The Chevrolet Volt is a plug-in hybrid car manufactured by General Motors marketed in rebadged variants as the Holden Volt in Australia and New Zealand, Buick Velite 5 in China, with a different fascia as the Vauxhall Ampera in the United Kingdom and as the Opel Ampera in the remainder of Europe. Volt production ended in February 2019. Sales of the 2011 Volt began in the United States in mid-December 2010, followed by various European countries and other international markets in 2011. Global combined Volt/Ampera-family sales totaled about 177,000 units by the end of October 2018; the U. S. is the leading market, with 152,144 Volts delivered through the end of 2018, followed by Canada with 16,653 Volts sold through September 2018. Just over 10,000 Opel/Vauxhall Ampera cars had been sold in Europe as of June 2016, with the Netherlands leading the European region; as of September 2018, the Volt/Ampera family of vehicles is the world's all-time best-selling plug-in hybrid vehicle, the Volt is the U.
S. all-time top-selling plug-in electric car. The Volt operates as a pure battery electric vehicle until its battery capacity drops to a predetermined threshold from full charge. From there, its internal combustion engine powers an electric generator to extend the vehicle's range as needed; when the engine is running it may be periodically mechanically linked to a planetary gear set, hence the output drive axle, to improve energy efficiency. The Volt's regenerative braking contributes to the on-board electricity generation. Under the United States Environmental Protection Agency cycle, the 2013/15 model year Volt all-electric range is 38 mi, with a combined electric mode/gasoline-only rating of 62 mpg‑US equivalent; the second-generation Volt's improved battery system and drivetrain increased the all-electric range to 53 miles, its EPA-rated fuel economy in charge-sustaining mode to 42 mpg‑US, the combined city/highway fuel economy in all-electric mode to 106 MPG-e, up from 98 MPG-e. Deliveries to retail customers in the U.
S. and Canada began in October 2015 as a 2016 model year. The Volt has won several awards, including the 2009 Green Car Vision Award, 2011 Green Car of the Year, 2011 North American Car of the Year, 2011 World Green Car, 2012 European Car of the Year, 2016 Green Car of the Year. Controversies regarding the Volt include the extent to which the U. S. federal government may have participated in the Volt’s development, which continued through General Motors' 2009 government-led bankruptcy, concerns about the battery-pack fire risk following a crash test that the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration performed on a Volt in 2011. At the completion of its investigation, NHTSA concluded; the Society of Automotive Engineers' definition of a hybrid vehicle states that the vehicle shall have "two or more energy storage systems both of which must provide propulsion power, either together or independently." General Motors has avoided the use of the term "hybrid" when describing its Voltec designs after the carmaker revealed that in some cases the combustion engine provided some assist at high speeds or to improve performance.
Instead General Motors describes the Volt as an electric vehicle equipped with a "range extending" gasoline-powered internal combustion engine as a genset and therefore dubbed the Volt an "Extended Range Electric Vehicle" or E-REV. In a January 2011 interview, the Chevy Volt's Global Chief Engineer, Pamela Fletcher, referred to the Volt as "an electric car with extended range."According to the Society of Automotive Engineers definitions, the Volt is a plug-in hybrid vehicle, due to the combination of an internal combustion engine and two electric motors, along with a battery that can accept off-board energy. The Volt operates as a purely electric vehicle for the first 25 to 50 miles in charge-depleting mode; when the battery capacity drops below a pre-established threshold from full charge, the vehicle enters charge-sustaining mode, the Volt's control system selects the most optimally efficient drive mode to improve performance and boost high-speed efficiency. The Chevrolet Volt concept car debuted at the January 2007 North American International Auto Show, becoming the first-ever series plug-in hybrid concept car shown by a major car manufacturer.
The Volt concept vehicle had four doors with a rear seating for four passengers. This was a significant change in design when compared to the General Motors EV1 of the 1990s, which only seated two to reduce weight and to make the necessary room for the lead-acid battery pack; the top speed was increased on the Volt, from the electronically limited 80 miles per hour to 100 miles per hour. The battery pack size was reduced, from about 10.6 cu ft in volume in the EV1, to 3.5 cu ft in the Volt. General Motors' then-Vice-Chairman Robert Lutz said the two-seater sports car being developed by Tesla, the Tesla Roadster, the rapid advancement of lithium-ion battery technology inspired him to push the carmaker to develop the Volt after the 2006 Detroit Auto Show, overcoming internal opposition. Lutz's initial idea was to develop an all-electric car, but Jon Lauckner, General Motors Vice President for Global Vehicle Development, convinced him that to avoid an expensive battery, range anxiety concerns, lack of public charging infrastructure, they could use a smaller battery pack with a small gasoline engine driving a generator acting as a backup to extend the range, but without a mechanical connection between the gasoline engine and the drive wheels, so it would be a pure electrically driven vehicle without many of the limitations
In manufacturing and design, a mockup, or mock-up, is a scale or full-size model of a design or device, used for teaching, design evaluation and other purposes. A mockup is a prototype if it provides at least part of the functionality of a system and enables testing of a design. Mock-ups are used by designers to acquire feedback from users. Mock-ups address the idea captured in a popular engineering one-liner: You can fix it now on the drafting board with an eraser or you can fix it on the construction site with a sledge hammer. Mockups are used as design tools everywhere a new product is designed. Mockups are used in the automotive device industry as part of the product development process, where dimensions, overall impression, shapes are tested in a wind tunnel experiment, they can be used to test consumer reaction. Mockups and prototypes are not so cleanly distinguished in software and systems engineering, where mockups are a way of designing user interfaces on paper or in computer images.
A software mockup will thus look like the real thing, but will not do useful work beyond what the user sees. A software prototype, on the other hand, will work just like the real thing. In many cases it is best to design or prototype the user interface before source code is written or hardware is built, to avoid having to go back and make expensive changes. Early layouts of a World Wide Web site or pages are called mockups. A large selection of proprietary or open-source software tools are available for this purpose. Mockups are part of the military acquisition process. Mockups are used to test human factors and aerodynamics, for example. In this context, mockups include wire-frame models, they can be used for public display and demonstration purposes prior to the development of a prototype, as with the case of the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II mock-up aircraft. Mockups are used in the consumer goods industry as part of the product development process, where dimensions, human factors, overall impression, commercial art are tested in marketing research.
Mockups are required by designers and end users for custom furniture and cabinetry. The intention is to produce a full-sized replica, using inexpensive materials in order to verify a design. Mockups are used to determine the proportions of the piece, relating to various dimensions of the piece itself, or to fit the piece into a specific space or room; the ability to see how the design of the piece relates to the rest of the space is an important factor in determining size and design. When designing a functional piece of furniture, such as a desk or table, mockups can be used to test whether they suit typical human shapes and sizes. Designs that fail to consider these issues may not be practical to use. Mockups can be used to test color and design details which cannot be visualized from the initial drawings and sketches. Mockups used for this purpose can be on a reduced scale; the cost of making mockups is more than repaid by the savings made by avoiding going into production with a design which needs improvement.
The most common use of mockups in software development is to create user interfaces that show the end user what the software will look like without having to build the software or the underlying functionality. Software UI mockups can range from simple hand drawn screen layouts, through realistic bitmaps, to semi functional user interfaces developed in a software development tool. Mockups are used to create unit tests - there they are called mock objects; the main reasons to create such mockups is to be able to test one part of a software system without having to use dependent modules. The function of these dependencies is "faked" using mock objects; this is important if the functions that are simulated like this are difficult to obtain or if the result is non-deterministic, such as the readout of a sensor. A common style of software design is Service-oriented architecture, where many components communicate via protocols such as HTTP. Service virtualization and API mocks and simulators are examples of implementations of mockups or so called over-the-wire test doubles in software systems that are modelling dependent components or microservices in SOA environments.
Mockup software can be used for micro level evaluation, for example to check a single function, derive results from the tests to enhance the products power and usability on the whole. At the beginning of a project's construction, architects will direct contractors to provide material mockups for review; these allow the design team to review material and color selections, make modifications before product orders are placed. Architectural mockups can be used for performance testing and help inform the subcontractors how details are to be installed. Digital mockup Human-in-the-Loop Military dummy Operations research Pilot experiment
Automotive safety is the study and practice of design, construction and regulation to minimize the occurrence and consequences of traffic collisions involving motor vehicles. Road traffic safety more broadly includes roadway design. One of the first formal academic studies into improving motor vehicle safety was by Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory of Buffalo, New York; the main conclusion of their extensive report is the crucial importance of seat belts and padded dashboards. However, the primary vector of traffic-related deaths and injuries is the disproportionate mass and velocity of an automobile compared to that of the predominant victim, the pedestrian. According to the World Health Organization, 80% of cars sold in the world are not compliant with main safety standards. Only 40 countries have adopted the full set of the seven most important regulations for car safety. In the United States, a pedestrian is injured by a motor vehicle every 8 minutes, are 1.5 times more than a vehicle's occupants to be killed in a motor vehicle crash per outing.
Improvements in roadway and motor vehicle designs have reduced injury and death rates in all first world countries. Auto collisions are the leading cause of injury-related deaths, an estimated total of 1.2 million in 2004, or 25% of the total from all causes. Of those killed by autos, nearly two-thirds are pedestrians. Risk compensation theory has been used in arguments against safety devices and modifications of vehicles despite the efficacy of saving lives. Coalitions to promote road and automotive safety, such as Together for Safer Roads, brings together global private sector companies, across industries, to collaborate on improving road safety. TSR brings together members’ knowledge, data and global networks to focus on five road safety areas that will make impact globally and within local communities; the rising trend of Autonomous Things is driven by the move towards the Autonomous car, that both addresses the main existing safety issues and creates new issues. The autonomous car is expected to be safer than existing vehicles, by eliminating the single most dangerous element - the driver.
The Center for Internet and Society at Stanford Law School claims that "Some ninety percent of motor vehicle crashes are caused at least in part by human error". But while safety standards like the ISO 26262 specify the required safety, it is still a burden on the industry to demonstrate acceptable safety. Work-related roadway crashes are the leading cause of death from traumatic injuries in the U. S. workplace. They accounted for nearly 12,000 deaths between 1992 and 2000. Deaths and injuries from these roadway crashes result in increased costs to employers and lost productivity in addition to their toll in human suffering. Truck drivers tend to endure higher fatality rates than workers in other occupations, but concerns about motor vehicle safety in the workplace are not limited to those surrounding the operation of large trucks. Workers outside the motor carrier industry operate company-owned vehicles for deliveries and repair calls, client visits, etc. In these instances, the employer providing the vehicle plays a major role in setting safety and training policy.
As in non-occupational driving, young drivers are at risk. In the workplace, 45% of all fatal injuries to workers under age 18 between 1992 and 2000 in the United States resulted from transportation incidents; the terms "active" and "passive" are important terms in the world of automotive safety. "Active safety" is used to refer to technology assisting in the prevention of a crash and "passive safety" to components of the vehicle that help to protect occupants during a crash. Crash avoidance systems and devices help the driver — and help the vehicle itself — to avoid a collision; this category includes: The vehicle's headlamps and other lights and signals The vehicle's mirrors The vehicle's brakes and suspension systems A subset of crash avoidance is driver assistance systems, which help the driver to detect obstacles and to control the vehicle. Driver assistance systems include: DADS:' DADS: Driver Alertness Detection System System to prevent crashes caused by fatigue Automatic Braking systems to prevent or reduce the severity of collision.
Infrared night vision systems to increase seeing distance beyond headlamp range Adaptive headlamps control the direction and range of the headlight beams to light the driver's way through curves and maximize seeing distance without blinding other drivers Reverse backup sensors, which alert drivers to difficult-to-see objects in their path when reversing Backup camera Adaptive cruise control which maintains a safe distance from the vehicle in front Lane departure warning systems to alert the driver of an unintended departure from the intended lane of travel Tire pressure monitoring systems or Deflation Detection Systems Traction control systems which restore traction if driven wheels begin to spin Electronic Stability Control, which intervenes to avert an impending loss of control Anti-lock braking systems Electronic brakeforce distribution systems Emergency brake assist systems Cornering Brake Control systems Assured Clear Distance Ahead measurement and speed governance systems Precrash system Automated parking system Obstacle detection sensor systems notify a driver how close their vehicle is to an object - providing a distance measurement, to the inch, as to how close they are.
Crashworthy systems and devices prevent or reduce the severity of injuries when a crash is imminent or happening. Much research is carried out using anthropomorphic crash test dummies. Seatbelt
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f
A nameplate identifies and displays a person or product's name. Nameplates are shaped as rectangles but are seen in other shapes, sometimes taking on the shape of someone's written name. Nameplates serve an informative function or a commercial role. Whereas name tags tend to be worn on uniforms or clothing, nameplates tend to be mounted onto an object or physical space. Nameplates are distinct from name plaques. Plaques aim to communicate more information than a name and title. Office nameplates are made out of plastic, wood and contain one or two lines of text; the standard format for an office nameplate is to display a person’s name on the first line and a person’s job title on the second line. It is common for organizations to request nameplates; the primary reasons for excluding job titles are to extend the longevity of a nameplate and to promote a culture of meritocracy, where the strength of one’s thoughts are not connected to one’s job title. Nameplates without job titles have longer lives because someone can reuse the same nameplate after changing job titles.
It is rare for an office nameplate to contain three or more lines of text. Although office nameplates range in size, the most popular nameplate size is 2 by 8 inches. Office nameplates are made out of plastic; this is because plastic is an inexpensive material relative to metal. More expensive nameplates can be manufactured out of bronze. To promote consistency, organizations tend to use the same style nameplate for all employees; this helps to achieve a standard look. Office nameplates are not restricted to for-profit enterprises. Many non-profit and governmental agencies have a need for nameplates. For plastic and wooden nameplates, the names are etched into the material through a number of processes, including mechanical engraving, laser engraving, or whittling. Nameplates are popular for personal reasons. Parents like to adorn the doors of their children’s rooms with nameplates; these nameplates are conventionally crafted out of not plastic or metal. Because the nameplates are meant for children, these personal nameplates tend to come in fun shapes.
Examples of fun shapes include teddy bears, bluebirds and the child’s name. These nameplates tend to be more colorful than office nameplates. Mounting options are either by adhesive. Wooden nameplates are not glued onto doors, as the glue may leave a messy residue and make it harder to remove the nameplate. Larger personal nameplates include graphics or artwork, such as a horse or a baseball bat, that match the interests of the identified person; the graphics or artwork reinforce the individuality and personalization established by the nameplate. There is a growing trend to use nameplates for vanity purposes. In these cases, the nameplates are fashioned out of gold, silver, or other metals and worn as a form of jewellery; these nameplates are similar to vanity plates found on automobiles. They are available in a multitude of colors, ranging from bronze to pink. Most these vanity nameplates are worn as necklaces or bracelets. Nameplates are sold as two separate components: the manufactured nameplate insert and the nameplate holder.
This setup allows the nameplate insert to be used in a variety of settings depending on the specific holder—the same plastic, wood, or metal nameplate insert can be removed and reinserted into another holder style with minimal effort. Various nameplate holders range from desk holders, to cubicle hangers. Nameplates are used on many products to designate the producer, the brand, and/or the product name, as well as properties of the product such as power and mass. Additionally, they may be placed on a product for decorative value, for placement of product information, or for approval/recognition; when strategically placed on a product, nameplates extend the impact of a logo or brand and heighten the connection to the value of the product. Many nameplates must meet certain requirements for print life, environmental tolerances base on location or environment the product might be used in. Nameplates differ from labels in that they are designed for long term product marking, they are under printed on some sort of transparent material with an industrial grade adhesive or mechanical attachment.
Modern manufacturing processes allow for diverse styles of nameplate design. Nameplates can be two- or three-dimensional. Additional design features and production techniques common to nameplate manufacturing include etching and engraving. Nameplates can be mounted or bound to the object that they are labeling by rivets, screws, or adhesive. Graphic overlay nameplates are constructed from hard-coated polycarbonate, hard-coated polyester or UV resistant polyester. Graphic overlay nameplates differ from generic nameplates in that they feature transparent windows, selective texturing, abrasion protection and chemical resistance. A graphic overlay is over some sort of LEDs, switch, or control panel. A graphic overlay is a scree
Auburn was a brand name of American automobiles produced from 1900 through 1937. The Auburn Automobile Company grew out of the Eckhart Carriage Company, founded in Auburn, Indiana, in 1874 by Charles Eckhart. Eckhart's sons and Morris, experimented making automobiles before entering the business in earnest, absorbing two other local carmakers and moving into a larger plant in 1909; the enterprise was modestly successful until materials shortages during World War I forced the plant to close. In 1919, the Eckhart brothers sold the company to a group of Chicago investors headed by Ralph Austin Bard, who served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy for President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and as Undersecretary of the Navy for President Roosevelt and President Harry S. Truman; the new owners revived the business but failed to realize their anticipated profits and in 1924, approached Errett Lobban Cord, a successful automobile salesman, with an offer to run the company. Cord countered with an offer to take over in what amounted to a leveraged buyout and the Chicago group accepted.
Cord aggressively marketed the company's unsold inventory and completed his buyout before the end of 1925. But styling and engineering failed to overcome the fact that Cord's vehicles were too expensive for the Depression-era market and Cord's stock manipulations would force him to give up control of his car companies. Under injunction from the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission to refrain from further violations, Cord sold his shares in his automobile holding company. In 1937, production of Auburns, along with that of Duesenbergs, ended; the 1904 Auburn was a touring car model. Equipped with a tonneau, it could seat two or four passengers and sold for US$1000, equal to $27885 today; the flat-mounted single-cylinder engine, situated at the center of the car, produced 10 hp. A two-speed planetary transmission was fitted; the angle-steel-framed car used half-elliptic springs. In 1926, Errett Cord, now the owner of Auburn, partnered with Duesenberg Corporation, famous for its racing cars, used it as the launching platform for a line of high-priced luxury vehicles, the Duesenberg Model J.
He put his own name on one of the first front-wheel-drive cars, known as the Cord L-29". The company employed imaginative designers such as Alan Leamy, chief designer of the 1933 Auburn Speedster, Gordon Buehrig, designer of the 810/812 Cords. Buehrig joined the company in Indianapolis in 1926 with Duesenberg Motors, is credited with styling half of the Model Js produced. Duesenberg built the chassis while the bodies were built either to Duesenberg's own specifications, or to the special order of the buyer, by selected independent body companies. In 1934, Buehrig was transferred to Auburn Auto; the Speedster was modified to use leftover speedster bodies. Buehrig and a design team were assigned to E. L. Cord's so-called "Baby Duesenberg" to build a smaller, more affordable car. Designed by Buehrig in 1933, it became the acclaimed 1936/37 Cord 810/ 812 Cords, a hit at the November 1935 annual New York Automobile Show—acclaimed for advanced engineering as well as revolutionary styling, his design work completed, he left the company in 1937. and modified the four-door, Cord built cars such as the Duesenberg Model J, the Auburn Speedster, the Cord 810/812 that became famous for their advanced engineering as well as their striking appearance.
The Auburn Boattail Speedster was powered by a 4.6L straight eight that, with the popular supercharger option, could top 100 mph making it a popular model in the Hollywood market. The Depression, coupled with Cord's stock manipulations, spelled the end of the company and production ceased in 1937; the company's art deco headquarters in Auburn now houses the Auburn Cord Duesenberg Automobile Museum and became a National Historic Landmark in 2005. The Auburn Automobile Company had a manufacturing plant in Connersville, Indiana owned by the Lexington Motor Company. Auburn 8-Eighty-Eight Sedan List of defunct United States automobile manufacturers Auburn & Cord by Lee Beck and Josh Malks ISBN 978-0760301722 Auburn Cord Duesenberg by Don Butler ISBN 978-0879387013 Auburn-Cord-Dusenberg Club Official Website Auburn-Cord-Dusenberg Flickr Group The Auburn Gallery at White Glove Collection RemarkableCars.com- Auburn Photo Galleries
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.