Computer music

Computer music is the application of computing technology in music composition, to help human composers create new music or to have computers independently create music, such as with algorithmic composition programs. It includes the theory and application of new and existing computer software technologies and basic aspects of music, such as sound synthesis, digital signal processing, sound design, sonic diffusion and psychoacoustics; the field of computer music can trace its roots back to the origins of electronic music, the first experiments and innovations with electronic instruments at the turn of the 20th century. In the 2000s, with the widespread availability of affordable home computers that have a fast processing speed, the growth of home recording using digital audio recording systems ranging from GarageBand to Pro Tools, the term is sometimes used to describe music, created using digital technology. Much of the work on computer music has drawn on the relationship between music and mathematics, a relationship, noted since the Ancient Greeks described the "harmony of the spheres".

Musical melodies were first generated by the computer named the CSIR Mark 1 in Australia in 1950. There were newspaper reports from America and England that computers may have played music earlier, but thorough research has debunked these stories as there is no evidence to support the newspaper reports. Research has shown that people speculated about computers playing music because computers would make noises, but there is no evidence that they did it; the world's first computer to play music was the CSIR Mark 1, designed and built by Trevor Pearcey and Maston Beard from the late 1940s. Mathematician Geoff Hill programmed the CSIR Mark 1 to play popular musical melodies from the early 1950s. In 1950 the CSIR Mark 1 was used to play music, the first known use of a digital computer for the purpose; the music was never recorded, but it has been reconstructed. In 1951 it publicly played the "Colonel Bogey March". However, the CSIR Mark 1 played standard repertoire and was not used to extend musical thinking or composition practice, as Max Mathews did, current computer-music practice.

The first music to be performed in England was a performance of the British National Anthem, programmed by Christopher Strachey on the Ferranti Mark 1, late in 1951. That year, short extracts of three pieces were recorded there by a BBC outside broadcasting unit: the National Anthem, "Ba, Ba Black Sheep, "In the Mood" and this is recognised as the earliest recording of a computer to play music as the CSIRAC music was never recorded; this recording can be heard at the this Manchester University site. Researchers at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch declicked and restored this recording in 2016 and the results may be heard on SoundCloud. Two further major 1950s developments were the origins of digital sound synthesis by computer, of algorithmic composition programs beyond rote playback. Max Mathews at Bell Laboratories developed the influential MUSIC I program and its descendants, further popularising computer music through a 1963 article in Science. Amongst other pioneers, the musical chemists Lejaren Hiller and Leonard Isaacson worked on a series of algorithmic composition experiments from 1956-9, manifested in the 1957 premiere of the Illiac Suite for string quartet.

In Japan, experiments in computer music date back to 1962, when Keio University professor Sekine and Toshiba engineer Hayashi experimented with the TOSBAC computer. This resulted in a piece entitled TOSBAC Suite, influenced by the Illiac Suite. Japanese computer music compositions include a piece by Kenjiro Ezaki presented during Osaka Expo'70 and "Panoramic Sonore" by music critic Akimichi Takeda. Ezaki published an article called "Contemporary Music and Computers" in 1970. Since Japanese research in computer music has been carried out for commercial purposes in popular music, though some of the more serious Japanese musicians used large computer systems such as the Fairlight in the 1970s. Early computer-music programs did not run in real time, although the first experiments on CSIRAC and the Ferranti Mark 1 did operate in real time. From the late 1950s, with sophisticated programming, programs would run for hours or days, on multimillion-dollar computers, to generate a few minutes of music.

One way around this was to use a'hybrid system' of digital control of an analog synthesiser and early examples of this were Max Mathews' GROOVE system and MUSYS by Peter Zinovieff. In the late 1970s these systems became commercialised, notably by systems like the Roland MC-8 Microcomposer, where a microprocessor-based system controls an analog synthesizer, released in 1978. John Chowning's work on FM synthesis from the 1960s to the 1970s allowed much more efficient digital synthesis leading to the development of the affordable FM synthesis-based Yamaha DX7 digital synthesizer, released in 1983. In addition to the Yamaha DX7, the advent of inexpensive digital chips and microcomputers opened the door to real-time generation of computer music. In the 1980s, Japanese personal computers such as the NEC PC-88 came installed with FM synthesis sound chips and featured audio programming languages such as Music Macro Language and MIDI interfaces, which were most used to produce video game music, or chiptunes.

By the early 1990s, the performance of microprocessor-based computers reached the point that real-time generation of computer music using more general programs and algorithms became p

Christina Jordan

Christina Sheila Jordan is a Malaysian-born British politician. She was served as a Brexit Party Member of the European Parliament for South West England from 2019 to 2020. Christina Sheila Jordan was born in Malaysia, she worked as a secretary in the Turkish Embassy in Kuala Lumpur before moving to the United Kingdom in 1985. She voted for Brexit in the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. Prior to her election as an MEP, Jordan worked as a cabin crew member for British Airways for ten years, trained as a nurse at Royal Hampshire County Hospital, Winchester. For her work with charities in the community, she was awarded the Hampshire High Sheriff Award for Services to the Community, attended the Queen's Garden Party at Buckingham Palace in 2015, she stood as a candidate in the 2019 European parliamentary election for the Brexit Party. Jordan was third on her party's list, was elected as one of its three MEPs in the South West England constituency. In the European Parliament, Jordan was a member of the Committee on the Environment, Public Health, Food Safety, was part of the delegation for relations with India.

Jordan has two daughters. European Parliament Christina Jordan on Twitter

Federal Cases

Federal Cases and district courts, 1789–1880 was a reporter of cases decided by the United States district and circuit courts between 1789 and 1880. It is part of the National Reporter System. In 1880, West Publishing Company began reporting decisions from all federal courts in the Federal Reporter, the Federal Reporter soon became established as the leading unofficial reporter for the federal circuit and district courts, but opinions of those courts issued prior to 1880 had been published in a variety of separate reporters from dozens of private entrepreneurs. Before the start of the Federal Reporter 327 reporter volumes had been published under the supervision of 87 different editors. Federal Cases was West Publishing's attempt to collect and republish all federal opinions from 1789 to 1880 in a single reporter which would be part of its National Reporter System, just like the Federal Reporter; that is, as with other NRS reporters, the cases included were annotated by West attorney-editors with "headnotes" summarizing their holdings, the headnotes were indexed for easy cross-referencing to similar cases through the West American Digest System.

Republishing all those old cases within the NRS framework meant that subsequent generations of lawyers and judges would be able to resort to West reporters to access the entire extant universe of post-1789 federal case law. Federal Cases was published in 30 numbered volumes from 1894 to 1897. Unlike the vast majority of reporters which publish cases in chronological order, the contents of Federal Cases were arranged in alphabetical order based on the first letter of each case title; each of the cases was assigned a sequential number for a total of 18,313 opinions. The advantage of publishing in alphabetical order was that the cases published in Federal Cases would not have cited to each other based on their volume and page in a future reporter that did not yet exist; the disadvantage of alphabetical order is that it makes sense only if all the cases to be included were gathered at the beginning. In an era before modern computerized databases, errors were inevitable, with the result that volume 30 ran through Z started over again at A to include a few more cases omitted the first time around.

Of course, many of the cases published in Federal Cases cited other cases published in Federal Cases, but the original text of each opinion would have cited to the volumes and pages of the various reporters in which those cases had been published. Since the entire point of the project was to supersede those old reporters, all cases published in Federal Cases were edited so that all such citations were replaced with citations to the appropriate Federal Cases case numbers. At the end of the project, a 31st volume was subsequently published which contained only a digest and various tables.