Computing is any activity that uses computers to manage and communicate information. It includes development of both software. Computing is a integral component of modern industrial technology. Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, software engineering, computer science, information systems, information technology; the ACM Computing Curricula 2005 defined "computing" as follows: "In a general way, we can define computing to mean any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Thus, computing includes designing and building hardware and software systems for a wide range of purposes; the list is endless, the possibilities are vast." ACM defines five sub-disciplines of the computing field: Computer engineering. Computer science. Information systems. Information technology. Software engineering. However, Computing Curricula 2005 recognizes that the meaning of "computing" depends on the context: Computing has other meanings that are more specific, based on the context in which the term is used.

For example, an information systems specialist will view computing somewhat differently from a software engineer. Regardless of the context, doing computing well can be complicated and difficult; because society needs people to do computing well, we must think of computing not only as a profession but as a discipline. The term "computing" has sometimes been narrowly defined, as in a 1989 ACM report on Computing as a Discipline: The discipline of computing is the systematic study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform information: their theory, design, efficiency and application; the fundamental question underlying all computing is "What can be automated?" The term "computing" is synonymous with counting and calculating. In earlier times, it was used in reference to the action performed by mechanical computing machines, before that, to human computers; the history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables.

Computing is intimately tied to the representation of numbers. But long before abstractions like the number arose, there were mathematical concepts to serve the purposes of civilization; these concepts include one-to-one correspondence, comparison to a standard, the 3-4-5 right triangle. The earliest known tool for use in computation was the abacus, it was thought to have been invented in Babylon circa 2400 BC, its original style of usage was by lines drawn in sand with pebbles. Abaci, of a more modern design, are still used as calculation tools today; this was the first known calculation aid – preceding Greek methods by 2,000 years. The first recorded idea of using digital electronics for computing was the 1931 paper "The Use of Thyratrons for High Speed Automatic Counting of Physical Phenomena" by C. E. Wynn-Williams. Claude Shannon's 1938 paper "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits" introduced the idea of using electronics for Boolean algebraic operations; the concept of a field-effect transistor was proposed by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925.

John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, while working under William Shockley at Bell Labs, built the first working transistor, the point-contact transistor, in 1947. In 1953, the University of Manchester built the first transistorized computer, called the Transistor Computer. However, early junction transistors were bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited them to a number of specialised applications; the metal–oxide–silicon field-effect transistor was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959. It was the first compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses; the MOSFET made it possible to build high-density integrated circuit chips, leading to what is known as the computer revolution or microcomputer revolution. A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions called a computer program; the program has an executable form. The same program in its human-readable source code form, enables a programmer to study and develop a sequence of steps known as an algorithm.

Because the instructions can be carried out in different types of computers, a single set of source instructions converts to machine instructions according to the CPU type. The execution process carries out the instructions in a computer program. Instructions express, they trigger sequences of simple actions on the executing machine. Those actions produce effects according to the semantics of the instructions. Computer software or just "software", is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the comput

Nabbie's Love

Nabbie's Love is a 1999 film written and directed by Yuji Nakae about Nanako Agarikinjo returning to Aguni Island to visit her grandmother, Nabbie Agarikinjo, played by Tomi Taira. The film score is with two tracks by Michael Nyman, working separately; the film tied with Rituparno Ghosh's Bariwali for the Netpac Award at the Berlin International Film Festival. Director Nakae won Best Director at the Japanese Professional Movie Awards, which presented a Special Award to producer Shirō Sasaki. Naomi Nishida won the Hochi Film Award for Best Supporting Actress for the role of Nanako. Isoda won Best Film Score at Mainichi Film Concours. Nishida won Best Supporting Actress at the Yokohama Film Festival, Jun Murakami tied for Best Supporting actor with Teruyuki Kagawa; the film's music is an eclectic mix of Japanese and Irish influences. Nabbie's Love on IMDb

Richard Haskayne

Richard Francis Haskayne, is a Canadian businessman and philanthropist. Raised in Gleichen, Alberta, he received a Bachelor of Commerce degree from the University of Alberta in 1956 and became a Chartered Accountant in 1959, he spent more than twenty years with Hudson's Bay Oil and Gas becoming president in 1980. He was chairman and chief executive officer of Interhome Energy Inc. From 1996 to 1998, he was chairman of TransAlta Corporation. From 1996 to 1999, he was chairman of the board of MacMillan Bloedel Limited when it was acquired by Weyerhaeuser. From 1992 to 1998, he was chairman of NOVA Corporation when the company merged with TransCanada Pipelines Limited, he retired from TransCanada Pipelines in 2005. From 1990 to 1996, he was the chair of the board of governors of the University of Calgary and is board chair emeritus. In May 2002, after donating C$16 million, the Faculty of Management at the University of Calgary was renamed the Haskayne School of Business. In 1997, he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada for "his high ethical business standards" and for having "helped lead fund-raising campaigns for several organizations such as the University of Calgary and the United Way."

He is a Fellow of the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants. He was inducted into the Canadian Business Hall of Fame, the Calgary Business Hall of Fame, the Canadian Petroleum Hall of Fame, he is a member of the Advisory Council of the Order of Canada. He sits on the board of directors for the Alberta Joint Health Institute, and is a member of the Community and Partners Advisory Committee of the Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta. In 2006, he received the Alberta Order of Excellence. Haskayne's memoir "Northern Tigers: Building Ethical Canadian Corporate Champions" was published on March 28, 2007 by Key Porter Books. Richard Haskayne website Northern Tigers: Building Ethical Canadian Corporate Champions Memoir of a tiger: Community leader Dick Haskayne chronicles his career in new book May 4, 2007, University of Calgary