Concordat of 1801

The Concordat of 1801 was an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII, signed on 15 July 1801 in Paris. It remained in effect until 1905, it sought national reconciliation between revolutionaries and Catholics and solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France, with most of its civil status restored. The hostility of devout French Catholics against the state had largely been resolved, it did not restore the vast church lands and endowments, seized upon during the revolution and sold off. Catholic clergy returned from exile, or from hiding, resumed their traditional positions in their traditional churches. Few parishes continued to employ the priests who had accepted the Civil Constitution of the Clergy of the Revolutionary regime. While the Concordat restored much power to the papacy, the balance of church-state relations tilted in Napoleon's favour, he selected the supervised church finances. Napoleon and the pope both found the Concordat useful. Similar arrangements were made with the Church in territories controlled by Napoleon Italy and Germany.

During the French Revolution, the National Assembly had taken Church properties and issued the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which made the Church a department of the State removing it from papal authority. At the time, the nationalized Gallican Church was the official church of France, but it was Catholicism; the Civil Constitution caused hostility among the Vendeans towards the change in the relationship between the Catholic Church and the French government. Subsequent laws abolished Christian holidays; the Concordat was drawn up by a commission with three representatives from each party. Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of the French Republic at the time, appointed Joseph Bonaparte, his brother, Emmanuel Crétet, a counselor of state, Étienne-Alexandre Bernier, a doctor in theology. Pope Pius VII appointed Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, Cardinal Giuseppe Spina, archbishop of Corinth, his theological adviser, Father Carlo Francesco Maria Caselli; the French bishops, whether still abroad or returned to their own country, had no part in the negotiations.

The concordat as arranged ignored them. While the Concordat restored some ties to the papacy, it was in favor of the state. Napoleon understood the utility of religion as an important factor of social cohesion, his was a utilitarian approach. He could now win favor with French Catholics while controlling Rome in a political sense. Napoleon once told his brother Lucien in April 1801, "Skillful conquerors have not got entangled with priests, they can both contain them and use them." As a part of the Concordat, he presented. Napoleon looked for the recognition by the Church of the disposition of its property and geographical reorganization of bishoprics, while Rome sought the protection of Catholics and the recognition of a special status of the Catholic Church in the French State; the main terms of the Concordat of 1801 between France and Pope Pius VII included: A declaration that "Catholicism was the religion of the great majority of the French" but not the official state religion, thus maintaining religious freedom, in particular with respect to Protestants.

The Church was to be free to exercise its worship in public in accordance with police regulations that the Government deems necessary for the public peace. The authority to determine if a public religious observance would violate the public peace, resided with each mayor who had the power to prohibit a public ceremony if he considered it a threat to peace in his commune; the Papacy had the right to depose bishops. The state would pay clerical salaries and the clergy swore an oath of allegiance to the state; the Catholic Church gave up all its claims to Church lands that were confiscated after 1790. Sunday was reestablished as a "festival", effective Easter Sunday, 18 April 1802; the rest of the French Republican Calendar, abolished, was not replaced by the traditional Gregorian Calendar until 1 January 1806. According to Georges Goyau, the law known as "The Organic Articles", promulgated in April 1802, infringed in various ways on the spirit of the concordat; the document claimed Catholicism was "the religion of the majority of Frenchmen," and still gave state recognition to Protestants and Jews as well.

The Concordat was abrogated by the law of 1905 on the separation of state. However, some provisions of the Concordat are still in effect in the Alsace-Lorraine region under the local law of Alsace-Moselle, as the region was controlled by the German Empire at the time of the 1905 law's passage. Napoleon and the Jews Concordat in Nigel. Religion and revolution in France, 1780-1804, pp. 279–315. Consalvi, Ercole. J. Crétineau-Joly. Mémoires du Cardinal Consalvi, avec une introduction et des notes de J. Crétineau-Joly. H. Plon. Crétineau-Joly, Jacques. Bonaparte, le concordat de 1801 et le cardinal Consalvi. Paris: H. Plon. Roberts, William."Napoleon, the Concordat of 1801, Its Consequences." in: Frank J. Coppa, ed. Controversial Concordats: The Vatican's Relations with Napoleon and Hitler pp: 34-80. Sévestre, Emile. L'histoire, le texte et la destinée du Concordat de 1801. Paris: Lethielleux. Theiner, Augustin. H

Pollex (moth)

Pollex is a genus of moths of the family Erebidae. Subgenus Bilobiana Fibiger, 2007 The flavimacula species-group: Pollex laosi Fibiger, 2007 Pollex flavimacula Fibiger, 2007 Pollex parunkudai Fibiger, 2007 Pollex diehli Fibiger, 2007 Pollex abovia Fibiger, 2007 Pollex kangeani Fibiger, 2007 Pollex lomboki Fibiger, 2007 Pollex silaui Fibiger, 2007 Pollex balabaci Fibiger, 2007 Pollex newguineai Fibiger, 2007 Pollex utarai Fibiger, 2007 Pollex sulawesii Fibiger, 2007 Pollex merisulawesii Fibiger, 2007 Pollex modus Fibiger, 2008 The speideli species-group: Pollex philippini Fibiger, 2007 Pollex lobifera Pollex sapamori Fibiger, 2007 Pollex poguei Fibiger, 2007 Pollex speideli Fibiger, 2007 Pollex parabala Fibiger, 2007 Pollex mindai Fibiger, 2007 Pollex angustiae Fibiger, 2007 The schintlmeisteri species-group: Pollex schintlmeisteri Fibiger, 2007 The bulli species-group: Pollex oculus Fibiger, 2007 Pollex bulli Fibiger, 2007 Pollex taurus Fibiger, 2007 The hamus species-group: Pollex hamus Fibiger, 2007 Pollex sansdigit Fibiger, 2007 The spina species-group: Pollex flax Fibiger, 2007 Pollex paraspina Fibiger, 2007 Pollex spina Fibiger, 2007 The diabolo species-group: Pollex diabolo Fibiger, 2007 The spastica species-group: Pollex spastica Fibiger, 2007 The mindanaoi species-group: Pollex mindanaoi Fibiger, 2007 The dumogai species-group: Pollex dumogai Fibiger, 2007 The circulari species-group: Pollex kononenkoi Fibiger, 2007 Pollex palopoi Fibiger, 2007 Pollex circulari Fibiger, 2007 Pollex pouchi Fibiger, 2007 Subgenus Proma Fibiger, 2007 The jurivetei species-group: Pollex lafontainei Fibiger, 2007 Pollex archi Fibiger, 2007 Pollex jurivetei Fibiger, 2007 Pollex serami Fibiger, 2007 The maxima species-group: Pollex maxima Fibiger, 2007 Pollex paramaxima Fibiger, 2007 Subgenus Pollex Fibiger, 2007 Pollex crispus Fibiger, 2007 Pollex furca Fibiger, 2007 Fibiger, M. 2007: Revision of the Micronoctuidae.

Part 1, Taxonomy of the Pollexinae. Zootaxa, 1567: 1-116. Abstract & excerpt

Bledar Sinella

Bledar Sinella is a retired Albanian footballer and most manager of Egnatia Rrogozhinë football club in the Albanian Second Division. A successful coach with Besa's youth teams, Sinella was appointed to the manager position of Besa Kavajë's senior team on November 14, 2014 following Artan Mërgjyshi's resignation due to poor results at the start of the season. Sinella served as assistant manager to Përparim Daiu during his tenure at KF Laçi, he succeeded Ilir Duro as coach of Egnatia Rrogozhinë in January 2019, only to leave the club himself in April 2019. In May 2019, Sinella withdrew as a candidate in the race to become mayor of Kavajë