The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet". Its distinctive hump upper deck along the forward part of the aircraft has made it one of the most recognizable aircraft, it was the first wide-body airplane produced. Manufactured by Boeing's Commercial Airplane unit in the United States, the 747 was envisioned to have 150 percent greater capacity than the Boeing 707, a common large commercial aircraft of the 1960s. First flown commercially in 1970, the 747 held the passenger capacity record for 37 years; the quadjet 747 uses a double-deck configuration for part of its length and is available in passenger and other versions. Boeing designed the 747's hump-like upper deck to serve as a first–class lounge or extra seating, to allow the aircraft to be converted to a cargo carrier by removing seats and installing a front cargo door. Boeing expected supersonic airliners—the development of, announced in the early 1960s—to render the 747 and other subsonic airliners obsolete, while the demand for subsonic cargo aircraft would remain robust well into the future.
Though the 747 was expected to become obsolete after 400 were sold, it exceeded critics' expectations with production surpassing 1,000 in 1993. By July 2018, 1,546 aircraft had been built, with 22 of the 747-8 variants remaining on order; as of January 2017, the 747 has been involved in 60 hull losses. The 747-400, the most common variant in service, has a high-subsonic cruise speed of Mach 0.85–0.855 with an intercontinental range of 7,260 nautical miles. The 747-400 can accommodate 416 passengers in a typical three-class layout, 524 passengers in a typical two-class layout, or 660 passengers in a high–density one-class configuration; the newest version of the aircraft, the 747-8, is in production and received certification in 2011. Deliveries of the 747-8F freighter version began in October 2011. In 1963, the United States Air Force started a series of study projects on a large strategic transport aircraft. Although the C-141 Starlifter was being introduced, they believed that a much larger and more capable aircraft was needed the capability to carry outsized cargo that would not fit in any existing aircraft.
These studies led to initial requirements for the CX-Heavy Logistics System in March 1964 for an aircraft with a load capacity of 180,000 pounds and a speed of Mach 0.75, an unrefueled range of 5,000 nautical miles with a payload of 115,000 pounds. The payload bay had to be 17 feet wide by 13.5 feet high and 100 feet long with access through doors at the front and rear. Featuring only four engines, the design required new engine designs with increased power and better fuel economy. In May 1964, airframe proposals arrived from Boeing, General Dynamics and Martin Marietta. After a downselect, Boeing and Lockheed were given additional study contracts for the airframe, along with General Electric and Pratt & Whitney for the engines. All three of the airframe proposals shared a number of features; as the CX-HLS needed to be able to be loaded from the front, a door had to be included where the cockpit was. All of the companies solved this problem by moving the cockpit above the cargo area. In 1965 Lockheed's aircraft design and General Electric's engine design were selected for the new C-5 Galaxy transport, the largest military aircraft in the world at the time.
The nose door and raised cockpit concepts would be carried over to the design of the 747. The 747 was conceived; the era of commercial jet transportation, led by the enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, had revolutionized long-distance travel. Before it lost the CX-HLS contract, Boeing was asked by Juan Trippe, president of Pan American World Airways, one of their most important airline customers, to build a passenger aircraft more than twice the size of the 707. During this time, airport congestion, worsened by increasing numbers of passengers carried on small aircraft, became a problem that Trippe thought could be addressed by a larger new aircraft. In 1965, Joe Sutter was transferred from Boeing's 737 development team to manage the design studies for the new airliner assigned the model number 747. Sutter initiated a design study with Pan Am and other airlines, to better understand their requirements. At the time, it was thought that the 747 would be superseded by supersonic transport aircraft.
Boeing responded by designing the 747 so that it could be adapted to carry freight and remain in production if sales of the passenger version declined. In the freighter role, the clear need was to support the containerized shipping methodologies that were being introduced at about the same time. Standard shipping containers are 8 ft square at the front and available in 40 ft lengths; this meant that it would be possible to support a 2-wide 2-high stack of containers two or three ranks deep with a fuselage size similar to the earlier CX-HLS project. In April 1966, Pan Am orde
Frankfurt is a metropolis and the largest city of the German federal state of Hesse, its 746,878 inhabitants make it the fifth-largest city of Germany after Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne. On the River Main, it forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring city of Offenbach am Main, its urban area has a population of 2.3 million. The city is at the centre of the larger Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.5 million and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Region. Since the enlargement of the European Union in 2013, the geographic centre of the EU is about 40 km to the east of Frankfurt's central business district. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect area. Frankfurt was a city state, the Free City of Frankfurt, for nearly five centuries, was one of the most important cities of the Holy Roman Empire, as a site of imperial coronations, it has been part of the federal state of Hesse since 1945.
A quarter of the population are foreign nationals, including many expatriates. Frankfurt is an alpha world city and a global hub for commerce, education and transportation, it is the site of many European corporate headquarters. Frankfurt Airport is among the world's busiest. Frankfurt is the major financial centre of the European continent, with the headquarters of the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW, several cloud and fintech startups and other institutes. Automotive and research, consulting and creative industries complement the economic base. Frankfurt's DE-CIX is the world's largest internet exchange point. Messe Frankfurt is one of the world's largest trade fairs. Major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show, the world's largest motor show, the Music Fair, the Frankfurt Book Fair, the world's largest book fair. Frankfurt is home to influential educational institutions, including the Goethe University, the UAS, the FUMPA, graduate schools like the Frankfurt School of Finance & Management.
Its renowned cultural venues include the concert hall Alte Oper, Europe's largest English theatre and many museums. Frankfurt's skyline is shaped by some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers; the city is characterised by various green areas and parks, including the central Wallanlagen, the City Forest and two major botanical gardens, the Palmengarten and the University's Botanical Garden. Important is the Frankfurt Zoo. In electronic music, Frankfurt has been a pioneering city since the 1980s, with renowned DJs including Sven Väth, Marc Trauner, Scot Project, Kai Tracid, the clubs Dorian Gray, U60311, Omen and Cocoon. In sports, the city is known as the home of the top tier football club Eintracht Frankfurt, the Löwen Frankfurt ice hockey team, the basketball club Frankfurt Skyliners, the Frankfurt Marathon and the venue of Ironman Germany. Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe, it is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks.
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market. In 2010, 63 national and 152 international banks had their registered offices in Frankfurt, including Germany's major banks, notably Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW and Commerzbank, as well as 41 representative offices of international banks. Frankfurt is considered a global city. Among global cities it was ranked 10th by the Global Power City Index 2011 and 11th by the Global City Competitiveness Index 2012. Among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index 2013 and 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index 2013, its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air and road transport hub. Frankfurt Airport is one of the world's busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germany's flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurt Central Station is one of the largest rail stations in Europe and the busiest junction operated by Deutsche Bahn, the German national railway company, with 342 trains a day to domestic and European destinations.
Frankfurter Kreuz, the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most used interchange in the EU, used by 320,000 cars daily. In 2011 human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual'Quality of Living' survey of cities around the world. According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germany's most expensive city and the world's 10th most expensive. Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline, it is one of the few cities in the European Union to have such a skyline and because of it Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan, a portmanteau of the local Main River and Manhattan. The other well known and obvious nickname is Bankfurt. Before World War II the city was globally noted for its unique old town with timber-framed buildings, the largest timber-framed old town in Europe; the Römer area was rebuilt and is popular with visitors and for eve
Frankfurt am Main Airport is a major international airport located in Frankfurt, the fifth-largest city of Germany and one of the world's leading financial centres. It is operated by Fraport and serves as the main hub for Lufthansa including Lufthansa CityLine and Lufthansa Cargo as well as Condor and AeroLogic; the airport covers an area of 2,300 hectares of land and features two passenger terminals with a capacity of 65 million passengers per year, four runways and extensive logistics and maintenance facilities. Frankfurt Airport is the busiest airport by passenger traffic in Germany as well as the 4th busiest in Europe after London Heathrow Airport, Paris–Charles de Gaulle Airport and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol; the airport is the 13th busiest worldwide by total number of passengers in 2016, with 60.786 million passengers using the airport in 2016. In 2017 Frankfurt Airport handled in 2018 nearly 70 million, it had a freight throughput of 2.076 million metric tonnes in 2015 and is the busiest airport in Europe by cargo traffic.
As of summer 2017, Frankfurt Airport serves more than 300 destinations in 5 continents, making it the airport with the most direct routes in the world. The southern side of the airport ground was home to the Rhein-Main Air Base, a major air base for the United States from 1947 until 2005, when the air base was closed and the property was acquired by Fraport. In 2017, passengers at the airport increased by 6.1% to 64,500,386 compared to 2016. The airport celebrated its 80th anniversary in July 2016. Frankfurt Airport lies 12 km southwest of central Frankfurt, near the Autobahn intersection Frankfurter Kreuz, where two of the most used motorways in Europe meet; the airport grounds, which form a city district of Frankfurt named Frankfurt-Flughafen, are surrounded by the Frankfurt City Forest. The southern portion of the airport grounds extend into the cities of Rüsselsheim am Main and Mörfelden-Walldorf, a western portion of the grounds lie within the city of Kelsterbach; the airport is centrally located in the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main region, Germany's third-largest metropolitan region, which itself has a central location in the densely populated region of the west-central European megalopolis.
Thereby, along with a strong rail and motorway connection, the airport serves as a major transport for the greater region, less than two hours by ground to Cologne, the Ruhr Area, Stuttgart. The base opened as a German commercial airport in 1936, with the northern part of the base used as a field for fixed-wing aircraft and the extreme southern part near Zeppelinheim serving as a base for rigid airships; that section of Rhein-Main became the base for the Graf Zeppelin, its sister ship LZ-130, until 6 May 1937, for the ill-fated Hindenburg. The airships were dismantled and their huge hangars demolished on 6 May 1940 during conversion of the base to military use. Luftwaffe engineers subsequently extended the single runway and erected hangars and other facilities for German military aircraft. During World War II the Luftwaffe used the field sporadically as a fighter base and as an experimental station for jet aircraft. On 16 November 1909, the world's first airline was founded in Frankfurt am Main: The Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft.
DELAG built the first airport in Frankfurt, called Airship Base at Rebstock, located in Bockenheim in the western part of the city and was used for airships in the beginning. It opened in 1912 and was extended after World War I, but in 1924 an expert's report questioned the possibility of further expansions at this location. With the foundation of Deutsche Luft Hansa in 1926 a rapid boom of civilian air travel started and soon the airship base became too small to handle the demand. Plans for a new and larger airport located in the Frankfurt City Forest south-west of Schwanheim were approved in 1930, but were not realised due to the Great Depression. After the Machtergreifung in 1933 the government revived the plans and started the construction of the new airport. On the northern part of the airport originated in 1935 a two-storey station building with a six-storey tower, other operating and outbuildings for maintenance and storage of aircraft; the 100 hectares runway received a grass cover. The official opening of the new Flug- und Luftschiffhafen Rhein-Main took place on 8 July 1936.
The first plane that landed was a Ju 52/3m, Six days on 14 July 1936 LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin landed at the airport. 1936 800 tons of cargo and 58,000 passengers were transported, in 1937 70,000 passengers and 966 tons of cargo. In the coming years, the new airport was home base of the two largest German airships LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin and LZ 129 Hindenburg. In 1938 Frankfurt was a central distribution point for the transport of airmail to North America. On 6 May 1937, it came to a serious accident: The Hindenburg, on the way from Frankfurt to New York, exploded shortly before application in the landing area of Lakehurst, 36 people died; the accident marked the end of the era of airships. After the beginning of World War II in 1939 all foreign airlines left the airport and control of air traffic was transferred to the Luftwaffe. On 9 May 1940, the first bombers took off to attack France. From August to November 1944 a concentration camp was established in Walldorf, close to the airport site, where Jewish female prisoners were forced to work for the airport.
The Allies of World War II destroyed the runway system with airstrikes in 1944 and the Wehrmacht blew up buildings and fu
South Asia or Southern Asia, is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate, which rises above sea level as Nepal and northern parts of India situated south of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush. South Asia is bounded on the south by the Indian Ocean and on land by West Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia; the current territories of Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal, India and Sri Lanka form South Asia. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is an economic cooperation organisation in the region, established in 1985 and includes all eight nations comprising South Asia. South Asia covers about 5.2 million km2, 11.71% of the Asian continent or 3.5% of the world's land surface area. The population of South Asia is about 1.891 billion or about one fourth of the world's population, making it both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world.
Overall, it accounts for about 39.49% of Asia's population, over 24% of the world's population, is home to a vast array of people. In 2010, South Asia had the world's largest population of Hindus and Sikhs, it has the largest population of Muslims in the Asia-Pacific region, as well as over 35 million Christians and 25 million Buddhists. The total area of South Asia and its geographical extent is not clear cut as systemic and foreign policy orientations of its constituents are quite asymmetrical. Aside from the central region of South Asia part of the British Empire, there is a high degree of variation as to which other countries are included in South Asia. Modern definitions of South Asia are consistent in including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Maldives as the constituent countries. Myanmar is included in Southeast Asia by others; some do not include Afghanistan, others question whether Afghanistan should be considered a part of South Asia or the Middle East. The current territories of Bangladesh and Pakistan, which were the core of the British Empire from 1857 to 1947, form the central region of South Asia, in addition to Afghanistan, a British protectorate until 1919, after the Afghans lost to the British in the Second Anglo-Afghan war.
The mountain countries of Nepal and Bhutan, the island countries of Sri Lanka and Maldives are included as well. Myanmar is added, by various deviating definitions based on substantially different reasons, the British Indian Ocean Territory and the Tibet Autonomous Region are included as well; the common concept of South Asia is inherited from the administrative boundaries of the British Raj, with several exceptions. The Aden Colony, British Somaliland and Singapore, though administered at various times under the Raj, have not been proposed as any part of South Asia. Additionally Burma was administered as part of the Raj until 1937, but is now considered a part of Southeast Asia and is a member state of ASEAN; the 562 princely states that were protected by but not directly ruled by the Raj became administrative parts of South Asia upon joining Union of India or Dominion of Pakistan. Geopolitically, it had formed the whole territory of Greater India,The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, a contiguous block of countries, started in 1985 with seven countries – Bangladesh, India, the Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka – and added Afghanistan as an eighth member in 2007.
China and Myanmar have applied for the status of full members of SAARC. This bloc of countries include two independent countries that were not part of the British Raj – Nepal, Bhutan. Afghanistan was a British protectorate from 1878 until 1919, after the Afghans lost to the British in the Second Anglo-Afghan war; the World Factbook, based on geo-politics and economy defines South Asia as comprising Afghanistan, Bhutan, British Indian Ocean Territory, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The South Asia Free Trade Agreement incorporated Afghanistan in 2011, the World Bank grouping of countries in the region includes all eight members comprising South Asia and SAARC as well, the same goes for the United Nations Children's Fund; the United Nations Statistics Division's scheme of sub-regions include all eight members of the SAARC as part of Southern Asia, along with Iran only for statistical purposes. Population Information Network includes Afghanistan, Burma, Nepal and Sri Lanka as part of South Asia.
Maldives, in view of its characteristics, was admitted as a member Pacific POPIN subregional network only in principle. The Hirschman–Herfindahl index of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific for the region includes only the original seven signatories of SAARC; the British Indian Ocean Territory is connected to the region by a publication of Jane's for security considerations. The region may include the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, part of the British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, but is now administered as part of the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang; the inclusion of Myanmar in South Asia is without consensus, with many considering it a part of Southeast Asia and others including it within South Asia. Afghanistan was of importance to the British colonial empire after the Second Anglo-Afghan War over 1878–1880. Afghanistan remained a British protectorate until 1919, when a treaty with Vladimir Lenin included the granting of independe
The Deutsche Bundesbahn or DB was formed as the state railway of the newly established Federal Republic of Germany on 7 September 1949 as a successor of the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft. The DB remained the state railway of West Germany until after German reunification, when it was merged with the former East German Deutsche Reichsbahn to form Deutsche Bahn AG, which came into existence on 1 January 1994. After World War II, each of the military governments of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany were de facto in charge of the German railways in their respective territories. On 10 October 1946, the railways in the British and American occupation zones formed the Deutsche Reichsbahn im Vereinigten Wirtschaftsgebiet, while on 25 June 1947, the provinces under French occupation formed the Südwestdeutsche Eisenbahn. With the formation of the FRG these successor organisations of the DRG were reunited, a situation codified by the Federal Railways Law, ratified on 13 December 1951; the railways in the Saarland joined on 1 January 1957.
The DB was a state-owned company that, with few local exceptions, exercised a monopoly concerning rail transport throughout West Germany. The DB was placed under the control of the Bundesverkehrsministerium. With its headquarters in Frankfurt, in 1985 the DB was the third-largest employer in the FRG, with a strength of 322,383 employees. A special transit police provided security; the catering needs of the DB were supplied by the “Deutsche Schlafwagen- und Speisewagengesellschaft” “Deutsche Service-Gesellschaft der Bahn”, as the former DRG caterer Mitropa was situated in East Germany and serviced the Deutsche Reichsbahn in the GDR. As West Berlin lay surrounded by the GDR, local and long-distance railway services in the divided city were provided by the DR, although the DB operated a ticket office in the Hardenbergstraße near the main West Berlin passenger station Zoologischer Garten; the immediate tasks in the early years after the end of World War II involved the reconstruction of the damaged infrastructure and the replenishment of locomotives and rolling stock.
Contrary to the Deutsche Reichsbahn in the GDR, the DB was not subject to reparations and benefited from the influx of capital through the Marshall Plan. During the early years, new steam engines were placed into service; the last new steam locomotive type was the Class 10, which entered service in 1957. Only two units of class 10 were built. In 1959 DB took the last steam locomotive delivery when the last of the class 23 locomotives was delivered. Soon, with increase in mass motorization, the railway started to lose passenger volume; as a result, rail buses were introduced on some lines. Main lines became electrified; the years of this epoch saw a decrease and eventual phasing out of steam engines, with the last one to cease regular service in 1977. Traction was provided by diesel and electric engines. With increased use of diesel and electric locomotives, progress was made in decreasing travel time for passengers. New types of passenger trains were introduced such as the InterCity. Transport of goods had to compete with the ever-increasing competition from trucks.
Furthermore, traditional services such as coal and iron ore shipments declined with the changes in the overall economy. After the introduction of the TGV in France, the ICE system of high speed passenger trains was developed. Significant stretches of new high speed track, like the Hanover-Würzburg high-speed rail line, had to be laid or upgraded. Other characteristics of this epoch are the introduction of computer systems and the steps taken towards an integrated system of European railways. Externally, rolling stock displayed more colourful and varied livery schemes; the two German states were reunified in October 1990 with both DB and DR now being special funds of the German Federal government. Article 26 of the Unification Treaty stipulated the DR to be merged with DB at the earliest opportunity; the DB, in the interim, initiated new coordinations in businesses with the DR, started IC and ICE services into Berlin, extended IC and ICE services to major cities in eastern Germany. Administratively, on 1 June 1992 the DB and DR formed a joint board of directors which governed both entities.
However, the merger was delayed over the structure of merged railway due to concerns by German politicians on the ever-increasing annual operating deficits incurred by the DB and DR. After several years of delays, the Bundesverkehrsministerium proposed a comprehensive reform of the German railway system, approved by the Bundestag in 1993 and went into effect on 1 January 1994. At the heart of the reform package was a) the merger of the DB and the DR and b) the change of the form of the enterprise into a stock corporation; the Deutsche Bahn AG was still publicly owned. Heinz Maria Oeftering, 13 May 1957 - 12 May 1972 Wolfgang Vaerst, 13 May 1972 – 12 May 1982 Reiner Gohlke, 13 May 1982 – 18 June 1990 Heinz Dürr, 1 January 1991 - 31 December 1993. Locomotive classification of the Deutsche Bundesbahn List of DB locomotives and railbuses Deutsche Bahn Media related to Deutsche Bundesbahn at Wikimedia Commons Pictures DB:1968-1990 Some historical background
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
The Airbus A321 is a member of the Airbus A320 family of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus. It was the first derivative of the baseline Airbus A320 aircraft, it represents a stretched-fuselage variant of the Airbus A320 and entered service in 1994 with Lufthansa, around six years after the original A320. The aircraft shares a common type rating with all other Airbus A320 family variants, allowing existing A320 family pilots to fly the aircraft without the need for further training. In December 2010, Airbus announced a new generation of the A320neo; the lengthened fuselage A321neo variant offers new, more efficient engines, combined with airframe improvements and the addition of winglets, named Sharklets by Airbus. The aircraft delivers fuel savings of up to 15%; the A321neo carries up to 236 passengers, with a maximum range of 4,000 nmi for the long-range version carrying onboard 206 passengers. Final assembly of the aircraft takes Alabama.
As of 31 January 2019, a total of 1,850 Airbus A321 aircraft have been delivered, of which 1,827 are in service. In addition, another 2,241 airliners are on firm order; as of January 2019, American Airlines was the largest operator of the Airbus A321, operating 220 aircraft. The Airbus A321 was the first derivative of the A320 known as the Stretched A320, A320-500 and A325, its launch came on 24 November 1988, around the same time as the A320 entered service, after commitments for 183 aircraft from 10 customers were secured. The maiden flight of the Airbus A321 came on 11 March 1993, when the prototype, registration F-WWIA, flew with IAE V2500 engines. Lufthansa and Alitalia were the first to order the stretched Airbuses, with 20 and 40 aircraft requested, respectively; the first of Lufthansa's V2500-A5-powered A321s arrived on 27 January 1994, while Alitalia received its first CFM56-5B-powered aircraft on 22 March 1994. The A321-100 entered service in January 1994 with Lufthansa. Final assembly for the A321 would be, as a first for any Airbus, carried out in Germany.
This came after a dispute between the French, who claimed the move would incur $150 million in unnecessary expenditure associated with the new plant, the Germans, arguing it would be more productive for Airbus in the long run. The second production line was located at Hamburg, which would subsequently produce the smaller Airbus A319 and A318. For the first time, Airbus entered the bond market, through which it raised $480 million to finance development costs. An additional $180 million was borrowed from private investors; the A321 is the largest variant of the A320 family. The A321-200's length exceeds 44.5 m. Wingspan remained unchanged. Two suppliers provided turbofan engines for the A321: CFM International with its CFM56 and International Aero Engines with the V2500 engine, both in the thrust range of 133–147 kN; the Airbus A321 is a narrow-body aircraft with a retractable tricycle landing gear and is powered by two wing pylon-mounted turbofan engines. It is a low-wing cantilever monoplane with a conventional tail unit having a single vertical stabilizer and rudder.
The aircraft would be a minimum-changed derivative of the A320, apart from a number of minor modifications to the wing, the fuselage stretch itself. To maintain performance, double-slotted flaps were included and minor trailing edge modifications were implemented, increasing the wing area from 124 m2 to 128 m2; the fuselage was lengthened by four plugs, giving the A321 an overall length of 6.94 metres longer than the A320. This is achieved by adding a 4.27 m front plug forward of wing, a 2.67 m rear plug. The length increase required the overwing window exits of the A320 to be converted into door exits and repositioned in front of and behind the wings; the centre fuselage and undercarriage were reinforced to accommodate the increase in maximum takeoff weight of 9,600 kg, taking it to 83,000 kg. The original derivative of the A321, the A321-100, featured a reduction in range compared to the A320 as extra fuel tankage was not added to the initial design to compensate for the extra weight; the maximum takeoff weight of the A321-100 was increased to 83,000 kg.
The A321-100 entered service with Lufthansa in 1994. Only about 90 were produced. Airbus launched the heavier and longer range A321-200 development in 1995 which has a full-passenger transcontinental US range; this is achieved through higher thrust engines, minor structural strengthening, an increase in fuel capacity with the installation of one or two optional 2,990 L tanks in the rear underfloor hold. The additional fuel tankage increases the total capacity of this model to 30,030 L; these modifications increased the maximum takeoff weight of the A321-200 to 93,000 kg. This variant first flew in December 1996, entered service with Monarch Airlines in April 1997, its direct competitors include the 757–200 and the 737-900/900ER. On 1 December 2010, Airbus launched the A320neo family with 500 nmi more range and 15% better fuel efficiency thanks to new CFM International LEAP-1A or Pratt & Whitney PW1000G engines and large sharklets; the lengthened A321neo prototype ma