GUI. Engines have just a simple text command-line interface while GUIs may offer a variety of piece sets, board styles or 3D or animated pieces; because recent engines are so strong, engines or GUIs may offer some way of limiting the engine's strength, so the player has a better chance of winning. Universal Chess Interface engines such Fritz or Rybka may have a built in mechanism for reducing the Elo rating of the engine; some versions of Fritz have a Handicap and Fun mode for limiting the current engine or changing the percentage of mistakes it makes or changing its style. Fritz has a Friend Mode where during the game it tries to match the level of the player. Chess databases allow users to search through a large library of historical games, analyze them, check statistics, draw up an opening repertoire. Chessbase is the most common program for this amongst professional players, but there are alternatives such as Shane's Chess Information Database for Windows, Mac or Linux, Chess Assistant for PC, Gerhard Kalab's Chess PGN Master for Android or Giordano Vicoli's Chess-Studio for iOS.
Programs such as Playchess allow you to play games against other players over the internet. Chess training programs teach chess. Chessmaster had playthrough tutorials by GM Larry Christiansen. Stefan Meyer-Kahlen offers Shredder Chess Tutor based on the Step coursebooks of Rob Brunia and Cor Van Wijgerden. World champions Magnus Carlsen's Play Magnus company released a Magnus Trainer app for Android and iOS. Chessbase has Chesster for children. Convekta has a large number of training apps such as CT-ART and its Chess King line based on tutorials by GM Alexander Kalinin and Maxim Blokh. There is Software for handling chess problems. After discovering refutation screening—the application of alpha-beta pruning to optimizing move evaluation—in 19
El Clon is a Spanish-language telenovela released in 2010, produced by the U. S.-based television network Telemundo, the Colombian network Caracol Television and the Brazilian network Globo. It is a remake of O Clone, a Brazilian telenovela that aired on Globo in 2001 and on Telemundo in 2002; this limited run melodrama, which starred Mauricio Ochmann and Sandra Echeverría, deals with topics such as drug trafficking and Islam. Telemundo executive Mark Santana called El Clon "the most ambitious telenovela in the history of television." This melodrama features a love triangle featuring Lucas, a handsome hero, challenging his clone for the love of an enticing, exotic woman. Lucas is young, she is caught between her Islamic upbringing. They separate and two decades pass. A strange turn of luck brings the pair together. Jade meets the clone, just like Lucas, but twenty years younger, she must choose between the memory she cherishes. The remake debuted on February 15, 2010, it is filmed in Fez, with some scenes shot on location in the Middle East, in Bogotá, where Girardot's city represents Fez and Miami, although the main setting is Miami.
It includes several members of the original production team, including screenwriter Glória Perez and director Jayme Monjardim. As part of the 2010 season, Telemundo aired the serial weeknights at 8pm/7c central, replacing Más Sabe el Diablo; the series ended with a two-hour finale on October 2010 with Aurora replacing it. As with most of its other soap operas, the network broadcasts English subtitles as closed captions on CC3; as part of the production deal, Globo agreed to embargo distribution of the original Portuguese version for five years. The telenovela tells the story of Lucas. Jade is a young woman of Arab descent, supposed to live with her father's family in Morocco after the death of her mother. Lucas is a young romantic, son of a powerful businessman; when Lucas is on vacation in Morocco, he meets Jade, the two of them fall in love. However, cultural differences do not allow them to be together. Part One After the sudden death of her mother, Jade returns to live in Morocco with her family.
She feels forced into Muslim culture. One night while dancing, she falls in love at first sight with a stranger. Lucas is a man who lives among the luxuries from the success of Leonardo Ferrer, his father, owner of an exporting firm. Lucas longs to be a musician, but his family tries to persuade him to become interested in their business. Lucas's twin brother Diego, is the candidate to inherit Leonardo's empire. Diego is a cheerful and enterprising conquistador that ends in a fight without truce with his father, because of his father's girlfriend. Uncle Ali arranges for his two nieces and Latiffa to marry Said and Mohammed. After Latiffa's wedding to Mohammed, her husband, Jade go to Miami. For Leonardo, Diego dies in an accident when he goes to his girlfriend's party. Lucas's family does not accept his relationship with Jade and she is unable to leave her family to be with Lucas, she goes back to Morocco. Lucas follows her in an attempt to get her back to the United States. However, he arrives in time to see her wedding to Said.
Lucas takes the place of his brother in both the company and the hand of his girlfriend Marisa, whom he married shortly after. Meanwhile, in Miami, the scientist Augusto Albieri, upset by the death of Diego, secretly cloned Lucas and implanting the embryo into Dora, resulting in an exact genetic clone of Diego: Daniel. However, the mistakes of the past does not end the love story between Lucas and Jade, end up reliving a love match. Marisa and Lucas separate. Part Two The story has a twist 20 years later: Lucas, replacing his brother, had a daughter with his girlfriend Marisa called Natalia, a proud product of both her parents and her grandfather for her academic excellence, but she feels she lacks enjoy life more because while others take to the streets to have fun, she stays in her room alone and amid all her troubles, was hired by her grandfather's chauffeur, ex-fighter, but Marisa does not allow her daughter to marry someone of lower class. Subsequently, Natalia becomes an alcoholic starts to abuse drugs.
Daniel, the clone has grown, with great resentment to his mother for having Albieri away from that known as "Dad," Dora and her mother wanted a simple life rather than luxuries for him had to move away from child's doctor, so Daniel escapes to find Albieri. Jade has become a mother and had to keep Said to educate her daughter to the customs of their culture provides, but Said has a contract with the Ferrer business. Jade and Lucas again have that thirst to be together, but to achieve the task will be to overcome several difficult tests and all downhill when Daniel appears in the life of Jade, making people swirling around Lucas and Daniel have serious problems in their lives... Finale Escobar cannot regain Clara, after several attempts, gives up Anita's friend Louise, seduces him, plays with him and tells him to get one that's worth. Natalia, after having her baby had trouble breathing and remained healthy. Marisa asks. Natalian enter rehab and as months pass, she succeeds, she continues to struggle daily with the help of Alejandro, his family and his godfather, Enrique.
Now recovered, along with Fernando, opened a clinic for drug addicts and put "Paula", the name of their drug-addicted friend who never saw again. Marisa comprises all agree that Lucas go with Jade leaves the house on the road
Hideki Tsukamoto is a former Japanese football player. Tsukamoto was born in Nagasaki Prefecture on August 9, 1973. After graduating from Meiji University, he joined newly was promoted to J1 League club, Avispa Fukuoka in 1996, he battles with Tomoaki Sano for the position and played many matches until 1998. However Avispa gained Nobuyuki Kojima in 1999 and Tsukamoto could hardly play in the match behind Kojima from 1999. In late 2001, he became a regular goalkeeper instead Kojima; however Avispa was relegated to J2 League from 2002. Although Kojima left Avispa end of 2001 season, Avispa gained Tomoaki Ogami in 2002 and Tsukamoto could not play many matches. In 2003, Yuichi Mizutani returned to Avispa. Although Tsukamoto battles with Mizutani for the position and played many matches in 2003, he could hardly play in the match from 2004, he retired end of 2005 season. In October 2006, he came back as player at Regional Leagues club V-Varen Nagasaki, he retired end of 2006 season again. Hideki Tsukamoto at J.
Sabit Brokaj is an Albanian politician and professor. In 1991 Brokaj served as the Minister of Health of Albania. Brokaj was born 7 January 1942, in Albania during the Italian occupation of Albania. From 1959 to 1964, Brokaj served as a medical assistant on a submarine. After graduating from the University of Tirana's medical faculty in 1969, Brokaj went on to serve as medical chief of a brigade in Shijak from 1969 to 1972. From 1972 to 1984, Brokaj worked as a cardiologist at military hospital in Tirana, he traveled to France to study cardiology in 1979 and echocardiology in 1982. During this period, Brokaj was one of Enver Hoxha's personal physicians. In 1984, Brokaj left the military to become a professor at a medical school in Tirana, he was promoted to Deputy Dean of the school in 1987, Dean in 1989. He held this position until he left the school in 1991. During his medical career, Brokaj was a rival of fellow cardiologist Sali Berisha. Berisha would go on to be President and Prime Minister of Albania as a member of the conservative Democratic Party of Albania.
Their rivalry continued during their political careers, to the point that reports stated they were not on speaking terms. Brokaj entered into Albanian politics following the fall of communism in Albania, was seen as a member of the Socialist Party's "old guard", he first served as Minister of Health from February to December 1991. He was elected Deputy of the People's Assembly in 1991, 1996, 1997. In 1992 he was elected to the presidency of the Socialist Party of Albania. On 25 July 1997, Brokaj was appointed Minister of Defence, his leadership as Defence Minister was seen as lacking because it took place following the 1997 unrest in Albania. The damage to military assets at the time was extensive, many pieces of military equipment were stolen by rioters; these stolen assets included Chinese-made HY-1 surface-to-air missiles. To help rebuild the Albanian military following the unrest, Brokaj turned to Greece. Brokaj is fluent in English, French and Italian, as well as his native Albanian, he is married with two children
YP-26 was a former U. S. Coast Guard wooden patrol boat which saw duty with the U. S. Navy until destroyed in a 1942 accident. To combat the smuggling of alcohol during Prohibition following passage of the Volstead Act, the United States Coast Guard ordered hundreds of small purpose-built 75-foot wooden-hulled patrol boats in the 1920s; these became known as the "Six-Bitters". They were unnamed and numbered CG-100 through CG-302. "Their top speed was about 12 knots. Their 8 man crews consisted of a Chief Boatswain's Mate, or a Warrant Boatswain as OIC, along with two lower rated BM's, two Seaman and an engine room crew of a Chief Motor Machinist's Mate, two lower rated MM's."Originally delivered by the Gibbs Gas Engine Co. Jacksonville, Florida, in 1925, one of 20 of the design produced by the yard, as CG-252, the vessel became excess to Coast Guard needs when ratification of the 21st Amendment repealed Prohibition in December 1933, a number of the class were turned over to the U. S. Navy. CG-252 was transferred in 1934, redesignated a Yard Patrol vessel, becoming YP-26.
On Saturday night, 9 November 1940, while serving as a Naval Reserve training ship, YP-26 was beached inside the breakwater at Port Washington, after striking a submerged rock in a storm, reported Lieut. Edward W. Crandall, of Great Lakes naval training station, on 10 November. "The crew of 14, including Ensign Harl Day, who captained the ship, waded ashore in three feet of water and spent the night in a hotel." Transferred to duty in the Panama Canal Zone by 1941, YP-26 was destroyed by an explosion of an unknown cause, while hauled out on the marine railway at Cristóbal, Colón, on 19 November 1942. List of shipwrecks in November 1942
Middlesex County is a county located on the Middle Peninsula in the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,959, its county seat is Saluda. This area was long settled by indigenous peoples; the Nimcock had a village on the river where Urbanna was developed. English settlement of the area began around 1640, with the county being formed in 1669 from a part of Lancaster County; this settlement pushed the Nimcock upriver. The county's only incorporated town, was established by the colonial Assembly in 1680 as one of 20 50-acre port towns designated for trade, it served as a port on the Rappahannock River for shipping agricultural products the tobacco commodity crop. As the county developed, it became its governmental center; the Rosegill Estate was developed as a plantation by Ralph Wormeley beginning in 1649, with construction of its major buildings through the 17th century. It served as the temporary seat of the colony under two royal Governors of Virginia; this and other plantations in the county were developed for the commodity crop of tobacco through the 18th century, dependent on the skilled labor of enslaved African Americans.
In the 19th century, many planters from the Upper South sold slaves to the Deep South after switching from tobacco to mixed crops, which required less labor. Others migrated to the Deep South to develop new land and plantations, taking slaves with them, as did Thomas Wingfield, who moved to Wilkes County, Georgia in 1783, accompanied by 23 slaves. Following the American Civil War and emancipation, numerous freedmen stayed in the rural area of Middlesex County, working on the land for pay or a share of crops. Others moved to cities as artisans, seeking more opportunities; the Rosegill mansion continues to be used as a private residence to this day. Most of the land of the estate was purchased in the 21st century by a Northern Virginia development firm, which plans to develop it as a 700-home subdivision. An archaeological survey of the property included in the first phase of the planned development has revealed what appear to be parts of the Nimcock village, it has uncovered evidence of the Rosegill slave community of African Americans.
The developer intends to proceed with building houses over a portion of the artifacts, which will render excavation and study of them impossible. During the American Civil War, Urbanna was planned as the point of landing for General George B. McClellan's 1862 Peninsula Campaign of 1862 to take Richmond. McClellan shifted to use Fort Monroe as the starting point doubling the distance by land that troops had to travel to the Confederate citadel. Delays in reaching the gates of Richmond allowed the Confederates ample time to erect substantial defensive batteries, contributing to the Union failure in this campaign; the Historic Middlesex County Courthouse was built in 1850–1874 by architects William R. Jones and John P. Hill, it is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Construction of a new 21st-century county courthouse began in 2003 and was completed in 2004, it was not occupied until September 2007, due to a legal dispute between the county and the architect. The Historic Courthouse has been remodeled and now serves as the Board of Supervisors meeting room and the Registrar's Office.
Urbanna was incorporated on April 1902, comprising an area of 0.49 square miles. The Town of Urbanna remains its only incorporated area; the county seat was moved to the Village of Saluda on U. S. Route 17. To the east to Stingray Point, the Village of Deltaville is situated on State Route 33 between the mouths of the Rappahannock and Piankatank rivers. Once a major center for wooden boat building, the village has become known as a commercial and recreational center, its waterfront and east to Stingray Point how has many marinas, with a concentration on Broad Creek. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 211 square miles, of which 130 square miles is land and 80 square miles is water. Middlesex County is located at the eastern end of Virginia's Middle Peninsula region; the County is bounded by the Rappahannock River to the north, by the Chesapeake Bay to the east, by the Piankatank River and Dragon Run Swamp to the southwest, by Essex County to the northwest. The County has 135 miles of shoreline.
Lancaster County – North Mathews County – South Gloucester County – Southwest King and Queen County – West Essex County – Northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 9,932 people, 4,253 households, 2,913 families residing in the county. The population density was 76 people per square mile. There were 6,362 housing units at an average density of 49 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 78.50% White, 20.13% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.41% from other races, 0.58% from two or more races. 0.55 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 4,253 households out of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.10% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.50% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2