A concertina is a free-reed musical instrument, like the various accordions and the harmonica. It consists of expanding and contracting bellows, with buttons on both ends, unlike accordion buttons, which are on the front; the concertina was developed independently in both Germany. The English version was invented in 1829 by Sir Charles Wheatstone, while Carl Friedrich Uhlig introduced the German version five years in 1834. Various forms of concertina are used for classical music, for the traditional musics of Ireland and South Africa, for tango and polka music; the word concertina refers to a family of hand-held bellows-driven free reed instruments constructed according to various systems, which differ in terms of keyboard layout, whether individual buttons produce the same or different notes with changes in the direction of air pressure. Because the concertina was developed nearly contemporaneously in England and Germany, systems can be broadly divided into English, Anglo-German, German types.
To a player proficient in one of these systems, a concertina of a different system may be quite unfamiliar. The English concertina and the Duet concertina bear similarities in construction. Both systems play a chromatic scale and are unisonoric, with each key producing the same note whether the bellows are being pushed or pulled. Both of these English instruments are smaller than German concertinas, are hexagonal in shape, though featuring 8, 10, or 12 sides; the English system alternates the notes of the scale between two hands. The duet system features the lower notes on the left, higher notes on the right, facilitating the playing of interlaced harmonies and melodies; the English concertina is credited to Sir Charles Wheatstone, who first patented such a design in 1829 in Great Britain. Wheatstone was the first to patent a duet concertina, in 1844. German concertinas, developed in Germany for its local market and diaspora, are larger than English concertinas, are bisonoric, using a different style of "long plate" reeds, are square, as opposed to hexagonal.
German concertinas sometimes have more than one reed per note, which produces a vibrato effect if their tuning differs slightly. Various German concertina systems share core keyboard layout. In the United States in the Midwest where there are many German and Central European descendants, the term concertina refers to the Chemnitzer concertina, bisonoric and related to the bandoneon, but features a different keyboard layout and decorative style, including a few mechanical innovations pioneered by German-American instrument builder and inventor Otto Schlicht. A related variant is the Carlsfelder concertina from C. F. Zimmerman, created in 1849 and shown at the 1851 London Industrial Exposition; the bandoneon is a German concertina system with an original bisonoric layout devised by Heinrich Band. Although intended as a substitute for the organ in small churches and chapels, it was soon secularized and is now associated with tango music, due to the instrument's popularity in Argentina in the late 19th century when tango developed from various dance styles in Argentina and Uruguay.
Though the typical bandoneon is bisonoric, the 1920s saw the development of unisonoric variants such as the Ernst Kusserow and Charles Peguri systems, both introduced around 1925. Bandoneons have more than one reed per button, dry-tuned with the reeds an octave apart. "Dry" means. Ástor Piazzolla was one of the most famous exponents of this instrument. The Anglo or Anglo-German concertina is a hybrid between the English and German concertinas; the button layouts are the same as the original 20-button German concertinas designed by Uhlig in 1834, in a bisonoric system. Within a few years of its invention, the German concertina was a popular import in England and North America, due to its ease of use and low price. English manufacturers responded to this popularity by offering their own versions using traditional English methods: concertina reeds instead of long-plate reeds, independent pivots for each button, hexagon-shaped ends, resulting in the modern Anglo concertina; the "Franglo" system concertina was developed by the luthiers C & R Dipper, in cooperation with Emmanuel Pariselle, known for his expertise as a professional player of the two-and-a-half row diatonic melodeon.
The system has the construction and reed-work of a concertina, with the buttons at the sides, but layout of the buttons is that of a melodeon. The name Franglo is a portmanteau of the words Anglo. In the mid-1830s concertinas were manufactured and sold in Germany and England, in two types specific to the country. Both systems continued to evolve into the current forms as the popularity of the instrument increased; the difference in prices and the common uses of the English and German systems led to something of a class distinction between the two. German or Anglo-German concertinas were regarded as a lower-class instrument while the English concertina had an air of bourgeois respectability. English concertinas were most popular as parlor instruments for classical music, while German concertinas were more associated with the popular dance music at that time. In the 1850s, the Anglo-German concertina's ability to play both melody and accompaniment led English manufacturers to start developing the various duet systems.
The popular Maccann system was developed towards the end of the century.
Cockatoo Station is situated on the Puffing Billy Railway in the town of the same name. It opened with the line on 18 December 1900 as Devon, but was renamed Cockatoo Creek on 29 July 1901 and subsequently shortened to Cockatoo in 1904. There was a platform road and a loop siding, but a crossing loop was added in between the two. A single 12ft by 20 ft timber portable station building was provided, extended. Other associated buildings such as toilets and a van good shed were on the platform while a weatherboard goods shed was provided on the loop siding. Today, the loop siding has been provided again along with the platform track, but the crossing loop is yet to be rebuilt. A platform exists which had a temporary non-heritage building provided for safeworking purposes only, but during 2007 a heritage type building, obtained second-hand from another Victorian station, was relocated to Cockatoo. Although it is not representative of the original building, it is a typical building of the day and now provides a more suitable safeworking office than the non-heritage building used for this purpose, subsequently removed in 2009.
Whilst trains stop at Cockatoo few passengers join or alight. Melway map at street-directory.com.au
Behaving Badly is a 2014 American teen sex comedy film written and directed by Tim Garrick, the film adaptation of the 2000 Ric Browde autobiographical novel While I'm Dead Feed the Dog. It stars Nat Selena Gomez alongside Mary-Louise Parker; the movie was released on video-on-demand on July 1, 2014, before a theatrical release on August 1, 2014. Teenager Rick Stevens, has a crush on Nina Pennington; when Rick realizes that Nina broke up with her boyfriend Kevin Carpenter, he places a bet with Karlis Malinauskas, a mobster's son, that he will have sex with Nina before Arbor Day, leading to a serious chain of events from having sex with his best friend's mom, to having the whole town in jail, including Nina. Nat Wolff as Rick Stevens Selena Gomez as Nina Pennington Mary-Louise Parker as Lucy Stevens/Saint Lola Elisabeth Shue as Pamela Bender Dylan McDermott as Jimmy Leach Lachlan Buchanan as Billy Bender Heather Graham as Anette Stratton-Osborne Ashley Rickards as Kristen Stevens Jason Lee as Father Krumins Austin Stowell as Kevin Carpenter Cary Elwes as Joseph Stevens Patrick Warburton as Principal Basil Poole Jennifer R. Blake as Janice Gary Busey as Chief Howard D. Lansing Jason Acuña as Brian Savage Rusty Joiner as Keith Bender Nate Hartley as Karlis Malinauskas Mitch Hewer as Steven Stevens Scott Evans as Ronnie Watt Gil McKinney as Officer Joe Tackett Mindy Robinson as Kristen's Friend Justin Bieber as Prisoner Principal photography took place at John Burroughs Middle School in Los Angeles, California in August 2012.
The shoot took twenty days to complete. Titled Feed The Dog since it is based on the book While I'm Dead Feed the Dog, the film changed its name in August 2012 to Parental Guidance Suggested before being revised to Behaving Badly; the third title revision was due to the Billy Crystal/Bette Midler film Parental Guidance in the 2012 holiday season having claimed the title, causing possible confusion. Browde, the author of the original autobiographical novel, has disavowed the film as going against the source material of his book. In April 2014, it was announced Vertical Entertainment had acquired U. S distribution rights to the film; the film was released in the United Kingdom straight to video on June 9, 2014. The film was released in the United States on July 1, 2014, through video on demand, before being released in a limited release on August 1, 2014; the film received a 0% approval rate on Rotten Tomatoes following 12 reviews, a score of 18/100 on Metacritic suggesting "overwhelming dislike."