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A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy or a sexually transmitted infection. There are both female condoms. With proper use—and use at every act of intercourse—women whose partners use male condoms experience a 2% per-year pregnancy rate. With typical use the rate of pregnancy is 18% per-year, their use decreases the risk of gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS. They to a lesser extent protect against genital herpes, human papillomavirus, syphilis; the male condom is rolled onto an erect penis before intercourse and works by forming a physical barrier which blocks semen from entering the body of a sexual partner. Male condoms are made from latex and, less from polyurethane, polyisoprene, or lamb intestine. Male condoms have the advantages of ease of use, easy to access, few side effects. In those with a latex allergy a polyurethane or other synthetic version should be used. Female condoms are made from polyurethane and may be used multiple times.

Condoms as a method of preventing STIs have been used since at least 1564. Rubber condoms became available followed by latex condoms in the 1920s, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.03 to US$0.08 each. In the United States condoms cost less than US$1.00. Globally less than 10% of those using birth control are using the condom. Rates of condom use are higher in the developed world. In the United Kingdom the condom is the second most common method of birth control while in the United States it is the third most common. About six to nine billion are sold a year; the effectiveness of condoms, as of most forms of contraception, can be assessed two ways. Perfect use or method effectiveness rates only include people who use condoms properly and consistently. Actual use, or typical use effectiveness rates are of all condom users, including those who use condoms incorrectly or do not use condoms at every act of intercourse.

Rates are presented for the first year of use. Most the Pearl Index is used to calculate effectiveness rates, but some studies use decrement tables; the typical use pregnancy rate among condom users varies depending on the population being studied, ranging from 10 to 18% per year. The perfect use pregnancy rate of condoms is 2% per year. Condoms may be combined with other forms of contraception for greater protection. Condoms are recommended for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, they have been shown to be effective in reducing infection rates in both women. While not perfect, the condom is effective at reducing the transmission of organisms that cause AIDS, genital herpes, cervical cancer, genital warts, chlamydia and other diseases. Condoms are recommended as an adjunct to more effective birth control methods in situations where STD protection is desired. According to a 2000 report by the National Institutes of Health, consistent use of latex condoms reduces the risk of HIV/AIDS transmission by 85% relative to risk when unprotected, putting the seroconversion rate at 0.9 per 100 person-years with condom, down from 6.7 per 100 person-years.

Analysis published in 2007 from the University of Texas Medical Branch and the World Health Organization found similar risk reductions of 80–95%. The 2000 NIH review concluded that condom use reduces the risk of gonorrhea for men. A 2006 study reports that proper condom use decreases the risk of transmission of human papillomavirus to women by 70%. Another study in the same year found consistent condom use was effective at reducing transmission of herpes simplex virus-2 known as genital herpes, in both men and women. Although a condom is effective in limiting exposure, some disease transmission may occur with a condom. Infectious areas of the genitals when symptoms are present, may not be covered by a condom, as a result, some diseases like HPV and herpes may be transmitted by direct contact; the primary effectiveness issue with using condoms to prevent STDs, however, is inconsistent use. Condoms may be useful in treating precancerous cervical changes. Exposure to human papillomavirus in individuals infected with the virus, appears to increase the risk of precancerous changes.

The use of condoms helps promote regression of these changes. In addition, researchers in the UK suggest that a hormone in semen can aggravate existing cervical cancer, condom use during sex can prevent exposure to the hormone. Condoms may slip off the penis after ejaculation, break due to improper application or physical damage, or break or slip due to latex degradation; the rate of breakage is between 0.4% and 2.3%, while the rate of slippage is between 0.6% and 1.3%. If no breakage or slippage is observed, 1–3% of women will test positive for semen residue after intercourse with a condom."Double bagging", using two condoms at once, is believed to cause a higher rate of failure due to the friction of rubber on rubber. This claim is not supported by research; the limited studies that have been done found that the simultaneous use of multiple condoms decreases the risk of condom breakage. Different modes of condom failure result in different levels of semen exposure. If a failure occurs during application, the damaged condom may be disposed of and a new condom applied before intercourse beg

Hess Educational Organization

HESS International Educational Group is the single largest private provider of English education in Taiwan. Hess has an estimated 60,000 students enrolled. Founded in 1983 by Joseph Chu and Karen Hess, it has become a large business, with schools across the island. Hess provides books and resources to other English schools across Asia to teach English as a foreign language, has a chain of bookstores, founded in 1990. In addition to the ROC, Hess has branches in Singapore and South Korea as well as connections to Japan. Hess hires native-speaking English teachers from countries; as per Taiwan government law, these include the US, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa. After one year of employment and completion of the full training program, Hess employees earn a TEFL certificate, but it is not affiliated with any outside official educational body. All foreign teachers working for Hess are employed to work as Native-Speaking Teachers in the ROC, Hess offers document-processing assistance to all its staff.

Like most employers in Taiwan, Hess aids new teachers to join the national healthcare program and contributes part of the costs on a monthly basis. The primary curriculum of Hess instruction is their ESL series, aimed at elementary school children; the ESL curriculum consists of 12 levels lasting six months each and is aimed at students from first grade to junior high school level. For children in grades 1-2, there is the Kids World series. At the junior high level, Hess has developed several curricula for further study. Hess has several adult learning courses through its International Studies Institute. In addition to their EFL and Kids World series, Hess offers two English-environment series; the Tree House series uses books published in-house. There are each six months long. Lower levels are divided into 9 themes and a Holiday Unit while the mid-levels have 6 themes and a Holiday Unit; the Tree House series uses 8 primary characters that interact and change along with the children in the classes.

The ESL series using a combination of in-house materials, such as the Tree House series, materials written and published for Elementary schools in the US, such as the Macmillan-McGraw Hill Treasures series. These reading components comprise the core of the ESL program but modules such as Science and Mathematics have been incorporated; the schedule and focus of Hess' ESL program varies between areas and branches throughout the island. Hess has several key books that comprise their EFL curriculum for students: Phonics – The first thing students learn; the KK method of noting phonetic sounds is used however emphasis is placed on learning spelling and deducing the pronunciation of letter combinations. Reading – Each of the 8 levels has 1-2 different reading books to introduce vocabulary and grammar, last 2 levels consist of 4 books each. Patterns – The book focuses on grammar, such as verb tenses, the making of questions and superlative adjectives, the passive voice, etc. Student Book/Modern English – contains activities and conversations that students use to review and practice their English.

Homework - Two pre-printed homework books are provided for the lower and middle levels. Students turn these books in to the teacher. Higher levels copy the homework out of their books; the Tree House series comprises the following: Storybooks - There is a story for each theme. In the mid-levels each there are 2 books with three chapters each; each chapter corresponds to a theme. Textbook - The textbook includes pages for the theme and grammar, conversation comic, phonics, a phonics activity, phonics reading and the song. Stickers are provided in the back for grammar practice activities either using a dedicated picture-page for the stickers to be put on or using the theme page. Flashcards - students are issued a set of standard playing-card sized vocabulary flashcards for both individual review and for grammar practice written into the curriculum. Workbook - Pre-printed listening and vocabulary skills pages are provided for each lesson; the workbook follows the same structure. The workbook includes spelling pages, creative writing pages and reading practice and comprehension pages.

Homework - Two pre-printed homework books are provided for the lower and middle levels. Students turn these books in to the teacher. Higher levels copy the homework out of a provided Homework book. Hess produces its own curriculum, from books to audio CDs to props and artwork. Authors for Hess curriculum include teaching specialists, design specialists and current and former Hess teachers. Hess has published supplements to their primary curriculum, including storybooks for children, English learning CDs and DVDs, activity books containing classroom games and projects. Hess publishes secondary curriculum materials for use at other schools. However, the core books are exclusive to Hess schools. According to Hess, it has published more than 1,000 different titles, with 800,000 books used by students each year. There are two primary types of teachers in Hess: Native-Speaking Chinese Co-Teachers. There are French and Japanese speaking teachers for Hess's other language programs. CTs are drawn from Taiwan, with NSTs hailing from the foreign countries listed above.

CTs and NSTs have separate training requirements. Within ea

The Devil's Claim

The Devil's Claim is a 1920 American silent drama film starring Sessue Hayakawa and Colleen Moore. A print of this film survives; as summarized in a film publication, Akbar Khan, a novelist in New York, uses his love affairs as inspiration for his books. His current affair is with a Persian girl. However, the passion has left the relationship and he casts her out. Social worker Virginia Crosby comes to her aid and pretends to fall for Khan, he is inspired to write about "The Devil’s Trademark", an adaption of a serial for a popular magazine. The film flashes to his vision of the story, set in Paris with Khan as the hero Hassan. Hassan’s companion in the story is a beautiful Hindu woman; the story includes a stolen talisman, a blindfolded marriage, Egyptian sorceresses, a sect of devil worshipers, reincarnated evil spirits. Virginia leaves Khan before the story is finished, sends for Indora, who steps into her place. Sessue Hayakawa as Akbar Khan/Hassan Rhea Mitchell as Virginia Crosby Colleen Moore as Indora William Buckley as Spencer Wellington Sidney Payne as Kemal Joe Wray as Salim Jeff Codori, Colleen Moore.

Alt Film Guide page for the film BFI page for the film The Devil's Claim on IMDb The Devil's Claim at the TCM Movie Database NY Times review The Library of Congress American Silent Feature Film Survival Catalog: The Devil's Claim

José María Noriega

José María "Txema" Noriega Aldekoa is a Spanish former professional footballer who played as a forward. His career was associated with Athletic Bilbao, winning the national championship twice as a player in the 1980s and serving as the club's director of football and the co-ordinator of its youth system. Born in Bilbao, Basque Country, Noriega was a graduate of Athletic Bilbao's youth system, having supported the club as a child, he made his senior debut with the reserve team, Bilbao Athletic, in the regionalised third tier during 1977–78. Towards the end of his third season featuring for the reserves, he made his debut for the Athletic senior team on 16 March 1980, a 1–0 win away to Atlético Madrid in La Liga, he was promoted at the start of the following campaign, would feature in the majority of the team's matches for the next six seasons, albeit appearing from the bench or himself being substituted. Those years under coach Javier Clemente were one of the most successful periods in Athletic Bilbao's history, in which they were champions of Spain in 1982–83 and 1983–84, before finishing third in the next two seasons.

They won the 1984 Copa del Rey Final and were runners-up the following year – Noriega did not take part in either final but was involved in earlier rounds. He did play in the first leg of the 1983 Supercopa de España, he featured in the European Cup against the likes of Liverpool and was involved in further defeats to Barcelona at the semi-final stage of the cup in both 1981 and 1986, scoring in the former. In 1986–87, Noriega's contribution was diminished due to injury, not playing at all until April and registering only 267 minutes in the league, he did manage to complete 90 minutes in what would be his final appearance for the club, a 2–1 win away to UD Las Palmas on 20 June 1987. Noriega began the 1987–88 season with Athletic but did not play any competitive fixtures and soon moved on, dropping down to the second level to join newly-promoted CD Tenerife on the eve of his 29th birthday. Injuries again hampered his progress during two seasons in the Canary Islands, but in the latter campaign he contributed 22 regular league appearances plus one in the playoffs as the club defeated Real Betis and returned to the top tier after a 28-year absence.

Tenerife praised his "nobility and professionalism" during his spell, after which he retired from playing professionally at the young age of 30. After his playing days ended, Noriega remained working in football, although it was more than a decade when he was hired in a prominent position. After spending the 2003–04 season as the manager of Barakaldo CF in the third tier, in September 2004 he was appointed as Athletic Bilbao's director of football with special responsibility for the club's Lezama academy, after the appointment of Fernando Lamikiz as president. Although credited for his involvement in bringing players such as Javi Martínez and Iker Muniain to the club, his three-year term was associated with disappointing results on the field, with several coaches hired and dismissed, in addition to the'Zubiaurre affair' where Athletic's approach to sign a player was ruled to be illegal, all of which led to Lamikiz's resignation halfway through his scheduled term. Noriega remained in post during the interim presidency of Ana Urkijo but was replaced when Fernando García Macua became president in the 2007 elections.

He expressed his disappointment that his efforts to add a winning mentality to the youth coaching at the club – by appointing experienced personnel such as former teammates Luis de la Fuente and Patxi Salinas – were derided as cronyism. Athletic Bilbao La Liga: 1982–83, 1983–84 José María Noriega at Athletic Bilbao José María Noriega at BDFutbol

Environmental health officer

Environmental Health Officers are responsible for carrying out measures for protecting public health, including administering and enforcing legislation related to environmental health and providing support to minimize health and safety hazards. Environmental Health Practitioners are multi-skilled in many areas with individuals being trained to degree level, requiring additional professional training, professional competency assessment and continuing professional development in order to continue to practise in the field, they are involved in a variety of activities, for example inspecting food facilities, investigating public health nuisances, implementing disease control, conducting work place safety assessments and accident investigation. Environmental health officers are focused on prevention, consultation and education of the community regarding health risks and maintaining a safe environment. EHOs bring to the position an understanding of microbiology, risk assessment, environmental science and technology, food science, knowledge of the built environment as well as the skills and knowledge related to the tracking and control of communicable disease, investigation of environmental health related incidents and criminal investigations.

They therefore must have strong investigative skills and a thorough understanding of the application of legislation related to public health, the built environment, pollution control and workplace safety. Working in partnership with Government Ministries, local municipalities, community groups, other agencies and individual members of the community, the EHO plays a major role in protecting public health, they are allowed with a permit to select. Some past/historic titles include inspector of nuisances and sanitary inspector. Other titles that exist include environmental health specialist/practitioner/professional, public health officer, health officer, health inspector, health official; the legal title used will depend on the definitions found in local legislation/jurisdiction. Environmental health professionals are employed by local government or state health authorities to advise on and enforce public health standards. However, many are employed in the private sector, the military and other third sector agencies such as charities and NGOs.

The following represents jobs that can be found in either the public or private sectors: Inspection and enforcement services Environmental health consulting and education Communicable disease investigations and outbreak control Food safety course training Community planning Sewage disposal systems planning Floor plan review and approval Housing standards/quality inspection and control Urban renewal Pest control Emergency contingency planning and implementation Noise control Air quality monitoring Health and safety at work inspection and control Water testing Tobacco control Community care facilities licensing Public Buildings Quality ImprovementThe common identifier of environmental health personnel is that they are responsible for the identification and management of risks to human health from factors in the environment, whether on behalf of government agencies or commercial and industrial concerns. A Public Health Inspector investigates health hazards in a wide variety of settings, will take action to mitigate or eliminate the hazards.

The public perception of a health inspector is someone who examines restaurants and ensures they maintain sanitary standards for food safety set by the regulating authority. However, public health inspectors have much broader job duties, including inspecting swimming pools, substandard housing conditions, public schools, day cares, nursing homes, personal service establishments such as tattoo parlours. Depending on their jurisdiction, Registered Environmental Health Officers permit and inspect wells, private water systems, individual subsurface sewage disposal systems. Other tasks include: campground inspections, tanning salon inspections, beauty salon inspections, correctional facility inspections and mobile home park inspection; the public health inspector plays a vital role in community projects such as those concerning health promotion, tobacco reduction, healthy built environments/healthy communities, food security, emergency preparedness. They may respond to complaints such as animal bites, garbage complaints, odor complaints, or sewage overflows.

Due to their educational background they can provide information and referrals with regards to. The field overlaps with hazardous materials and many Hazmat responders are Licensed Environmental Health Practitioners or Registered Environmental Health Specialists. Environmental health officers work with many different people in a variety of environments, their jobs involve considerable fieldwork, some travel frequently. Many environmental health officers work long and irregular hours, they inspect pools, childcare centers, septic systems, many other types of establishments that relate to health and safety. Environmental health officers may be exposed to many of the same physically strenuous conditions and hazards as industrial employees, the work may be performed in unpleasant and dangerous working conditions, they may find themselves in an adversarial role if the management of an organization disagrees with the recommendations for ensuring a safe working environment. The fi

All European Academies

All European Academies is the European Federation of Academies of Sciences and Humanities. It was founded in 1994 and brings together more than 50 Academies of Sciences and Learned Societies from over 40 countries in the Council of Europe region. Since May 2018 the President of ALLEA is Antonio Loprieno. ALLEA is financed by annual dues from its member academies and remains independent from political, commercial or ideological interests; the ALLEA secretariat is based on the premises of the Berlin Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities in Berlin. ALLEA’s mission includes facilitating the collaboration between Academies, fostering excellence and high ethical standards in the conduct of research, promoting the autonomy of science and research, representing the European Academies’ positions to the European authorities, contributing to the improvement of the framework conditions for science and research. Jointly with its Member Academies, ALLEA is in a position to address the full range of structural and policy issues facing Europe in science and innovation.

In doing so, it is guided by a common understanding of Europe, bound together by historical and political factors as well as for scientific and economic reasons. ALLEA Member Academies operate as learned societies, think tanks, or research performing organisations, they are self-governing communities of leaders of scholarly enquiry across all fields of the natural sciences, the social sciences and the humanities. ALLEA therefore provides access to an unparalleled human resource of intellectual excellence and expertise. Furthermore, its integrative membership structure comprises Academies from both EU and non–EU member states in Europe; the core of the scientific work of ALLEA is performed by its Working Groups. ALLEA Working Groups are advisory bodies concerned with specific issues and providing advice and guidance on matters related to science, science management and science policy on the European level, their activities and services may vary from advising decision-makers and the general public to producing memoranda, position papers or reports published under the auspices of ALLEA.

ALLEA, jointly with four other European academy networks, forms part of the EU-funded SAPEA project, bringing together knowledge and expertise of Fellows from over 100 Academies across Europe. SAPEA provides interdisciplinary and evidence based-scientific advice on policy issues to the European Commission and the European public in the context of the European Commission's Scientific Advice Mechanism. ALLEA website