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Comune

The comune is a basic constituent entity of Italy equivalent to a township or municipality. The comune provides many of the basic civil functions: registry of births and deaths, registry of deeds, contracting for local roads and public works, it is headed by a mayor assisted by a legislative body, the consiglio comunale, an executive body, the giunta comunale. The mayor and members of the consiglio comunale are elected together by resident citizens: the coalition of the elected mayor gains three fifths of the consiglio's seats; the giunta comunale is chaired by the mayor, who appoints others members, called assessori, one of whom serves as deputy mayor. The offices of the comune are housed in a building called the municipio, or palazzo comunale; as of February 2019 there were 7,918 comuni in Italy. For example, the comune of Rome, in Lazio, has an area of 1,307.71 km² and a population of 2,761,477 inhabitants, is both the largest and the most populated. The density of the comuni varies by province and region: the province of Barletta-Andria-Trani, for example, has 391,224 inhabitants in 10 municipalities, or over 39,000 inhabitants per municipality.

There are inefficiencies at both ends of the scale, there is concern about optimizing the size of the comuni so they may best function in the modern world, but planners are hampered by the historical resonances of the comuni, which reach back many hundreds of years, or a full millennium. While provinces and regions are sanctioned by the constitution of the Republic of Italy, subject to frequent border changes, the natural cultural unit is indeed the comune, for many Italians, their hometown. Many comuni have a municipal police, responsible for public order duties. Traffic control is their main function in addition to controlling commercial establishments to ensure they open and close according to their license. Administrative areas inside comuni varies according to their population. Comuni with at least 250,000 residents are divided into circoscrizioni to which the comune delegates administrative functions like schools, social services and waste collection; these bodies are headed by a local council.

Smaller comuni comprise: A main city, town or village, that always gives its name to the comune. Outlying areas called frazioni, each centred on a small town or village; these frazioni have never had any independent historical existence, but are former smaller comuni consolidated into a larger one. They may represent settlements which predated the capoluogo: the ancient town of Pollentia, for instance, is a frazione of Bra. In recent years the frazioni have become more important thanks to the institution of the consiglio di frazione, a local form of government which can interact with the comune to address local needs and claims. Smaller places are called località. Smaller administrative divisions called municipalità, quartieri, sestieri or contrade, which are similar to districts and neighbourhoods. Sometimes a frazione might be more populated than the capoluogo. In some cases, a comune might not have a capoluogo but only some frazioni. In these cases, it is a comune sparso and the frazione which houses the town hall is a sede municipale.

There are not many perfect. There are only six cases in 12 comuni: Calliano: Calliano and Calliano, Trentino Castro: Castro and Castro, Lombardy Livo: Livo and Livo, Trentino Peglio: Peglio and Peglio, Marche Samone: Samone and Samone, Trentino San Teodoro: San Teodoro and San Teodoro, SicilyThis is due to the fact the name of the province or region was appended to the name of the municipality in order to avoid the confusion. Remarkably two provincial capitals share the name Reggio: Reggio nell'Emilia, the capital of the province of Reggio Emilia, in the Emilia-Romagna, Reggio di Calabria, the capital of the homonymous metropolitan city. Many other towns or villages are partial homonyms. International Communes of France Municipio, Spanish & Portuguese Medieval commune Municipalities of Switzerland - those in Italian speaking areas of the country are called comuni Associazione Nazionale Comuni Italiani. Media related to Municipalities in Italy at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary

Cecil Harcourt Smith

Sir Cecil Harcourt Smith was a British archaeologist and museum director. He was Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities at the British Museum from 1904 to 1909, Director of the Victoria and Albert Museum from 1909 to 1924. Born on 11 September 1859 in Staines, Middlesex, he was the second son of William Smith and his wife, daughter of Frederic Harcourt, of Ipswich, he attended Winchester College as a scholar. In 1879 he joined Greek antiquities in the British Museum, he soon became known as a rising archaeologist, in 1887 was a founder editor and contributor to the Classical Review. In 1887 he was attached to the diplomatic mission in Persia. In 1892 he married daughter of H. W. Watson of Burnopfield, Co.. Durham, they had two sons and Gilbert. From 1895 to 1897 he was granted special leave to take up the directorship of the British School in Athens; the school had just received an annual grant from the Treasury and was able to extend its activities. Harcourt-Smith enhanced the prestige of the school and instituted its "Annual".

He began the school's excavations in the island of Melos, which contributed much to the knowledge of Aegean civilisations. While in Athens, Harcourt-Smith was promoted to assistant keeper of his department at the British Museum. From 1904 to 1908, he was Keeper of Rome Antiquities. In 1908 Harcourt-Smith became chairman of a commission of the Victoria and Albert Museum, set up to look into the collections of applied art at South Kensington, purchased by the government after the Great Exhibition of 1851, his report was so approved of that he was offered the post of director and secretary under the new organization, in 1909 he accepted the appointment. The newly completed building gave scope for a more orderly display of the collections; this method of grouping objects lasted until the evacuation of 1939 when they were grouped chronologically by Sir Leigh Ashton. Harcourt-Smith remained at the Victoria and Albert Museum until his retirement in 1924. During this time he introduced many improvements.

He raised the status of the technical staff and negotiated for them the same rank and pay as the officials of the British Museum. He added students' rooms to all departments, a steady stream of catalogues and guides was begun. Official guide lecturers were instituted and sponsored special exhibitions such as the Franco-British Exhibition of 1921 were introduced, it was under his directorship that the museum acquired the Salting collection, the Rodin sculptures, the Talbot Hughes collection of costumes, the Alma Tadema library, the Le Blon Korean pottery and the Pierpont Morgan stained glass. A year after his retirement Harcourt-Smith was appointed advisor for the Royal Art Collections and from 1928 until 1936 he was Surveyor of the Royal Works of Art, he played a leading part in the foundation of the Central Committee for the Care of Churches, he was chairman of the committee of the Incorporated Church Building Society, vice-chairman of the British Institute of Industrial Art and the British Society of Master Glass Painters.

He was vice-president of the Hellenic Society, president of the Society of Civil Servants and British representative on the International Office of Museums. He was an honorary member of the British Drama League and an honorary associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects; as well as contributing to many of the British Museum departmental catalogues, he wrote for the art journals and published a number of monographs: The Collection of J. Pierpont Morgan, The Art Treasures of the Nation, The Society of the Dilettanti: its Regalia and Pictures. Smith was knighted in 1909, appointed CVO in 1917, advanced to KCVO in 1934, he died on 27 March 1944. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Obituary of Sir Cecil Harcourt Smith from The Times, 29 March 1944. V&A Directors

Vic Nees

Victor Nees was a Belgian composer, choral conductor and music educator. Vic Nees's father was Staf Nees, a famous Belgian carillonist and organist, his early musical education was informal. He had piano and organ lessons, after taking a preparatory course of solfège by Paul Gilson he became a member of the cathedral choir of St. Rumbold's conducted by Jules Van Nuffel, who impressed him. Of equal importance in his education were acquaintances, but until 1956 he was self-taught, using his father's library of scores and recordings. His interest in classical and romantic music was short-lived; as a young teenager he substituted for his father, away on concert tours, at the organ of the Basilica of Our Lady of Hanswijk. His father drafted him as an accompanist at rehearsals of a choir he conducted. After one year of study at the Arts Faculty of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, he enrolled at the Antwerp Royal Flemish Conservatoire in 1956, intending to become a qualified music teacher; the degree did not yet exist, but in Antwerp Marcel Andries, whom he had met at home, was offering a pioneering program of music education that interested him.

At the Conservatoire he obtained degrees in solfège, counterpoint and music history. But when the Belgian state refused to recognize Andries' music education program with a formal degree, he quit, he kept in touch with Andries, whose influence on a generation of Flemish choral conductors played a major role in changing the practice of choral music in Flanders broadening its repertoire and turning it away from late romanticism, having his choir members sing in a cleaner, leaner manner. In 1961, while doing his military service—at the time Belgium still had conscription—he passed an exam organized by the Belgische Radio- en Televisieomroep and he was hired as a music producer, responsible for both "light" and "serious" music, but when BRT started its classical channel, Radio 3, on October 1, 1961, Nees was assigned to Radio 3, where he was to concentrate on classical music, choral music. In this position he became acquainted with a great many new compositions, of which composers sent recordings to the radio, hoping they would be broadcast.

Meanwhile, he cut his teeth as a conductor. He founded the Vocal Ensemble Philippus de Monte in 1961—he'd conduct it for nine years—and from 1963 till 1965 he led the Brussels Terkamerenkoor, consisting of professionals, members of the BRT choir, but dissatisfied as he was with his technique, he enrolled in Kurt Thomas's "Meisterkurs für Chorleitung" in Hamburg in 1964, from which he returned a laureate. His reputation as a choral conductor grew fast; as early as the 1960s he was invited to sit on the juries of international choral competitions. His work with choirs was noted by Léonce Gras, the conductor of the BRT Philharmonic Orchestra, who asked him to rehearse the BRT choir when preparing works for choir and orchestra. Upon the sudden death of Jan Van Bouwel, the conductor of the BRT choir, on December 1, 1969, Vic Nees was asked to replace him temporarily. For a while Nees combined the functions of music producer and choral conductor, but on October 19, 1970, his appointment as conductor became permanent and full-time.

The BRT being a national institution, Nees's task included making music by Belgian. This suited Nees, he was interested in discovering little-known repertoire, he could afford to ignore popular works, as he made studio recordings and did not have to worry about filling a concert hall. At first he programmed old music, but with the rise of ensembles specialized in that field, he left it to them. Most of the little known repertoire he mined was 20th century music—Dewilde lists over three dozen living Flemish composers he programmed—and perhaps, 19th and early 20th century romanticism, his instinctive aversion to much romantic music was not, however, to romanticism itself, but to a type of romanticism that lacked artistic quality but was praised to the skies for pandering to nationalist and religious feelings. He unearthed and performed a great many works, shorter pieces as well as major works, of Flemish romantic composers whose scores exhibited real artistic quality, like Joseph Ryelandt's Maria, Arthur Wilford's Liebeslieder im Mai and Herbstwinde, Franz Uyttenhove's Stabat Mater, Karel Candael's Het Marialeven and Oscar Roels's Prometheus.

He was offered teaching positions at the conservatories of Antwerp and Brussels, but he refused them. As he preferred to maintain only his position as conductor of the radio choir, which gave him time to discover unknown works and above all to compose; this position, had its disadvantages because the radio choir was, is, a chamber choir of professionals who are employees of the radio. Motivating such a group, week after week, to sing little known works or premieres is hard work when the choir was able to sing for a public audience —it was only in the late 1980s that the choir started to sing in concerts or went on tours. In 1991 the existence of the choir was threatened.