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Computer keyboard

A computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input method for computers. Keyboard keys have characters engraved or printed on them, each press of a key corresponds to a single written symbol. However, producing some symbols may require pressing and holding several keys or in sequence. While most keyboard keys produce letters, numbers or signs, other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce actions or execute computer commands. In normal usage, the keyboard is used as a text entry interface for typing text and numbers into a word processor, text editor or any other program. In a modern computer, the interpretation of key presses is left to the software. A computer keyboard distinguishes each physical key from every other key and reports all key presses to the controlling software.

Keyboards are used for computer gaming — either regular keyboards or keyboards with special gaming features, which can expedite used keystroke combinations. A keyboard is used to give commands to the operating system of a computer, such as Windows' Control-Alt-Delete combination. Although on Pre-Windows 95 Microsoft operating systems this forced a re-boot, now it brings up a system security options screen. A command-line interface is a type of user interface navigated using a keyboard, or some other similar device that does the job of one. While typewriters are the definitive ancestor of all key-based text entry devices, the computer keyboard as a device for electromechanical data entry and communication derives from the utility of two devices: teleprinters and keypunches, it was through such devices. As early as the 1870s, teleprinter-like devices were used to type and transmit stock market text data from the keyboard across telegraph lines to stock ticker machines to be copied and displayed onto ticker tape.

The teleprinter, in its more contemporary form, was developed from 1907 to 1910 by American mechanical engineer Charles Krum and his son Howard, with early contributions by electrical engineer Frank Pearne. Earlier models were developed separately by individuals such as Royal Earl House and Frederick G. Creed. Earlier, Herman Hollerith developed the first keypunch devices, which soon evolved to include keys for text and number entry akin to normal typewriters by the 1930s; the keyboard on the teleprinter played a strong role in point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communication for most of the 20th century, while the keyboard on the keypunch device played a strong role in data entry and storage for just as long. The development of the earliest computers incorporated electric typewriter keyboards: the development of the ENIAC computer incorporated a keypunch device as both the input and paper-based output device, while the BINAC computer made use of an electromechanically controlled typewriter for both data entry onto magnetic tape and data output.

The keyboard remained the primary, most integrated computer peripheral well into the era of personal computing until the introduction of the mouse as a consumer device in 1984. By this time, text-only user interfaces with sparse graphics gave way to comparatively graphics-rich icons on screen. However, keyboards remain central to human-computer interaction to the present as mobile personal computing devices such as smartphones and tablets adapt the keyboard as an optional virtual, touchscreen-based means of data entry. There are different types of keyboards available right now and each of them is designed with a focus on specific features that suit special needs. One factor determining the size of a keyboard is the presence of duplicate keys, such as a separate numeric keyboard or two each of Shift, ALT and CTL for convenience. Further, the keyboard size depends on the extent to which a system is used where a single action is produced by a combination of subsequent or simultaneous keystrokes, or multiple pressing of a single key.

A keyboard with few keys is called a keypad. Another factor determining the size of a keyboard is the spacing of the keys; the reduction is limited by the practical consideration that the keys must be large enough to be pressed by fingers. Alternatively, a tool is used for pressing small keys. Standard alphanumeric keyboards have keys that are on three-quarter inch centers, have a key travel of at least 0.150 inches. Desktop computer keyboards, such as the 101-key US traditional keyboards or the 104-key Windows keyboards, include alphabetic characters, punctuation symbols, numbers and a variety of function keys; the internationally common 102/104 key keyboards have a smaller left shift key and an additional key with some more symbols between that and the letter to its right. The enter key is shaped differently. Computer keyboards are similar to electric-typewriter keyboards but contain additional keys, such as the command or Windows keys. There is no standard computer keyboard. There are three different PC keyboards: the original PC keyboard with 84 keys, the AT keyboard with 84 keys and the enhanced keyboard with 101 keys.

The three differ somewhat in the placement of function keys, the control keys, the return key, the shift key. Keyboards on laptops and notebook computers have a shorter travel distance for the keystroke, shorter over travel distance, a reduced set of keys, they may not have a numeric

California Department of Transportation

The California Department of Transportation is an executive department of the U. S. state of California. The department is part of the cabinet-level California State Transportation Agency. Caltrans is headquartered in Sacramento. Caltrans manages the state's highway system, which includes the California Freeway and Expressway System, is involved with public transportation systems throughout the state, it supports Amtrak's Capitol Corridor. In 2015, Caltrans released a new mission statement: "Provide a safe, sustainable and efficient transportation system to enhance California’s economy and livability." The earliest predecessor of Caltrans was the Bureau of Highways, created by the California Legislature and signed into law by Governor James Budd in 1895. This agency consisted of three commissioners who were charged with analyzing the state road system and making recommendations. At the time, there was no state highway system. California's roads consisted of crude dirt roads maintained by county governments, as well as some paved roads within city boundaries, this ad hoc system was no longer adequate for the needs of the state's growing population.

After the commissioners submitted their report to the governor on November 25, 1896, the legislature replaced the Bureau with the Department of Highways. Due to the state's weak fiscal condition and corrupt politics, little progress was made until 1907, when the legislature replaced the Department of Highways with the Department of Engineering, within which there was a Division of Highways. California voters approved an $18 million bond issue for the construction of a state highway system in 1910, the first California Highway Commission was convened in 1911. On August 7, 1912, the department broke ground on its first construction project, the section of El Camino Real between South San Francisco and Burlingame, which became part of California State Route 82; the year 1912 saw the founding of the Transportation Laboratory and the creation of seven administrative divisions, which are the predecessors of the 12 district offices in use as of 2018. The original seven division headquarters were located in: Willits Mercantile Building for Del Norte, Humboldt and Mendocino counties Redding C.

R. Briggs Building for Lassen, Shasta, Siskiyou and Trinity counties Sacramento Forum Building for Alpine, Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Nevada, Plumas, San Joaquin, Solano, Sutter, Tuolumne and Yuba counties San Francisco Rialto Building for Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, Sonoma counties San Luis Obispo Union National Bank Building for Monterey, San Benito, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo counties Fresno Forsythe Building for Fresno, Kern, Madera, Merced and Tulare counties Los Angeles Union Oil Building for Imperial, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura countiesIn 1913, the California State Legislature began requiring vehicle registration and allocated the resulting funds to support regular highway maintenance. In 1921, the state legislature turned the Department of Engineering into the Department of Public Works; the history of Caltrans and its predecessor agencies during the 20th century was marked by many firsts. It was one of the first agencies in the United States to paint centerlines on highways statewide.

In late 1972, the legislature approved a reorganization, suggested by a study initiated by then-Governor Ronald Reagan, in which the Department of Public Works was merged with the Department of Aeronautics to become the modern California Department of Transportation. For administrative purposes, Caltrans divides the State of California into 12 districts, supervised by district offices. Most districts cover multiple counties; the largest districts by population are District 4 and District 7. Like most state agencies, Caltrans maintains its headquarters in Sacramento, covered by District 3. Transportation in California State highways in California United States Department of Transportation List of roads and highways Official website Named Highways, Freeways and Other Appurtenances in California

Amílcar Cabral Cup

The Amílcar Cabral Cup was an international association football tournament for Western African nations. The competition was played on an annual basis until 1989, since it has been played on a biennial basis; the tournament is named after Amílcar Cabral. There has been no edition since 2007. Mauritania was to host in 2009 rescheduled the tournament to 2010 and cancelled it altogether. In 1970 a predecessor tournament was started; the Tournoi de la zone 2 was held five times until 1977 with Mali winning three and Guinea winning two titles. The following eight teams have participated in the tournament; the teams are all in Confederation of African Football's Zone 2, i.e. Western Africa. In some years, when a team withdrew a guest team was invited, like Benin in 2001. Cape Verde Gambia Guinea Guinea-Bissau Mali Mauritania Senegal Sierra Leone Note: There are contradictory reports of this match. According to the RSSSF page for the 1988 tournament, the match ended in 0–0 and Guinea won 4–2 on penalties.

On a list of international matches of 1988, the match ended in 0–0 and Guinea won 3–2 on penalties. According to a head-to-head search between Guinea and Mali on FIFA website, Guinea won 3–2 in regular time. Details on RSSSF website

Project Polaroid

The Original SoundTrack Album of Project Polaroid is the studio album by American hip hop duo Project Polaroid, composed of New York rapper Kool Keith and Bay Area producer TomC3. It was released worldwide on April 25, 2006 via Threshold Recordings and on June 28, 2006 in Japan via Swamp Records. Audio production of the project was handled by TomC3, featured guest appearances from Organized Konfusion's Prince Po, Masters of Illusion's Motion Man, Third Sight's Roughneck Jihad. All music is composed by TomC3. Keith Matthew Thornton – main artist, vocals Tom Cleary – main artist, recording, mixing Raggedy Andy – recording, layout, photography David Cheppa – mastering Nadjib Boulaone – scratches Lawrence Baskerville – featured artist Paul K. Laster – featured artist Roughneck Jihad – featured artist "The Original Soundtrack Album of Project Polaroid - Project Polaroid | Songs, Credits | AllMusic". AllMusic. "Project Polaroid, by Project Polaroid". Bandcamp. "Project Polaroid - Project Polaroid". Discogs

Cognitive tutor

A cognitive tutor is a particular kind of intelligent tutoring system that utilizes a cognitive model to provide feedback to students as they are working through problems. This feedback will inform students of the correctness, or incorrectness, of their actions in the tutor interface; the name of Cognitive Tutor® now refers to a particular type of intelligent tutoring system produced by Carnegie Learning for high school mathematics based on John Anderson's ACT-R theory of human cognition. However, cognitive tutors were developed to test ACT-R theory for research purposes since the early 1980s and they are developed for other areas and subjects such as computer programming and science. Cognitive Tutors can be implemented into classrooms as a part of blended learning that combines textbook and software activities; the Cognitive Tutor programs utilize cognitive model and are based on model tracing and knowledge tracing. Model tracing means that the cognitive tutor checks every action performed by students such as entering a value or clicking a button, while knowledge tracing is used to calculate the required skills students learned by measuring them on a bar chart called Skillometer.

Model tracing and knowledge tracing are used to monitor students' learning progress, guide students to correct path to problem solving, provide feedback. The Institute of Education Sciences published several reports regarding the effectiveness of Carnegie Cognitive Tutor®. A 2013 report concluded that Carnegie Learning Curricula and Cognitive Tutor® was found to have mixed effects on mathematics achievement for high school students; the report identified 27 studies that investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor ®, the conclusion is based on 6 studies that meet What Works Clearinghouse standards. Among the 6 studies included, 5 of them show intermediate to significant positive effect, while 1 study shows statistically significant negative effect. Another report published by Institute of Education Sciences in 2009 found that Cognitive Tutor® Algebra I to have positive effects on math achievement based on only 1 study out of 14 studies that meets What Works Clearinghouse should be understood that What Works Clearinghouse standards call for large numbers of participants, true random assignments to groups, for a control group receiving either no treatment or a different treatment.

Such experimental conditions are difficult to meet in schools, thus only a small percentage of studies in education meet the standards of this clearinghouse though they may still be of value. Intelligent tutoring systems traditionally had a three-component architecture: domain model, student model, tutoring model. A fourth component was added: the interface component. Now ITS is known to have a four component architecture. Domain model contains the rules and knowledge related to the domain to be learned, it helps to evaluate students' performance and detect students' errors by setting a standard of domain expertise. Student model, the central component of an ITS, is expected to contain as much knowledge as possible about the students: their cognitive and affective states, the progress they gained as they learn; the functions of the student model is three folded: to gather data from and about the learner, to represent the learner's knowledge and learning process, to perform diagnosis of students' knowledge and select optimal pedagogical strategies.

Based on the data gained from domain model and student model, tutoring model makes decisions about tutoring strategies such as whether or not to intervene and how to intervene. Functions of tutoring model include content planning. Interface model reflects the decisions made by tutoring model in different forms such as Socratic dialogs and hints. Students interact with the tutor through the learning interface known as communication. Interface provide domain knowledge elements. A cognitive model tries to model the domain knowledge in the same way knowledge is represented in the human mind. Cognitive model enables intelligent tutoring systems to respond to problem-solving situations as the learner would. A tutoring system adopting a cognitive model is called a cognitive tutor. Cognitive model is an expert system which hosts a multitude of solutions to the problems presented to students; the cognitive model is used to trace each student's solution through complex problems, enabling the tutor to provide step-by-step feedback and advice, to maintain a targeted model of the student's knowledge based on student performance.

Cognitive Tutors provide step-by-step guidance as a learner develops a complex problem-solving skill through practice. Cognitive tutors provide such forms of support as: a problem-solving environment, designed rich and "thinking visible". Cognitive Tutors accomplish two of the principal tasks characteristic of human tutoring: monitors the student's performance and providing context-specific individual instruction, monitors the student's learning and selects appropriate problem-solving activities. Both cognitive model and two underlying algorithms, model tracing and knowledge tracing, are used to monitor the student's learning. In model tracing, the cognitive tutor uses the cognitive model in complex problems to follow the student's individual path and provide prompt accuracy feedback and context-specific advic

FF Lugano 1976

Football Femminile Lugano 1976 known as FF Lugano 1976 or Lugano are a Swiss women's football team from Lugano, Ticino who play domestically in the Frauen Nationalliga A. Since 2015 and through their chairman Emanuele Gaiarin, encourage young American footballers who have played NCAA soccer to play for them by providing free accommodation and classes in Italian. Through this approach, they finished second in the 2018–19 season and made their European debut in the 2019–20 Women's Champions League; the majority of the current squad are American. The club was founded in 1976 by Andrea Incerti as AS Armonia Lugano but in 1983, the club was incorporated into Rapid Lugano and renamed to FCF Rapid Lugano, they won their first league title in the 1988–89 season. From 1978 to 2009, the club organised an internationally renowned Easter tournament containing both domestic and international teams. Lugano won this tournament nine times, including three tournament wins in a row between 2005 and 2007. At the end of the 2006–07 season, FC Rapid Lugano finished in the last place and was relegated to the Nationalliga B.

In the 2015–16 season, after its return to the Nationalliga A, the club changed its name and became Football Femminile Lugano 1976. As of 13 October 2019Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Lugano made their Champions League debut in the 2019–20 season, losing in the round of 32 to Manchester City. Official website Facebook Twitter