A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically one living under vows of poverty and obedience. The term nun is applicable to Catholics, Orthodox Christians, Lutherans, Buddhists, Hindus, Mother Teresas Missionaries of Charity, lives an active vocation of both prayer and service, often to the needy, ill and uneducated. All Buddhist traditions have nuns, although their status is different among Buddhist countries, fully ordained Buddhist nuns have more Patimokkha rules than the monks. The important vows are the same, however, as with monks, there is quite a lot of variation in nuns dress and social conventions between Buddhist cultures in Asia. Chinese nuns possess the full ordination, Tibetan nuns do not. In Thailand, a country never had a tradition of fully ordained nuns. However, some of them have played an important role in dhamma-practitioners community. There are in Thai Forest Tradition foremost nuns such as Mae Ji Kaew Sianglam, the founder of the Nunnery of Baan Huai Saai, who is believed by some to be enlightened as well as Upāsikā Kee Nanayon.
At the beginning of the 21st century, some Buddhist women in Thailand have started to introduce the bhikkhuni sangha in their country as well, dhammananda Bhikkhuni, formerly the successful academic scholar Dr. Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, established a controversial monastery for the training of Buddhist nuns in Thailand. The relatively active roles of Taiwanese nuns were noted by some studies, researcher Charles Brewer Jones estimates that from 1952 to 1999, when the Buddhist Association of the ROC organized public ordination, female applicants have outnumbered males by about three to one. He adds, All my informants in the areas of Taipei and Sanhsia considered nuns at least as respectable as monks, in contrast, Shiu-kuen Tsung found in Taipei county that female clergy were viewed with some suspicion by society. She reports that while outsiders did not necessarily regard their vocation as unworthy of respect, wei-yi Cheng studied Luminary order in southern Taiwan. Based on studies of Luminary order, Cheng concluded that the order in Taiwan was still young and gave nuns more rooms of development.
Gelongma ordination requires the presence of ten fully ordained people keeping exactly the same vows, because ten nuns are required to ordain a new one, the effort to establish the Dharmaguptaka bhikkhu tradition has taken a long time. It is permissible for a Tibetan nun to receive ordination from another living tradition. Based on this, Western nuns ordained in Tibetan tradition, like Thubten Chodron, the ordination of monks and nuns in Tibetan Buddhism distinguishes three stages, rabjung-ma, getshül-ma and gelong-ma. The clothes of the nuns in Tibet are basically the same as those of monks, hokke-ji in 747 was established by the consort of the Emperor. It took charge of provincial convents, performed ceremonies for the protection of the state, aristocratic Japanese women often became Buddhist nuns in the premodern period
Enclosed religious orders
Enclosed religious orders of the Christian churches have solemn vows with a strict separation from the affairs of the external world. The term cloistered is synonymous with enclosed, in the Catholic Church enclosure is regulated by the Code of Canon Law, either the Latin code or the Oriental code, and by subsidiary legislation. The stated purpose for such enclosure is to prevent distraction from prayer, depending upon the reason and the length of time, the proper authority can allow enclosed men or women to leave the enclosure. More commonly, cloistered individuals are temporarily released from the obligation of enclosure to participate in a religious event - a papal visit or a bishops visit. Some men and women who are cloistered may have knowledge of fields like education or health care, depending on their training during formation or the cloistered life. They can provide for the needs of their community, rarely, there are procedures in place for the cloistered to receive the needed utilities, communication needs, and medical needs while keeping leaving the cloister to a minimum.
Benedictine monks, for instance, have often staffed parishes and been allowed to leave monastery confines. In the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, once a man or woman has made solemn, perpetual religious vows, the release from these monastic vows has to be approved by the ecclesiastical authorities. Normally there is a period, called exclaustration, in which the person looks to establish a new life. This usually lasts up to six years under the current Code of Canon Law, after this period the appropriate authority, generally the Holy See, determines that the wish to leave this life is valid and grants the former monk or nun release from their vows. Anglican religious orders have different procedures for the release from perpetual vows, contemplative orders prioritise worship and prayer over economic or outreach activity. They exist in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions as well as in Buddhist settings, cenobite Convent Monasticism Religious order New Advent Encyclopaedia III ff
The Poor Clares were the second Franciscan Order to be established. Founded by Saints Clare of Assisi and Francis of Assisi on Palm Sunday in the year 1212, they were organized after the Order of Friars Minor, as of 2011 there were over 20,000 Poor Clare nuns in over 75 countries throughout the world. They follow several different observances and are organized into federations, the Poor Clares follow the Rule of St. Clare, which was approved by Pope Innocent IV the day before Clares death in 1253. The main branch of the Order follows the observance of Pope Urban, other branches established since that time, who operate under their own unique Constitutions, are the Colettine Poor Clares, the Capuchin Poor Clares and the Poor Clares of Perpetual Adoration. The Poor Clares were founded by Clare of Assisi in the year 1212, little is known of Clares early life, although popular tradition hints that she came from a fairly well-to-do family in Assisi. At the age of eighteen, inspired by the preaching of Francis in the cathedral, Clare ran away home to join his community of friars at the Portiuncula.
Although, according to tradition, her family wanted to take her back by force, Clares dedication to holiness and she was given the habit of a nun and transferred to Benedictine monasteries, first at Bastia and at Sant Angelo di Panzo, for her monastic formation. By 1216 Francis was able to offer Clare and her companions a monastery adjoining the chapel of San Damiano where she became abbess, Clares mother, two of her sisters and some other wealthy women from Florence soon joined her new Order. Clare dedicated her order to the principles of Francis, setting a rule of extreme poverty far more severe than that of any female order of the time. By this time the order had grown to number three monasteries, the movement quickly spread, though in a somewhat disorganized fashion, with several monasteries of women devoted to the Franciscan ideal springing up elsewhere in Northern Italy. At this point Ugolino, Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, was given the task of overseeing all such monasteries, communities adopting this less rigorous came to be known as the Order of Saint Clare or the Urbanist Poor Clares.
Clare herself resisted the Ugolino Rule, since it did not closely follow the ideal of complete poverty advocated by Francis. Originally applying only to Clares community at San Damiano, this rule was adopted by many monasteries. Communities that followed this rule were fewer in number than the followers of the rule formulated by Cardinal Ugolino. The situation was further complicated a century when Saint Colette of Corbie restored the rule of strict poverty to 17 French monasteries. Her followers came to be called the Colettine Poor Clares, two further branches, the Capuchin Poor Clares and the Alcantarines, followed the strict observance. The group disappeared as a group when their observance among the friars was ended. The spread of the began in 1218 when a monastery was founded in Perugia, new foundations quickly followed in Florence, Mantua
Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II, nicknamed The Fearsome Pope and The Warrior Pope, born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1 November 1503 to his death in 1513. In addition to a military policy, he personally led troops into battle on at least two occasions. There is disagreement about Juliuss year of birth, for some sources put it as late as 1453, Giuliano della Rovere was the son of Rafaello della Rovere. Francesco della Rovere was his uncle and he was educated among the Franciscans by his uncle, who took him under his special charge and sent him to a Franciscan friary in Perugia with the purpose of obtaining knowledge of the sciences. After his uncle was elected Pope Sixtus IV, della Rovere was promoted to be cardinal, taking the title as that formerly held by his uncle. With his uncle he obtained great influence, and in addition to the archbishopric of Avignon he held no fewer than eight bishoprics, including Lausanne from 1472. In June 1474, della Rovere led an army to Todi and Spoleto, around this time, in 1483, an illegitimate daughter was born, Felice della Rovere.
Della Rovere and angry, accused Borgia of being elected over him, in 1494 he joined Charles VIII of France who was undertaking a military expedition into Italy. This was, in Andrew Greeleys view, almost certainly by means of bribery with money, but also, per Ott and Hughes, with promises. Giuliano Della Rovere thenceforth took the name of his fourth century predecessor, Julius I, indeed, on the day of his election, he declared I will not live in the same rooms as the Borgias lived. He desecrated the Holy Church as none before and he usurped the papal power by the devils aid, and I forbid under the pain of excommunication anyone to speak or think of Borgia again. His name and memory must be forgotten and it must be crossed out of every document and memorial. All paintings made of the Borgias or for them must be covered over with black crepe, all the tombs of the Borgias must be opened and their bodies sent back to where they belong—to Spain. The Borgias apartments remained sealed until the 19th Century, the combination was, however, at first little more than nominal, and was not immediately effective in compelling the Venetians to deliver up more than a few unimportant places in the Romagna.
With a campaign in 1506, he led an army to Perugia and Bologna. The refusal of Pope Clement VII to grant the annulment led to the English Reformation, the same year, he founded the Swiss Guard to provide a constant corps of soldiers to protect the Pope. On Palm Sunday,1507, Julius II entered Rome, both as a second Julius Caesar, heir to the majesty of Romes imperial glory, and in the likeness of Christ, whose vicar the pope was, and who in that capacity governed the universal Roman Church. Julius, who modelled himself after his namesake Caesar, would lead his army across the Italian peninsula under the imperial war-cry
In the practice of Christianity, canonical hours mark the divisions of the day in terms of periods of fixed prayer at regular intervals. A Book of Hours normally contains a version of, or selection from, such prayers. The practice of daily prayers grew from the Jewish practice of reciting prayers at set times of the day, for example, in the Book of Acts, Psalm 119,164 states, Seven times a day I praise you for your righteous laws. This practice is believed to have passed down through the centuries from the Apostles. As monasticism spread, the practice of specified hours and liturgical formats began to develop, in 525, Benedict of Nursia set out one of the earliest schemes for the recitation of the Psalter at the Office. With the Cluniac reforms of the 11th century there was a new emphasis on liturgy, the current official version of the hours in the Roman rite of the Roman Catholic Church is called the liturgy of the hours in North America or divine office in Ireland and Britain. In the Anglican tradition, they are known as the daily office, to distinguish them from the other offices of the Church, i. e. holy communion, baptism.
In the Orthodox Church, the canonical hours may be referred to as the services. The usage among the Oriental Orthodox Churches and the Assyrian Church of the East and of their Eastern Catholic counterparts all differ from each other, building on the recitation of psalms and canticles from scripture, the Church has added hymns, hagiographical readings, and other prayers. As is noted above, the canonical hours stemmed from Jewish prayer, in the Old Testament, God commanded the Israelite priests to offer sacrifices of animals in the morning and evening. Eventually, these sacrifices moved from the Tabernacle to the Temple built by Solomon in Jerusalem, during the Babylonian Exile, when the Temple was no longer in use, the first synagogues were established, and the services of Torah readings and hymns began to evolve. This sacrifice of praise began to be substituted for the sacrifices of animals, after the people returned to Judea, the prayer services were incorporated into Temple worship as well.
As time passed, the Jews began to be scattered across the Greco-Roman world in what is known as the Diaspora, by the time of the Roman Empire, the Jews began to follow the Roman system of conducting the business day in scheduling their times for prayer. The narrative of Jesus crucifixion and death refers to the sixth and ninth hours, Now when the hour had come. And at the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice …, the first miracle of the apostles, the healing of the crippled man on the temple steps, occurred because Peter and John went to the Temple to pray. Also, one of the moments of the early Church. As Christianity began to separate from Judaism, the practice of praying at fixed times continued, the early church was known to pray the Psalms, which have remained the principal part of the canonical hours. The prayers could be prayed individually or in groups, by the fourth century, the elements of the canonical hours were more or less established
Calendar of saints
The word feast in this context does not mean a large meal, typically a celebratory one, but instead an annual religious celebration, a day dedicated to a particular saint. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, a calendar of saints is called a Menologion, Menologion may mean a set of icons on which saints are depicted in the order of the dates of their feasts, often made in two panels. As the number of recognized saints increased during Late Antiquity and the first half of the Middle Ages, eventually every day of the year had at least one saint who was commemorated on that date. To deal with this increase, some saints were moved to days in some traditions or completely removed. For example, St. Perpetua and Felicity died on 7 March, when the 1969 reform of the Catholic calendar moved him to 28 January, they were moved back to 7 March. Both days can thus be said to be their feast day, the Roman Catholic calendars of saints in their various forms, which list those saints celebrated in the entire church, contains only a selection of the saints for each of its days.
A fuller list is found in the Roman Martyrology, and some of the saints there may be celebrated locally, Saint Martin of Tours is said to be the first or at least one of the first non-martyrs to be venerated as a saint. The title confessor was used for saints, who had confessed their faith in Christ by their lives rather than by their deaths. Martyrs are regarded as dying in the service of the Lord, a broader range of titles was used later, such as, Pastor, Monk, Founder, Apostle, Doctor of the Church. Pope Pius XII added a common formula for Popes, the 1962 Roman Missal of Pope John XXIII omitted the common of Apostles, assigning a proper Mass to every feast day of an Apostle. The present Roman Missal has common formulas for the Dedication of Churches, the Blessed Virgin Mary, Pastors, Doctors of the Church, some Christians continue the tradition of dating by saints days, their works may appear dated as The Feast of Saint Martin. Poets such as John Keats commemorate the importance of The Eve of Saint Agnes, as different Christian jurisdictions parted ways theologically, differing lists of saints began to develop.
In the present ordinary form of the Roman Rite, feast days are ranked as solemnities and those who use even earlier forms of the Roman Rite rank feast days as Doubles and Simples. See Ranking of liturgical days in the Roman Rite, in the Eastern Orthodox Church the ranking of feasts varies from church to church. In the Russian Orthodox Church they are, Great Feasts, each portion of such feasts may be called feasts as follows, All-Night Vigils, Great Doxology, Sextuple. There are distinctions between Simple feasts and Double, in Double Feasts the order of hymns and readings for each feast are rigidly instructed in Typikon, the liturgy book. In the Church of England, there are Principal Feasts and Principal Holy Days, Lesser Festivals, and Commemorations. com
Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI, born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, reigned as Pope from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978. Montini served in the Vaticans Secretariat of State from 1922 to 1954, Montini became the Secretary of the Italian Bishops Conference. John XXIII elevated him to the College of Cardinals in 1958, upon his election to the papacy, Montini took the name Paul VI. He re-convened the Second Vatican Council, which was closed with the death of John XXIII. The magnitude and depth of the reforms affecting all fields of Church life during his pontificate exceeded similar reform policies of his predecessors and successors, Paul VI was a Marian devotee, speaking repeatedly to Marian congresses and mariological meetings, visiting Marian shrines and issuing three Marian encyclicals. Following his famous predecessor Saint Ambrose of Milan, he named Mary as the Mother of the Church during the Second Vatican Council, Paul VI sought dialogue with the world, with other Christians, other religions, and atheists, excluding nobody.
He saw himself as a servant for a suffering humanity and demanded significant changes of the rich in North America. His positions on birth control, promulgated most famously in the 1968 encyclical Humanae vitae, Pope Benedict XVI declared that the late pontiff lived a life of heroic virtue and conferred the title of Venerable upon him. Pope Francis beatified him on 19 October 2014 after the recognition of a miracle attributed to his intercession and his liturgical feast is celebrated on the date of his birth on 26 September. Giovanni Battista Montini was born in the village of Concesio, in the province of Brescia and his father Giorgio Montini was a lawyer, director of the Catholic Action and member of the Italian Parliament. His mother was Giudetta Alghisi, from a family of rural nobility and he had two brothers, Francesco Montini, who became a physician, and Lodovico Montini, who became a lawyer and politician. On 30 September 1897, he was baptized in the name of Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini and he attended Cesare Arici, a school run by the Jesuits, and in 1916, he received a diploma from Arnaldo da Brescia, a public school in Brescia.
His education was interrupted by bouts of illness. In 1916, he entered the seminary to become a Roman Catholic priest and he was ordained priest on 29 May 1920 in Brescia and celebrated his first Holy Mass in Brescia in the Basilica of Santa Maria delle Grazie. Montini concluded his studies in Milan with a doctorate in Canon Law in the same year, afterwards he studied at the Gregorian University, the University of Rome La Sapienza and, at the request of Giuseppe Pizzardo at the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici. Consequently, he spent not a day as a parish priest, in 1925 he helped found the publishing house Morcelliana in Brescia, focused on promoting a Christian inspired culture. Montini had just one posting in the service of the Holy See as Secretary in office of the papal nuncio to Poland in 1923. Of the nationalism he experienced there he worte, This form of nationalism treats foreigners as enemies, one seeks the expansion of ones own country at the expense of the immediate neighbours
Christian contemplation, from contemplatio, refers to several Christian practices which aim at looking at, gazing at, being aware of God or the Divine. It includes several practices and theological concepts, Christianity took up the use of both the Greek and Latin terminology to describe various forms of prayer and the process of coming to know God. Eastern and Western traditions of Christianity grew apart as they incorporated the notion of theoria into their respective teachings. It expressed the state of being a spectator, both Greek θεωρία and Latin contemplatio primarily meant looking at things, whether with the eyes or with the mind. Several scholars have demonstrated similarities between the Greek idea of theoria and the Indian idea of darśana, including Ian Rutherford, Binod Kumar Agarwala, Gregory Grieve, insight into being and becoming through the intuitive truth called faith, in God, leads to truth through our contemplative faculties. This theory, or speculation, as action in faith and love for God, is expressed famously as Beauty shall Save the World and this expression comes from a mystical or gnosiological perspective, rather than a scientific, philosophical or cultural one.
Philip of Opus viewed theoria as contemplation of the stars, with effects in everyday life similar to those that Plato saw as following from contemplation of the Forms. Aristotle, on the hand, separated the spectating of theoria from practical purposes, and saw it as an end in itself. Thomas Louis Schubeck says that, in Aristotles view, the knowledge that guides ethical political activity does not belong to theoria, leading a contemplative life can be considered Aristotles answer to the question what life humans ought to live. … The more humans engage in contemplation, the closer they are to their gods, Aristotles view that the best life would be a purely contemplative one was disputed by the Stoics and others, such as the Epicureans, who saw speculation as inferior to practical ethics. Contemplation is, knowledge, knowledge of reality itself, as opposed to knowing how, Augustine expressed this distinction by using scientia for the kind of knowledge attained by ratio, and sapientia, for the kind of knowledge received by intellectus.
Human intelligence operates at two levels, a basic level concerned with doing things, and another level concerned with simply beholding, knowing reality, in the Enneads of Plotinus, a founder of Neoplatonism, everything is contemplation and everything is derived from contemplation. Knowledge of The One is achieved through experience of its power, Plotinus agreed with Aristotles systematic distinction between contemplation and practice, dedication to the superior life of theoria requires abstension from practical, active life. Plotinus explained, The point of action is contemplation, some Neoplatonic ideas were adopted by Christianity, among them the idea of contemplation, taken over by Gregory of Nyssa for example. Some make a distinction, within contemplation, between contemplation acquired by human effort and infused contemplation. Saint John Cassian recommended use of the phrase O God, make speed to save me, O Lord, another formula for repetition is the name of Jesus. Or the Jesus Prayer, which has called the mantra of the Orthodox Church.
The author of The Cloud of Unknowing recommended use of a monosyllabic word, Theoria refers to a stage of illumination on the path to theosis
Catholic religious order
Catholic religious orders are, historically, a category of Catholic religious institutes. Subcategories are canons regular, monastics and clerks regular, original Catholic religious orders of the Middle Ages include the Order of Saint Benedict, the Carmelites, the Order of Friars Minor, the Dominican Order, and the Order of Saint Augustine. As such, the Teutonic Order may qualify, today mainly monastic, in the past, what distinguished religious orders from other institutes was the classification of the vows that the members took in religious profession as solemn vows. According to this criterion, the last religious order founded was that of the Bethlehem Brothers in 1673. Nevertheless, in the course of the 20th century some religious institutes outside the category of orders obtained permission to make solemn vows, at least of poverty, solemn vows were originally considered indissoluble. As noted below, dispensations began to be granted in times, the members of a religious order for men were called regulars, those belonging to a religious congregation were simply religious, a term that applied to regulars.
However, it abolished the distinction according to which solemn vows, thus members of orders were barred absolutely from marriage, and any marriage they attempted was invalid. Those who made simple vows were obliged not to marry, but if they did break their vow, after publication of the 1917 Code, many institutes with simple vows appealed to the Holy See for permission to make solemn vows. The Apostolic Constitution Sponsa Christi of 21 November 1950 made access to that permission easier for nuns, many of these latter institutes of women petitioned for the solemn vow of poverty alone. It has accordingly dropped the language of the 1917 code and uses the term religious institute to designate all such institutes of consecrated life alike. Thus the Church no longer draws the distinction between religious orders and congregations. It applies to all such institutes the single name religious institute, a religious order is characterized by an authority structure where a superior general has jurisdiction over the orders dependent communities.
An exception is the Order of St Benedict which is not an order in this technical sense, because it has a system of independent houses. However, the Constitutions governing the global independent houses and its distinct congregations were approved by the pope. The Canons Regular of Saint Augustine are in a similar to that of the Benedictines. They are organized in eight congregations, each headed by an abbot general, and the Cistercians are in thirteen congregations, each headed by an abbot general or an abbot president, but do not use the title of abbot primate. The Annuario Pontificio lists for both men and women the institutes of consecrated life and the like that are of pontifical right, for the men, it gives what it now calls the Historical-Juridical List of Precedence. The arrangement in this list dates back many decades and it is found, for instance, in the 1964 edition of the Annuario Pontificio, pp. 807–870, where the heading is States of Perfection
They are commonly associated with an attachment to the Eucharistic liturgy often called the Tridentine, Traditional Latin or extraordinary form of the Mass. Traditionalist Catholics may be divided into four broad groups, since the Second Vatican Council, several traditionalist organizations have been started with or have subsequently obtained approval from the Catholic Church. In addition, many traditionalist Catholics in good standing with Rome are served by local diocesan or religious priests who are willing, others may attend the liturgies of Eastern Catholic Churches, if they are available. There are local and international lay organizations of traditionalist Catholics. Catholics in good standing with Rome who attend the liturgy have diverse worldviews. Some traditionalists practise their faith outside the structures of the Church. The largest priestly society to fit this description is the Society of St Pius X, which was established in 1970 by Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, members of this category view many of the post-Conciliar changes as being doctrinally and pastorally unacceptable.
They conclude, on the basis of their rejection of the revised Mass rite and their rejection of certain aspects of postconciliar Church teaching as false, the most well known, and most likely well organized Sedevacantist organization is the Congregation of Mary Immaculate Queen. They are often classified as sedevacantists because they reject the official papal succession for the same reasons, many traditionalists further believe that errors have crept into the presentation and understanding of Catholic teachings since the time of the Council. Most traditionalists view the Council as a valid, albeit problematic, Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, the Catholic Church in union with the Pope is, according to him, the Conciliar Church which has broken with its own past. It seems indeed that he is no longer able to see that we are dealing with the Catholic Church in the totality of its Tradition, on other questions, there are a variety of opinions. Many traditionalist Catholics associate themselves with a particular priestly society, other small groups of traditionalists sometimes form around an individual independent priest who has no ties with any particular organisation.
Some leaders of Independent Catholic Churches claim to be traditionalist Catholics and to be preserving the Tridentine Mass, examples are the Apostolic Catholic Church, the Canonical Old Roman Catholic Church, and the Fraternité Notre-Dame. They claim that this new ecclesiology contradicts Pope Pius XIIs Mystici corporis Christi, a new ecumenism which they see as aiming at a false pan-Christian religious unity which does not require non-Catholics to convert to the Catholic faith. They see this as contradicting the teachings of the Bible, Pope Pius XIs Mortalium animos, Pope Pius XIIs Humani generis and they therefore generally refuse to attend it. Some, including many sedevacantists, see it as invalid in principle. Some hold that celebration of any modern-language translation even of the Tridentine Mass would have to be presumed invalid and they see this orientation as contradicting Pope Pius XIs Quas Primas, Pope Leo XIIIs Rerum Novarum, and other papal and conciliar documents. They claim that national bishops conferences, whose influence was increased following the Council
Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII, born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, reigned as Pope from 2 March 1939 to his death in 1958. After the war Pius XII advocated peace and reconciliation, including lenient policies towards Axis, the Church experienced severe persecution and mass deportations of Catholic clergy in the Eastern Bloc. Pius XII was an opponent of Communism and of the Italian Communist Party. He explicitly invoked ex cathedra papal infallibility with the dogma of the Assumption of Mary in his 1950 Apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus and his magisterium includes almost 1,000 addresses and radio broadcasts. His forty-one encyclicals include Mystici corporis, the Church as the Body of Christ, Mediator Dei on liturgy reform and he eliminated the Italian majority in the College of Cardinals in 1946. In 1954, Pius XII began to suffer ill health. The embalming of his body was mishandled, with effects that were evident during the funeral and he was buried in the Vatican grottos and was succeeded by Pope John XXIII.
In the process toward sainthood, his cause for canonization was opened on 18 November 1965 by Pope Paul VI during the session of the Second Vatican Council. He was made a Servant of God by Pope John Paul II in 1990, Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli was born on 2 March 1876 in Rome into a family of intense Catholic piety with a history of ties to the papacy. His parents were Filippo Pacelli and Virginia Pacelli, together with his brother Francesco and his two sisters and Elisabetta, he grew up in the Parione district in the centre of Rome. Soon after the family had moved to Via Vetrina in 1880 he began school at the convent of the French Sisters of Divine Providence in the Piazza Fiammetta, the family worshipped at Chiesa Nuova. Eugenio and the children made their First Communion at this church. In 1886 too he was sent to the school of Professor Giuseppe Marchi. In 1891 Pacellis father sent Eugenio to the Liceo Ennio Quirino Visconti Institute, a school situated in what had been the Collegio Romano.
He was enrolled at the State University, La Sapienza where he studied modern languages, at the end of the first academic year however, in the summer of 1895, he dropped out of both the Capranica and the Gregorian University. According to his sister Elisabetta, the food at the Capranica was to blame, having received a special dispensation he continued his studies from home and so spent most of his seminary years as an external student. In 1899 he completed his education in Sacred Theology with a degree awarded on the basis of a short dissertation. Shortly after ordination he began studies in canon law at SantApollinaire
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain, it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986 for its cultural and monumental heritage and historical co-existence of Christian, Muslim. Toledo has a history in the production of bladed weapons, which are now popular souvenirs of the city, people who were born or have lived in Toledo include Brunhilda of Austrasia, Al-Zarqali, Garcilaso de la Vega, Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X and El Greco. It was the place of important historic events such as the Visigothic Councils of Toledo, as of 2015, the city has a population of 83,226 and an area of 232.1 km2. The town was granted arms in the 16th century, which by special royal privilege was based on the royal of arms of Spain, Toledo is mentioned by the Roman historian Livy as urbs parva, sed loco munita. At that time, Toletum was a city of the Carpetani tribe and it was incorporated into the Roman Empire as a civitas stipendiaria, that is, a tributary city of non-citizens.
It achieved the status of municipium by Flavian times, with this status, city officials, even of Carpetani origin, obtained Roman citizenship for public service, and the forms of Roman law and politics were increasingly adopted. At approximately this time were constructed in Toletum a Roman circus, city walls, public baths, and a municipal water supply and storage system. The Roman circus in Toledo was one of the largest in Hispania, at 423 metres long and 100 metres wide, chariot races were held on special holidays and were commissioned by private citizens to celebrate career achievements. A fragmentary stone inscription records circus games paid for by a citizen of unknown name to celebrate his achieving the sevirate, archaeologists have identified portions of a special seat of the sort used by the city elites to attend circus games, called a sella curulis. The circus could hold up to 15000 spectators, during Roman times, Toledo was never a provincial capital nor a conventus iuridicus. It started to gain importance in late antiquity, there are indications that large private houses within the city walls were enlarged, while several large villas were built north of the city through the third and fourth centuries.
Games were held in the circus into the fourth and early fifth centuries C. E. an indication of active city life. A church council was held in Toledo in the year 400 to discuss the conflict with Priscillianism, a second council of Toledo was held in 527. The Visigothic king Theudis was in Toledo in 546, where he promulgated a law and this is strong though not certain evidence that Toledo was the chief residence for Theudis. King Athanagild died in Toledo, probably in 568 and this changed with Liuvigild, who brought the peninsula under his control. The Visigoths ruled from Toledo until the Moors conquered the Iberian peninsula in the years of 8th century. Today the historic center is pierced of basements, wells, baths, a series of church councils was held in Toledo under the Visigoths