Glam metal is a subgenre of heavy metal, which features pop-influenced hooks and guitar riffs, borrows from the fashion of 1970s glam rock. Glam metal is performed by music acts like Alice Cooper, Cheap Trick, Kiss, Mötley Crüe, Van Halen, it arose in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the United States on the Los Angeles Sunset Strip music scene, pioneered by bands such as Mötley Crüe, Quiet Riot, Twisted Sister, Def Leppard, Bon Jovi, Dokken. It is popularity has risen since the early 2010s with bands like Steel Panther and was popular throughout the mid-late 1980s, early 1990s bringing to prominence bands including Poison, Skid Row and Warrant. Glam metal is associated with flashy clothing and notable for an overall androgynous aesthetic. Poison, for example, have long shaggy or backcombed hair, metal studs and make-up during their live performances. Glam metal lost mainstream interest in the early 1990s as the perceived excesses of glam metal created a backlash against the genre. A factor in the decline of glam metal was the rise of grunge in the early 1990s, which had a stripped-down aesthetic and a complete rejection of the glam metal visual style.
Glam metal has returned since the late 1990s and mid 2000s with reunions of many popular acts from the genre, as well newer bands from the 2000s/2010s including the Darkness, Santa Cruz, Reckless Love and Steel Panther. Musically, glam metal combines a traditional heavy metal sound with elements of hard rock and punk rock, adding pop-influenced catchy hooks and guitar riffs. Like other heavy metal songs of the 1980s, they feature shred guitar solos, they include extensive use of harmonies in the characteristic power ballads – slow, emotional songs that build to a strong finale. These were among the most commercially successful singles in the genre and opened it up to a wider audience that would not have been attracted to traditional heavy metal. Lyrical themes deal with love and lust, with songs directed at a particular woman. Aesthetically glam metal draws on the glam rock or glitter rock of the 1970s with long backcombed hair, use of hair spray, use of make-up, gaudy clothing and accessories.
The visual aspects of glam metal appealed to music television producers MTV, whose establishment coincided with the rise of the genre. Glam metal performers became infamous for their debauched lifestyles of drugs and late-night parties, which were covered in the tabloid press. Sociologist Deena Weinstein points to the large number of terms used to describe more commercial forms of heavy metal, which she groups together as lite metal; these include, beside glam metal: melodic metal, false metal, poodle bands, nerf metal, pop metal or metal pop, the last of, coined by critic Philip Bashe in 1983 to describe bands such as Van Halen and Def Leppard. AllMusic distinguishes pop metal, which refers to the whole pop-tinted hard rock and heavy metal scene of the 1980s, from hair metal, the characteristics of which are flashy clothing and heavy makeup. Use of the derogatory term hair metal started in the early 1990s, as grunge gained popularity at the expense of 1980s metal. In the "definitive metal family tree" of his documentary Metal: A Headbanger's Journey, anthropologist Sam Dunn differentiates pop metal, which includes bands like Def Leppard and Whitesnake, from glam metal bands that include Mötley Crüe and Poison.
Music journalist Stephen Davis claims the influences of the style can be traced back to acts like Kiss, Cheap Trick, the New York Dolls. Kiss and to a lesser extent Alice Cooper, were major influences on the genre. Finnish band Hanoi Rocks influenced themselves by the New York Dolls, have been credited with setting a blueprint for the look of hair metal. Van Halen has been seen as influential on the movement, emerging in 1978 from the Los Angeles music scene on Sunset Strip, with a sound based around the lead guitar skills of Eddie Van Halen, he popularized a playing technique of two‐handed hammer‐ons and pull‐offs called tapping, showcased on the song "Eruption" from the album Van Halen. This sound, lead singer David Lee Roth's stage antics, would be influential on glam metal, although Van Halen would never adopt a glam aesthetic. Def Leppard categorized with the New Wave of British heavy metal, released their second album High'n' Dry in 1981, mixing glam rock with heavy metal, helping to define the sound of hard rock for the decade.
In the early 1980s, bands from across the United States began to move towards what would become the glam metal sound. In 1981, Mötley Crüe released their first album Too Fast for Love, Dokken released their first album, Breaking the Chains, Kix released their first album, Kix. In 1982, Night Ranger released their initial album Dawn Patrol which reached the top 40 in the United States.1983 was the breakout year for glam metal: Quiet Riot's Metal Health was the first glam metal album, arguably the first heavy metal album, to reach number one in the Billboard charts. It helped open the doors for mainstream success by subsequent metal bands. Additionally, Night Ranger's second album in 1983 Midnight Madness was a breakthrough that included the top five single "Sister Christian". In 1983, a larger wave of glam metal albums began appearing.
Heavy metal music
Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, overall loudness; the genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with machismo. In 1968, three of the genre's most famous pioneers, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath and Deep Purple were founded. Though they came to attract wide audiences, they were derided by critics. During the mid-1970s, Judas Priest helped spur the genre's evolution by discarding much of its blues influence. Beginning in the late 1970s, bands in the new wave of British heavy metal such as Iron Maiden and Def Leppard followed in a similar vein. Before the end of the decade, heavy metal fans became known as "metalheads" or "headbangers". During the 1980s, glam metal became popular with groups such as Mötley Crüe.
Underground scenes produced an array of more aggressive styles: thrash metal broke into the mainstream with bands such as Metallica, Slayer and Anthrax, while other extreme subgenres of heavy metal such as death metal and black metal remain subcultural phenomena. Since the mid-1990s popular styles have further expanded the definition of the genre; these include groove metal and nu metal, the latter of which incorporates elements of grunge and hip hop. Heavy metal is traditionally characterized by loud distorted guitars, emphatic rhythms, dense bass-and-drum sound, vigorous vocals. Heavy metal subgenres variously alter, or omit one or more of these attributes; the New York Times critic Jon Pareles writes, "In the taxonomy of popular music, heavy metal is a major subspecies of hard-rock—the breed with less syncopation, less blues, more showmanship and more brute force." The typical band lineup includes a drummer, a bassist, a rhythm guitarist, a lead guitarist, a singer, who may or may not be an instrumentalist.
Keyboard instruments are sometimes used to enhance the fullness of the sound. Deep Purple's Jon Lord played an overdriven Hammond organ. In 1970, John Paul Jones used a Moog synthesizer on Led Zeppelin III; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. For classic heavy metal guitar tone, guitarists maintain moderate levels gain at moderate levels, without excessive preamp or pedal distortion, to retain open spaces and air in the music. Thrash metal guitar tone has scooped mid-frequencies and compressed sound with lots of bass frequencies. Guitar solos are "an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "feature at least one guitar solo", "a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity"; some exceptions are nu grindcore bands, which tend to omit guitar solos.
With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; the lead role of the guitar in heavy metal collides with the traditional "frontman" or bandleader role of the vocalist, creating a musical tension as the two "contend for dominance" in a spirit of "affectionate rivalry". Heavy metal "demands the subordination of the voice" to the overall sound of the band. Reflecting metal's roots in the 1960s counterculture, an "explicit display of emotion" is required from the vocals as a sign of authenticity. Critic Simon Frith claims; the prominent role of the bass is key to the metal sound, the interplay of bass and guitar is a central element. The bass guitar provides the low-end sound crucial to making the music "heavy"; the bass plays a "more important role in heavy metal than in any other genre of rock". Metal basslines vary in complexity, from holding down a low pedal point as a foundation to doubling complex riffs and licks along with the lead or rhythm guitars.
Some bands feature the bass as a lead instrument, an approach popularized by Metallica's Cliff Burton with his heavy emphasis on bass guitar solos and use of chords while playing bass in the early 1980s. Lemmy of Motörhead played overdriven power chords in his bass lines; the essence of heavy metal drumming is creating a loud, constant beat for the band using the "trifecta of speed and precision". Heavy metal drumming "requires an exceptional amount of endurance", drummers have to develop "considerable speed and dexterity... to play the intricate patterns" used in heavy metal. A characteristic metal drumming technique is the cymbal choke, which consists of striking a cymbal and immediately silencing it by grabbing it with the other hand, producing a burst of sound; the metal drum setup is much larger than those employed in other forms of rock music. Black metal, death metal and some "mainstream metal" bands "all depend upon double-kicks and blast beats". In live performance, loudness—an "onslaught of sound", in sociologist Deena Weinstein's description—is considered vital.
In his book Metalheads, psychologist Jeffrey Arnett refers to heavy me
Music Canada is a Toronto-based, non-profit trade organization, founded 9 April 1963 to represent the interests of companies that record, produce and distribute music in Canada. It offers benefits to some of Canada's leading independent record labels and distributors. Formed as the 10-member Canadian Record Manufacturer's Association, the association changed its name to Canadian Recording Industry Association in 1972 and opened membership to other record industry companies. In 2006, the CRIA was in the news when a number of smaller labels resigned their memberships, complaining that the organization wasn't representing their interests. In 2011, it changed its name to Music Canada offering special benefits to some of the leading independent labels and distributors in Canada. Music Canada is governed by a board of directors. To be eligible for election a candidate for the board must be among the executive officers of the member companies. Graham Henderson of Universal Music Canada has been president since 15 November 2004.
Members are divided into 3 classes: Class A members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is producing, manufacturing, or marketing sound recordings. These members hold voting rights, consist of the "big four" record labels. Class B members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is producing sound recordings; these members have no voting rights. As of 2007, there were 22 class B members. Manufacturing Division members are Canadian individuals or companies whose principal business is manufacturing sound recordings. Music Canada is responsible for the distribution of ISRC registrant codes within Canada, works with the IFPI and RIAA to try to prevent copyright infringement of artists' work. Music Canada has represented all record labels in the country. However, some labels and other industry groups have publicly disagreed with Music Canada and claim it no longer represents them. In 2006, six well-known "indie" labels including Nettwerk left Music Canada in a dispute over Canadian content rules.
They claimed the association was only protecting the interests of "the four major foreign multi-national labels," referring to EMI, Sony BMG, Warner. Other points of contention include Music Canada's stance against the blank media tax, their support for digital locks on music, positions against copyright reform. In 2007 a group of musicians formed the Canadian Music Creators Coalition, claiming "legislative proposals that would facilitate lawsuits against our fans or increase the labels' control over the enjoyment of music are made not in our names, but on behalf of the labels' foreign parent companies." On February 16, 2004, Music Canada applied to the Federal Court to force five major Canadian internet service providers — Shaw Communications Inc. Telus Corp. Rogers Cable, Bell Canada's Sympatico service and Quebec's Vidéotron — to hand over the names of 29 people accused of copyright infringement through peer-to-peer file sharing. On April 2005, Vidéotron indicated its willingness to supply customer information to Music Canada.
On March 31, 2004, in the case of BMG v. John Doe, Justice Konrad von Finckenstein of the Federal Court of Canada ruled that making music available for download over the Internet was not equivalent to distribution and was thus noninfringing; the Justice compared the peer-to-peer filesharing activities to "having a photocopier in a library room full of copyrighted material" and wrote that there was no evidence of unauthorized distribution presented. The Federal Court of Appeal upheld the lower courts ruling denying the disclosure of the customers' identities, but, in reference to "what would or would not constitute infringement of copyright," stated: "such conclusions should not have been made in the preliminary stages of this action, since they would require a consideration of the evidence as well as the law applicable to such evidence after it has been properly adduced, could be damaging to the parties if a trial takes place." The Copyright Board of Canada earlier that year had included downloading music in the list of "private copying" activities for which tariffs on blank media applied.
That made it unlikely that downloaders could be prosecuted, leaving only the possibility of acting against uploaders, those supplying the works to others on the networks. In 2008, the operators of the isoHunt website filed a motion with the Supreme Court of British Columbia seeking a declaratory judgment affirming the legality of their operation; the motion was denied, the court ruled a full trial was needed. This decision was appealed by the operators of isoHunt. In late 2009, isoHunt filed a formal suit against Music Canada and the four "major" record labels seeking "declaratory relief to clarify its legal rights."Additionally, in October 2008, the four main members of Music Canada were sued by the estate of Chet Baker and several other artists for copyright infringement. The major claims in this lawsuit are as follows: That some three hundred thousand works were illegally distributed by the Music Canada's members, That they failed to seek proper licensing and distribution agreements with the creators of the aforementioned works, instead placing the works on what is colloquially referred to as a "pending list" (i.e. any payments to be made for the use of the aforementioned works are reserved, pending an agreement with the ar
A cameo role or cameo appearance is a brief appearance or voice part of a known person in a work of the performing arts. These roles are small, many of them non-speaking ones, are either appearances in a work in which they hold some special significance or renowned people making uncredited appearances. Short appearances by celebrities, film directors, athletes or musicians are common. A crew member of the movie or show playing a minor role can be referred to as a cameo as well, such as Alfred Hitchcock's performed cameos. "cameo role" meant "a small character part that stands out from the other minor parts". The Oxford English Dictionary connects this with the meaning "a short literary sketch or portrait", based on the literal meaning of "cameo", a miniature carving on a gemstone. More "cameo" has come to refer to any short appearances, as a character, such as the examples below. Cameos are not credited because of their brevity, or a perceived mismatch between the celebrity's stature and the film or television series in which they are appearing.
Many are publicity stunts. Others are acknowledgments of an actor's contribution to an earlier work, as in the case of many film adaptations of television series, or of remakes of earlier films. Others honour celebrities known for work in a particular field; the best-known series of cameos was by Alfred Hitchcock, who made brief appearances in most of his films. Cameos occur in novels and other literary works. "Literary cameos" involve an established character from another work who makes a brief appearance to establish a shared universe setting, to make a point, or to offer homage. Balzac employed this practice, as in his Comédie humaine. Sometimes a cameo features a historical person who "drops in" on fictional characters in a historical novel, as when Benjamin Franklin shares a beer with Phillipe Charboneau in The Bastard by John Jakes. A cameo appearance can be made by the author of a work to put a sort of personal "signature" on a story. Vladimir Nabokov put himself in his novels, for instance as the minor character Vivian Darkbloom in Lolita.
Quentin Tarantino provides small roles in at least 10 of his movies. Peter Jackson has made brief cameos in all of his movies, except for his first feature-length film Bad Taste in which he plays a main character, as well as The Battle of the Five Armies, though a portrait of him appears in the film. For example, he plays a peasant eating a carrot in The Fellowship of the Ring and The Desolation of Smaug. All four were non-speaking "blink and you miss him" appearances, although in the Extended Release of The Return of the King, his character was given more screen time and his reprise of the carrot eating peasant in The Desolation of Smaug was featured in the foreground in reference to The Fellowship of the Ring - last seen twelve years earlier. Director Martin Scorsese appears in the background of his films as a bystander or an unseen character. In Who's That Knocking at My Door, he appears as one of the gangsters, he opens up his film The Color of Money with a monologue on the art of playing pool.
In addition, he appears with his wife and daughter as wealthy New Yorkers in Gangs of New York, he appears as a theatre-goer and is heard as a movie projectionist in The Aviator. In a same way, Roman Polanski appears as a hired hoodlum in his film Chinatown, slitting Jack Nicholson's nose with the blade of his clasp knife. Directors sometimes cast well-known lead actors with whom they have worked in the past in other films. Mike Todd's film Around the World in 80 Days was filled with cameo roles: John Gielgud as an English butler, Frank Sinatra playing piano in a saloon, others; the stars in cameo roles were pictured in oval insets in posters for the film, gave the term wide circulation outside the theatrical profession. It's a Mad, Mad, Mad World, an "epic comedy" features cameos from nearly every popular American comedian alive at the time, including The Three Stooges, Jerry Lewis, a silent appearance by Buster Keaton and a voice-only cameo by Selma Diamond. Aaron Sorkin had cameos in some works he wrote: as a bar customer speaking about law in his debut film screenplay A Few Good Men, as an advertising executive in The Social Network and as a guest at the inauguration of President Matt Santos in the final episode of The West Wing.
Franco Nero, the actor who portrayed the Django character in the original 1966 film appears in a bar scene of the Tarantino film Django Unchained. Many cameos featured in Maverick, directed by Richard Donner. Among them, Danny Glover – Mel Gibson's co-star in the Lethal Weapon franchise directed by Donner – appears as the lead bank robber, he and Maverick share a scene where they look as if they knew each other, but shake it off. As Glover makes his escape with the money, he mutters "I'm too old for this shit", his character's catchphrase in the Lethal Weapon films. In addition, a strain of the main theme from Lethal Weapon plays in the score when Glover is revealed. Actress Margot Kidder made a cameo appearance in the same film as a robbed villager: she had starred as Lois Lane in Donner's Superman. Ben Stiller, Vince Vaughn, Owen Wilson, Luke Wilson and
Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture. It was founded in San Francisco, California in 1967 by Jann Wenner, still the magazine's publisher, the music critic Ralph J. Gleason, it was first known for political reporting by Hunter S. Thompson. In the 1990s, the magazine shifted focus to a younger readership interested in youth-oriented television shows, film actors, popular music. In recent years, it has resumed its traditional mix of content. Rolling Stone Press is the magazine's associated book publishing imprint. Straight Arrow Press was the magazine's associated book publishing imprint, Straight Arrow Publishing Co. Inc. was the publishing company that published Rolling Stone. Rolling Stone magazine was founded in San Francisco in 1967 by Ralph Gleason. To get it off the ground, Wenner borrowed $7,500 from his own family and from the parents of his soon-to-be wife, Jane Schindelheim; the first issue carried a cover date of November 9, 1967, was in newspaper format with a lead article on the Monterey Pop Festival.
The cover price was 25¢. In the first issue, Wenner explained that the title of the magazine referred to the 1950 blues song "Rollin' Stone", recorded by Muddy Waters, Bob Dylan's hit single "Like a Rolling Stone": You're wondering what we're trying to do. It's hard to say: sort of a sort of a newspaper; the name of it is Rolling Stone which comes from an old saying, "A rolling stone gathers no moss." Muddy Waters used the name for a song. The Rolling Stones took their name from Muddy's song. "Like a Rolling Stone" was the title of Bob Dylan's first rock and roll record. We have begun a new publication reflecting what we see are the changes in rock and roll and the changes related to rock and roll."—Jann Wenner, Rolling Stone, November 9, 1967, p. 2 Some authors have attributed the name to Dylan's hit single: "At Gleason's suggestion, Wenner named his magazine after a Bob Dylan song." Rolling Stone identified with and reported the hippie counterculture of the era. However, it distanced itself from the underground newspapers of the time, such as Berkeley Barb, embracing more traditional journalistic standards and avoiding the radical politics of the underground press.
In the first edition, Wenner wrote that Rolling Stone "is not just about the music, but about the things and attitudes that music embraces". In the 1970s, Rolling Stone began to make a mark with its political coverage, with the likes of gonzo journalist Hunter S. Thompson writing for the magazine's political section. Thompson first published his most famous work Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas within the pages of Rolling Stone, where he remained a contributing editor until his death in 2005. In the 1970s, the magazine helped launch the careers of many prominent authors, including Cameron Crowe, Lester Bangs, Joe Klein, Joe Eszterhas, Ben Fong-Torres, Patti Smith and P. J. O'Rourke, it was at this point that the magazine ran some of its most famous stories, including that of the Patty Hearst abduction odyssey. One interviewer, speaking for a large number of his peers, said that he bought his first copy of the magazine upon initial arrival on his college campus, describing it as a "rite of passage".
In 1977, the magazine moved its headquarters from San Francisco to New York City. Editor Jann Wenner said San Francisco had become "a cultural backwater". During the 1980s, the magazine began to shift towards being a general "entertainment" magazine. Music was still a dominant topic, but there was increasing coverage of celebrities in television and the pop culture of the day; the magazine initiated its annual "Hot Issue" during this time. Rolling Stone was known for its musical coverage and for Thompson's political reporting. In the 1990s, the magazine changed its format to appeal to a younger readership interested in youth-oriented television shows, film actors and popular music; this led to criticism. In recent years, the magazine has resumed its traditional mix of content, including in-depth political stories, it has expanded content to include coverage of financial and banking issues. As a result, the magazine has seen its circulation increase and its reporters invited as experts to network television programs of note.
The printed format has gone through several changes. The first publications, in 1967–72, were in folded tabloid newspaper format, with no staples, black ink text, a single color highlight that changed each edition. From 1973 onwards, editions were produced on a four-color press with a different newsprint paper size. In 1979, the bar code appeared. In 1980, it became a large format magazine; as of edition of October 30, 2008, Rolling Stone has had a smaller, standard-format magazine size. After years of declining readership, the magazine experienced a major resurgence of interest and relevance with the work of two young journalists in the late 2000s, Michael Hastings and Matt Taibbi. In 2005, Dana Leslie Fields, former publisher of Rolling Stone, who had worked at the magazine for 17 years, was an inaugural inductee into the Magazine Hall of Fame. In 2009, Taibbi unleashed an acclaimed series of scathing reports on the financial meltdown of the time, he famously described Goldman Sachs as "a great vampire squid".
Bigger headlines came at the end of June 2010. Rolling Stone caused a controversy in the White House by publishing in the July issue an article by journalist Michael Hastings entitled, "The Runaway General", quoting criticism by General Stanley A. McChrystal, commander of the International Security Assistance Force and U. S. Forces-Afghanistan commander, about Vice President Joe Biden and oth
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
Mama Weer All Crazee Now
"Mama Weer All Crazee Now" is a song by the British rock band Slade, released in 1972 as the lead single from their third studio album Slayed?. It was written by lead vocalist Noddy Holder and bassist Jim Lea, produced by Chas Chandler, it reached No. 1 in the UK, giving the band their third number one single, remained in the charts for ten weeks. In the United States, the song reached No. 76. During 1972, Slade recorded their third studio album Slayed?, with the lead single "Mama Weer All Crazee Now" being released in August that year. The single reached No. 1 in the UK and Ireland, was a hit across Europe and beyond. With the single and their manager Chas Chandler attempted to reach number one on the first week of release - a feat that had not been achieved since The Beatles' 1969 hit "Get Back"; the band's label Polydor did not think it could be achieved, however when "Mama Weer All Crazee Now" reached No. 2 in its first week, the label changed their minds. A strategy was soon developed which saw "Cum On Feel the Noize", the band's next single, reach No. 1 in its first week of release in March 1973."Mama Weer All Crazee Now" was the first tune Lea wrote on his own.
Holder got the idea for the lyrics at the band's concert at Wembley Arena in London. After the show, he looked at the remains of the auditorium's smashed seating and thought "Christ, everyone must have been crazy tonight." The song was titled "My My We're All Crazy Now". When Holder and Lea played the song acoustically to Chandler for the first time, he thought Holder was singing "Mama We're All Crazy Now"; the name was changed accordingly as Holder and Lea felt Chandler's title was better. In a 1984 interview with Record Mirror, Lea spoke of "Mama Weer All Crazee" and "Cum On Feel the Noize": "I was at a Chuck Berry gig in'72 and everybody was singing his tunes, he kept stopping and letting the crowd sing and it wasn't just a few people, it was everyone. I thought it was amazing and thought – why not write the crowd into the songs, so we got round to "Mama Weer All Crazee Now" and "Cum On Feel the Noize" and all the chants were written into the tunes." In his 1999 biography Who's Crazee Now?, Holder recalled: "We had hit on our benchmark sound.
It was perfect for Slade raucous, but catchy and pop. It was a real powerhouse record. Everyone loved it and everyone knew all the words." "Mama Weer All Crazee Now" was released on 7" vinyl by Polydor Records in the UK, across Europe, Yugoslavia, Turkey, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Mexico and Japan. The B-side, "Man Who Speeks Evil", was exclusive to the single and would appear on the band's 2007 compilation B-Sides. No music video was filmed to promote the song. In the UK, the band performed. In Germany, the song was performed on the TV shows Musikladen; the band performed the song on the Dutch AVRO TV show TopPop. In 1977, the band performed the song on the UK show Supersonic while promoting their new single "Gypsy Roadhog". In 1981, while promoting "We'll Bring the House Down", the band performed the song on the ITV show Moondogs. Upon release, Record Mirror noted the song's "hard-driving beat" as being "full of sheer bloody-minded slay them enthusiasm", while retaining a "commercial hook".
New Musical Express predicted the song would reach number one, adding: "I consider this their best by far from the fuzzed out guitar intro to the rocking. Disc stated: "With howls they tear straight into another huge boogie. By the time this one ends you could believe, so dense does the sound and the atmosphere become, that 50,000 people were roaring along with the band in some distant dark stadium."In a retrospective song review by AllMusic, Dave Thompson described the song as a "full-on adrenalin monster, ear-splittingly loud with its lyrics a raw-throated bellow". In a review of Sladest, Paul Tinelli of AllMusic included the song as one of the band's "finest moments" and described it as an "arena rocker that would get kids up off their seats". 7" Single"Mama Weer All Crazee Now" - 3:43 "Man Who Speeks Evil" - 3:157" Single"Mama Weer All Crazee Now" - 3:43 "Take Me Bak'Ome" - 3:137" Single"Mama Weer All Crazee Now" - 3:43 "Mama Weer All Crazee Now" - 3:43 SladeNoddy Holder - lead vocals, guitar Dave Hill - lead guitar, backing vocals Jim Lea - bass, backing vocals Don Powell - drumsAdditional personnelChas Chandler - producer In 1973, Les Humphries Singers & Orchestra released a cover of the song on their album Sound'73.
In 1973, German composer and big band leader James Last recorded an instrumental orchestrated version of the song for the album Non Stop Dancing 1973. In 1978, American rock band The Runaways recorded a cover of the song and included it on their 1979 album And Now... The Runaways. In 1984, American heavy metal band Quiet Riot recorded a version for their album Condition Critical, it was released as a single and reached No. 51 on the US Billboard Hot 100. In 1984, Irish hard rock band Mama's Boys recorded a cover of the song for their self-titled album, it was released as a single. In 1988, Spanish heavy metal band Ángeles del Infierno included a cover of the song on their 1988 album 666. In 1990, Glam rock tribute band The Metal Gurus released a cover of the song as a B-Side for their single "Merry Xmas Everybody", another Slade cover; the single was produced by Holder and Lea, reached No. 55 in the UK. Sales of the single raised proceeds for the Childline charity. In 1996, John Springate of glam rock group The Glitter Band released a cover on the glam rock tribute album Wham Bam Thank You Glam.
In 1996, the English rockabilly band Big 6 released