Leonard of Noblac
Leonard of Noblac, is a Frankish saint associated with the town and abbey of Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, in Haute-Vienne, in the Limousin of France. According to the romance that accrued to his name, recorded in an 11th-century vita, Leonard was a Frankish noble in the court of Clovis I, founder of the Merovingian dynasty, he was converted to Christianity along with the king, at Christmas 496, by Saint Remigius, Bishop of Reims. Leonard asked Clovis to grant him the right to liberate prisoners whom he would find worthy of it, at any time. Leonard secured the release of a number of prisoners, for whom he has become a patron saint declining the offer of a bishopric— a prerogative of Merovingian nobles— he entered the monastery at Micy near Orléans, under the direction of Saint Mesmin and Saint Lie. According to his legend, Leonard became a hermit in the forest of Limousin, where he gathered a number of followers. Through his prayers the queen of the Franks safely bore a male child, in recompense Leonard was given royal lands at Noblac, 21 km from Limoges.
It is that the toponym was derived from the Latin family name Nobilius and the common Celtic element -ac denoting a place. There he founded the abbey of Noblac, around which a village grew, named in his honour Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat. According to legend, prisoners who invoked him from their cells saw their chains break before their eyes. Many came to him afterwards, bringing their heavy irons to offer them in homage. A considerable number remained with him, he gave them part of his vast forest to clear and make ready for the labours of the fields, that they might have the means to live an honest life. In the 12th century, although there is no previous mention of Leonard either in literature, liturgy or in church dedications, his cult spread, at first through Frankish lands, following the release of Bohemond I of Antioch in 1103 from a Danishmend prison, where the successful diplomacy was inspired by Leonard of Noblac. Bohemond, a charismatic leader of the First Crusade, subsequently visited the Abbey of Noblac, where he made an offering in gratitude for his release.
Bohemond's example inspired many similar gifts, enabling the Romanesque church and its prominent landmark belltower to be constructed. About the same time Noblac was becoming a stage in the pilgrimage route that led towards Santiago de Compostela. Leonard's cult spread through all of Western Europe: in England, with its cultural connections to the region, no fewer than 177 churches are dedicated to him. Leonard was venerated in Scotland, the Low Countries, Italy, Germany in Bavaria, in Bohemia and elsewhere. Pilgrims and patronage flowed to Saint-Leonard de Noblac. Leonard or Lienard became one of the most venerated saints of the late Middle Ages, his intercession was credited with miracles for the release of prisoners, women in labour and the diseases of cattle. His feast day is November 6, when he is honoured with a festival at Bavaria, he is honoured by the parish of Malta on the third Sunday of every August. Since the vita written in the 11th century is without historical value according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, one may approach the legendary Saint Leonard, whose bones lie in the Romanesque collegial church, by means of the historic village, instead of the other way around.
The growing tide of pilgrims passing on their way to Santiago inspired romances to publicize more than one locally venerated saint along the pilgrim routes. Saint Martial is another example of a saint of the Limousin whose dramatic vita helped attract pilgrims to his shrine; the village below the shrine of Saint Leonard, perched on its hilltop site, had its origins in the 11th century, when under the jurisdiction of the château of Noblac it was first encircled with walls, a necessity of life in the region. It developed as a small center of commerce in the 13th century, based on forges and foundries and leatherworking, with communal consuls who were in charge of defending its rights and privileges -its "liberties" in the medieval sense. A history of the commune, written by the local antiquary and historian of the Limousin, Louis Guibert in 1890, was reissued in 1992. Today Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, Haute-Vienne, population 4766 in 1999, is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites connected with the routes to Santiago.
It retains its belltower, 52 m tall. Its old houses follow a medieval street pattern, with many streets converging in a public space by the former abbey church. In the 19th century, a papermill and a porcelain manufactory were added to its commerce. No longer attracting visitors as a stop on the route to Santiago, it is now attracting them as an overnight stop on the Tour de France; the town is famous for its native son, the scientist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac. Various places refer to this saint. Notable among these is the town of St Leonards-on-Sea in East Sussex. Sussex is home to St Leonard's Forest; this part of England has a significant number of dedications to St Leonard. One of the best-known is the Parish church of St Leonard in Hythe, with its famous ossuary in the ambulatory situated beneath its chancel. There is a cluster of dedications in the West Midlands region, including the original parish churches of Bridgnorth and Bilston, as well as White Ladies Priory, a ruined Augustinian house.
The largest hospital in northern mediaeval England was an Augustinian foundation dedicated to S
Oak is used in winemaking to vary the color, tannin profile and texture of wine. It can be introduced in the form of a barrel during the fermentation or aging periods, or as free-floating chips or staves added to wine fermented in a vessel like stainless steel. Oak barrels can impart other qualities to wine through evaporation and low level exposure to oxygen. In early wine history, the amphora was the vessel of choice for the storage and transportation of wine. Due to the perishable nature of wood material it is difficult to trace the usage of barrels in history; the Greek historian Herodotus noted that ancient Mesopotamians used barrels made of palm wood to transport wine along the Euphrates. Palm is a difficult material to bend and fashion into barrels and wine merchants in different regions experimented with different wood styles to find a better wood source; the use of oak has been prevalent in winemaking for at least two millennia, first coming into widespread use during the time of the Roman Empire.
In time, winemakers discovered that beyond just storage convenience, wine kept in oak barrels took on properties that improved it by making it softer and, in some cases, better-tasting. The porous nature of an oak barrel allows evaporation and oxygenation to occur in wine but not at levels that would cause oxidation or spoilage; the typical 59-gallon barrel can lose anywhere from 51⁄2 to 61⁄2 gallons in a year through evaporation. This allows the wine to concentrate its aroma compounds. Small amounts of oxygen are allowed to pass through the barrel and act as a softening agent upon the wine's tannins; the chemical properties of oak can have a profound effect on wine. Phenols within the wood interact to produce vanilla type flavors and can give the impression of tea notes or sweetness; the degree of "toast" on the barrel can impart different properties affecting the tannin levels as well as the aggressive wood flavors. The hydrolyzable tannins present in wood, known as ellagitannins, are derived from lignin structures in the wood.
They help protect the wine from reduction. Wines can be barrel fermented in oak or placed in oak after fermentation for a period of aging or maturation. Wine matured in oak receives more oak flavors and properties than wine fermented in oak because yeast cells present in fermentation interact with and "latch on" to oak components; when dead yeast cells are removed as lees some oak properties go with them. Characteristics of white wines fermented in oak include extra silky texture. White wines fermented in steel and matured in oak will have a darker coloring due to heavy phenolic compounds still present. Flavor notes used to describe wines exposed to oak include caramel, smoke and vanilla. Chardonnay is a varietal with distinct flavor profiles when fermented in oak, which include coconut and cloves notes; the "toastiness" of the barrel can bring out varying degrees of toffee notes in red wine. The length of time a wine spends in the barrel is dependent on the varietal and finished style the winemaker desires.
The majority of oak flavoring is imparted in the first few months the wine is in contact with oak, while longer term exposure adds light barrel aeration, which helps precipitate phenolic compounds and quickens the aging process. New World Pinot noir may spend less than a year in oak. Premium Cabernet Sauvignon may spend two years; the tannic Nebbiolo grape may spend four or more years in oak. High end Rioja producers will sometimes age their wines up to ten years in American oak to get a desired earthy cedar and herbal character; the species of oak used for American oak production is the Quercus alba, a white oak species, characterized by its fast growth, wider grains and lower wood tannins. It is found in most of the Eastern United States as well as Missouri and Wisconsin where many wine barrels are from. In Oregon the Quercus garryana white oak has started to gain usage due to its closer similarities to European oak. In France, both the Quercus robur and Quercus petraea are considered apt for wine making, the latter is considered far superior for its finer grain and richer contribution of aromatic components like vanillin and its derivates, methyl-octalactone and tannins, as well as phenols and volatile aldehydes.
French oak comes from one or more primary forests: Allier, Nevers, Tronçais and Vosges. The wood from each of these forests has different characteristics. Many winemakers utilize barrels made from different cooperages and degrees of toasting in blending their wines to enhance the complexity of the resulting wine. Italian winemakers have had a long history of using Slavonian oak from the Quercus robur, known for its tight grain, low aromatics and medium level tannins. Slavonian oak tends to be used in larger barrel sizes with the same barrels reused for many more years before replacement. Prior to the Russian Revolution, Quercus petraea oak from the Baltic/European states from Hungary was the most sought after wood for French winemaking; the trees in the Hungarian Zemplén Mountains grow slower in the volcanic soil and smaller, creating fine tight grain which sequentially lends itself to a delicate extraction. The hemicellulose in the Hungarian oak breaks down more and conveys an exceptional selection of toasted, sugary, woody and caramel-like flavors – imparting these aromas with less intensity, slower than American or French oak.
Many winemakers favor the softer, creamier texture that Hungarian oak offers their wines. French winema
Wine labels are important sources of information for consumers since they tell the type and origin of the wine. The label is the only resource a buyer has for evaluating the wine before purchasing it. Certain information is ordinarily included in the wine label, such as the country of origin, type of wine, alcoholic degree, bottler, or importer. In addition to these national labeling requirements producers may include their web site address and a QR Code with vintage specific information; some wineries place great importance on the label design. There are wineries that have not changed their label's design in over 60 years, as in the case of Château Simone, while others hire designers every year to change it. Labels may include images of works by Picasso and other artists, these may be collector's pieces; the elegance of the label does not determine the wine's quality. Instead, it is the information contained within the label that can provide consumers with such knowledge. Most New World consumers, European consumers, prefer to purchase wine with varietal labels and/or with brand name labels.
A recent study of younger wine drinkers in the U. S. found that they perceived labels with châteaux on them to be old-fashioned. Producers attempt to make selecting and purchasing wine easy and non-intimidating by making their labels playful and inviting; the financial success of New World wine attributed to striking label designs has led some European producers to follow suit, as in the case of the redesign of Mouton Cadet. Wine classification systems differ by country. Wines can be classified by area only. For example, there are 151 châteaux in Bordeaux with "Figeac" and 22 estates in Burgundy with "Corton" on their labels. In Burgundy, there are 110 appellations in an area only one-fifth the size of Bordeaux. Complicating the system is the fact that it is common for villages to append the name of their most famous vineyard to that of the village. In Spain and Portugal, the authenticity of the wine is guaranteed by a seal on the label or a band over the cork under the capsule; this is promulgated by the growers' association in each area.
German wine labels are noted for the detail that they can provide in determining quality and style of the wine. Every New World wine is labelled by grape variety and geographic origin. Semi-generic designations were once quite common in countries such as Australia and the US, but the wine authorities in areas such as Champagne have not been afraid to bring lawsuits against the use of their names outside their region, semi-generic names are falling out of use. Wines whose label does not indicate the name of the winery or the winemaker are referred to as "cleanskin" wine in Australia. Degree of sweetness information is inconsistent, with some countries' manufacturers always indicating it in standardized fashion in their language, some traditionally not mentioning it at all or referring to it informally and vaguely in a rear-label description, yet other countries' regulators requiring such information to be included when such information has to be added by the importer. In certain cases of conflicting regulations, a wine may, for example be labelled "sweet" by a manufacturer, but "semi-sweet" in the local language translation on a supplementary label mandated by the jurisdiction where it is sold.
The information contained in labels is important to determine the quality of the wine. For example, great importance needs to be attached to vintage dates when there are differences in climate; the taste and quality of the wine can change from year to year depending on the climate. Knowing the vintage is specially important when buying fine wines because the quality of the wine can vary from year to year due to climatic differences; the quickest way to determine the quality of the year is to use a wine chart. Vintage dates may not be important, for example, there are no vintage dates on bottles of sherry. On the other hand, wines may not have vintages. Champagne is a blend from more than one year and only sometimes sold as a vintage wine. Port is only sold with a vintage in years of exceptional quality. A wine label may include the bottler and the merchant's names; the bottler's name must always be included in the label. The importer's name must be included in the label only for countries outside the Common Market.
While it is not necessary for a wine to be bottled at its place of origin, it is obligatory for classed growth claret and vintage port to be bottled in Bordeaux and Oporto. Bottling of Alsace must be done within the appellation. Thus, it is important to look for terms such as mis en bouteille au château or mis au domaine because they tell you the wine is estate bottled. Labels may include terms; the term Blanc de blancs may be included in a label. This term means "white wine made from white grapes"; the fact is that white wines are predominantly made from white grapes, with the exception of many sparkling wines, the common use of the red Pinot noir in Champagne wines being a typical example. Although the word château is most associated with Bordeaux, it does not mean that the wine does come from Bordeaux, there may not be any kind of building – let alone a château – associated with the vineyard; the name château can be included in wines from Australia or California. Labels of Vin de pays never include the word château.
Cru, a word used to classify wines can mean different things. For example, in the Médoc part of Bordeaux, this terms means the château is one of the classified growths in the regions. In Saint-Émilion, the term cru is of
Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy. While the phrase refers to champagne, EU countries reserve that term for products produced in the Champagne region of France. Sparkling wine is either white or rosé, but there are examples of red sparkling wines such as the Italian Brachetto and Lambrusco, Australian sparkling Shiraz, Azerbaijani "Pearl of Azerbaijan" made from Madrasa grapes; the sweetness of sparkling wine can range from dry brut styles to sweeter doux varieties. The sparkling quality of these wines comes from its carbon dioxide content and may be the result of natural fermentation, either in a bottle, as with the traditional method, in a large tank designed to withstand the pressures involved, or as a result of simple carbon dioxide injection in some cheaper sparkling wines. In EU countries, the word "champagne" is reserved by law only for sparkling wine from the Champagne region of France; the French terms Mousseux and Crémant refer to sparkling wine not made in the Champagne region, such as Blanquette de Limoux produced in Southern France.
Sparkling wines are produced around the world, are referred to by their local name or region, such as Espumante from Portugal, Cava from Catalonia, Franciacorta, Trento DOC, Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico and Asti from Italy, Cap Classique from South Africa. Sparkling wines have been produced in Eastern Europe since the early 19th-century. "Champagne" was further popularised in the region, late in the century, when József Törley started production in Hungary using French methods, learned as an apprentice in Reims. Törley has since become one of the largest European producers of sparkling wine; the United States is a significant producer of sparkling wine today, with producers in numerous states. Production of sparkling wine has re-started in the United Kingdom after a long hiatus. Effervescence has been observed in wine throughout history and has been noted by Ancient Greek and Roman writers, but the cause of this mysterious appearance of bubbles was not understood. Over time it has been attributed to phases of the moon as well as both evil spirits.
The tendency of still wine from the Champagne region to sparkle was noted in the Middle Ages but this was considered a wine fault and was disdained in early Champagne winemaking although it made the pride of other historic sparkling wine production areas like Limoux. Dom Pérignon was charged by his superiors at the Abbey of Hautvillers to get rid of the bubbles since the pressure in the bottles caused many of them to burst in the cellar; when deliberate sparkling wine production increased in the early 18th century, cellar workers would still have to wear a heavy iron mask that resembled a baseball catcher's mask to prevent injury from spontaneously bursting bottles. The disturbance caused by one bottle's disintegration could cause a chain reaction, with it being routine for cellars to lose 20–90% of their bottles to instability; the mysterious circumstance surrounding the unknown process of fermentation and carbonic gas caused some critics to call the sparkling creations "The Devil's Wine".
The British were the first to see the tendency of wines from Champagne to sparkle as a desirable trait and tried to understand why it produced bubbles. Wine was transported to England in wooden wine barrels where merchant houses would bottle the wine for sale. During the 17th century, English glass production used coal-fueled ovens and produced stronger, more durable glass bottles than the wood-fired French glass; the English rediscovered the use of cork stoppers, once used by the Romans but forgotten for centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. During the cold winters of the Champagne region, temperatures would drop so low that the fermentation process was prematurely halted—leaving some residual sugar and dormant yeast; when the wine was shipped to and bottled in England, the fermentation process would restart when the weather warmed and the cork-stoppered wine would begin to build pressure from carbon dioxide gas. When the wine was opened, it would be bubbly. In 1662, the English scientist Christopher Merret presented a paper detailing how the presence of sugar in a wine led to it sparkling and that by adding sugar to a wine before bottling it, nearly any wine could be made to sparkle.
This is one of the first known accounts of understanding the process of sparkling wine and suggests that British merchants were producing "sparkling Champagne" before the French Champenois were deliberately making it. Sparkling wines, such as Champagne, are sold with 5 to 6 atmospheres of pressure in the bottle; this is nearly twice the pressure found in an automobile tire. European Union regulations define a sparkling wine as any wine with an excess of 3 atmospheres in pressure; these include Spanish Espumoso, Italian Spumante and French Crémant or Mousseux wines. Semi-sparkling wines are defined as those with between 1 and 2.5 atmospheres of pressures and include German spritzig, Italian frizzante and French pétillant wines. The amount of pressure in the wine is determined by the amount of sugar added during the tirage stage at the beginning of the secondary fermentation with more sugar producing increased amount of carbon dioxide gas and thus pressure in the wine. While the majority of sparkling wines are white or rosé, Australia and Moldova each have a sizable production of red sparkling wines.
Of these, Italy has the longest tradition in red sparkling wine-making, with notable wines including Brachetto and semi spar
Roman Catholic Diocese of Vittorio Veneto
The Diocese of Vittorio Veneto is a Roman Catholic diocese in northern Italy, with capital in Vittorio Veneto. It was known as Diocese of Ceneda, the name being changed in 1939. Ceneda began as a suffragan of the patriarchate of Aquileia until the latter's suppression in 1751. From 1752 until 1818 Ceneda was a suffragan of the archdiocese of Udine. Since 1818 Ceneda has been in the ecclesiastical province headed by the Patriarchate of Venice. Art from several churches in the diocese is housed in its diocesan museum; the city of Vittorio Veneto includes the town of Ceneda which in ancient times was a castrum known as Ceneta and poetically as Acedum. The city is situated in the province of Treviso, just north of Conegliano, it was pillaged by Attila the Hun in 452, a century by Totila. After 568, during the domination of the Lombards, it was governed by a duke and a count. Still it became part of the marquisate of Treviso; the Gospel is said to have been preached in the region in the first century by St. Fortunatus, deacon of bishop St. Hermagoras of Aquileia.
Attesting to the presence of Christianity is one of the earliest pieve of the diocese, Sant'Andrea di Bigonzo, which dates from the fourth century. However, the historical beginning of episcopal see. There may have been a bishop present in Ceneda soon after the Lombard conquest; the first reputed bishop seems to have been Vindemius, present in 579 at the Synod of Grado which continued the Schism of the Three Chapters. In 680, it seems that a bishop Ursinus was present at the Council of Rome convened against the Monothelites. However, the diocese does not seem to have been organized until 685 when the Lombard duke Grumoaldo assigned to the bishop of Ceneda a large part of the territory, under the care of Oderzo to counter the claims of Oderzo's bishop in exile. Oderzo had, in fact, been destroyed by the Lombards in 667 and its Oderzo sought refuge with the Byzantines in the Venetian lagoon; the patron saint of the diocese is a bishop of Oderzo, whose body is said to have miraculously been carried up the Livenza River against the current and to have come to rest at the site of the present cathedral after being carried in a cart by a donkey.
From 994 the bishop of that city became its temporal lord after it was politically incorporated into the Republic of Venice in 1389. In 1447 and in 1514 bishops Francesco and Oliviero gave the republic civil investiture of the territory of Ceneda, reserving for themselves and their successors authority over the city and a few villas. Among its bishops have been: Azzo. Within the confines of the diocese is the Basilica of Motta di Livenza, built near the spot where Giovanni Cigana reported the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared to him on March 9, 1510 during his praying of the rosary, she asked him and the inhabitants of the area to fast as an act of repentance for sin for at least three consecutive Saturdays, pray to God for mercy, to build a basilica on the site so that people could come for prayer. The Marian apparition was subsequently investigated and proclaimed worthy of belief by pope Julius II. San Tiziano - feast day January 16. Sant'Augusta di Serravalle - feast day August 27. Ceneda, la cattedrale e i suoi vecchi oratori.
Vittorio Veneto: TIPSE. Botteo, Vincenzy. Un documento prezioso riguardo alle origini del vescovado di Ceneda: e la serie dei vescovi cenedesi corretta e documentata, illustrazione critico-storica. Conegliano: Arti Grafiche. Riponti, Danilo. L'inquisizione nella diocesi di Ceneda. Antilia. ISBN 978-88-97336-23-5. Tomasi, Giovanni. La Diocesi di Ceneda: chiese e uomini dalle origini al 1586. 2 vols. Vittorio Veneto: Diocesi di Vittorio Veneto. Ughelli, Ferdinando. Italia sacra sive de Episcopis Italiae. Venice: Apud Sebastianum Coleti. Pp. 170–226. Benigni, Umberto. "Ceneda." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. P. 519. Retrieved:2016-09-30; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Ceneda". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
Treviso is a city and comune in the Veneto region of northern Italy. It is the capital of the province of Treviso and the municipality has 84,669 inhabitants: some 3,000 live within the Venetian walls or in the historical and monumental center, some 80,000 live in the urban center proper while the city hinterland has a population of 170,000; the city is home to the headquarters of clothing retailer Benetton, Stefanel, Geox and Lotto Sport Italia, appliance maker De'Longhi, bicycle maker Pinarello. Treviso is known for being the original production area of Prosecco wine and radicchio, is thought to have been the origin of the popular Italian dessert Tiramisù; some believe that Treviso derived its name from the Celtic word "tarvos" mixed with the Latin ending "isium" forming "Tarvisium". Others believe. Tarvisium a city of the Veneti, became a municipium in 89 BCE after the Romans added Cisalpine Gaul to their dominions. Citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe of Claudia; the city lay in proximity of the Via Postumia, which connected Opitergium to Aquileia, two major cities of Roman Venetia during Ancient and early medieval times.
Treviso is mentioned by ancient writers, although Pliny writes of the Silis, the Sile River, as flowing ex montibus Tarvisanis. During the Roman Period, Christianity spread to Treviso. Tradition records that St. Prosdocimus, a Greek, ordained bishop by St. Peter, brought the Catholic faith to Treviso and surrounding areas. By the 4th century, the Christian population grew sufficient to merit a resident bishop; the first documented bishop was John the Pious who began his episcopacy in 396 AD. Treviso went through a demographic and economic decline similar to the rest of Italy after the fall of the Western Empire. According to tradition, Treviso was the birthplace of Totila, the leader of Ostrogoths during the Gothic Wars. After the Gothic Wars, Treviso fell under the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna until 568 AD when it was taken by the Lombards, who made it one of 36 ducal seats and established an important mint; the latter was important during the reign of the last Lombard king and continued to churn out coins when northern Italy was annexed to the Frankish Empire.
People from the city played a role in the founding of Venice. Charlemagne made it the capital of a border march, i.e. the Marca Trevigiana, which lasted for several centuries. Treviso joined the Lombard League, gained independence after the Peace of Constance; this lasted until the rise of seignories in northern Italy. Among the various families who ruled over Treviso, the Da Romano reigned from 1237 to 1260. Struggles between Guelph and Ghibelline factions followed, with the first triumphant in 1283 with Gherardo III da Camino, after which Treviso experienced significant economic and cultural growth which continued until 1312. Treviso and its satellite cities, including Castelfranco Veneto, had become attractive to neighbouring powers, including the da Carrara and Scaligeri. After the fall of the last Caminesi lord, Rizzardo IV, the Marca was the site of continuous struggles and ravages. Treviso notary and physician Oliviero Forzetta was an avid collector of drawings. After a Scaliger domination in 1329–1339, the city gave itself to the Republic of Venice, becoming the first notable mainland possession of the Serenissima.
From 1318 it was for a short time, the seat of a university. Venetian rule brought innumerable benefits. From 1381–1384, the city was captured and ruled by the duke of Austria, by the Carraresi until 1388. Having returned to Venice, the city was fortified and given a massive line of walls and ramparts, still existing; the many waterways were exploited with several waterwheels which powered mills for milling grain produced locally. The waterways were all navigable and "barconi" would arrive from Venice at the Port of Treviso pay duty and offload their merchandise and passengers along Riviera Santa Margherita. Fishermen were able to bring fresh catch every day to the Treviso fish market, held still today on an island connected to the rest of the city by two small bridges at either end. Treviso was taken in 1797 by the French under Mortier, made duke of Treviso. French domination lasted until the defeat of Napoleon, after which it passed to the Austro-Hungarian Empire; the citizens, still at heart loyal to the fallen Venetian Republic, were displeased with imperial rule and in March 1848, drove out the Austrian garrison.
However, after the town was bombarded, the people were compelled to capitulate in the following June 14th. Austrian rule continued until Treviso was annexed with the rest of Veneto to the Kingdom of Italy in 1866. During World War I, Treviso held a strategic position close to the Austrian front. Just north, the Battle of Vittorio Veneto helped turn the tide of the War. During World War II, one of several Italian concentration camps was established for Slovene and Croatian civilians from the Province of Ljubljana in Monigo, near Treviso; the camp was disbanded with the Italian capitulation in 1943. The city suffered several bombings during World War
Straw wine, or raisin wine, is a wine made from grapes that have been dried to concentrate their juice. The result is suitable for warmer climates; the classic method dries clusters of grapes on mats of straw in the sun, but some regions dry them under cover, on roofs, or on modern racks, while some hang up the grapes or leave them to dry on the vine. The technique dates back to pre-Roman times, most production of these wines has been in Northern Italy and the French Alps; however producers in other areas are now starting to experiment with the method. Straw wines are sweet to sweet white wines, similar in density and sweetness to Sauternes and capable of long life; the low yields and labour-intensive production method means. Around Verona red grapes are dried, are fermented in two different ways to make a dry red wine and a sweet red wine. A dried grape wine known as the Cypriot Manna was described in 800 BC by the Greek poet Hesiod. Similar principles were used to make the medieval Cypriot wine Commandaria, still produced today.
Various Mediterranean raisin wines were described in the first century AD by Columella and Pliny the Elder. Pliny uses the Greek term for honey wine for the following raisin wine, "The grapes are left on the vine to dry in the sun... It is made by drying grapes in the sun, placing them for seven days in a closed place upon hurdles, some seven feet from the ground, care being taken to protect them at night from the dews: on the eighth day they are trodden out: this method, it is said, produces a liquor of exquisite bouquet and flavour; the liquor known as melitites is one of the sweet wines." Columella discusses the Passum wine made in ancient Carthage. The modern Italian name for this wine, echoes this ancient word, as does the French word used to describe the process of producing straw wines, passerillage; the closest thing to passum is Moscato Passito di Pantelleria from Zibibbo, a variety of the ancient muscat grape, produced on Pantelleria, an island in the Strait of Sicily opposite to where Carthage used to be.
Barossa Valley producer, Turkey Flat Vineyards has been experimenting with this style successfully since 2002 with their 100% Marsanne aptly named'The Last Straw'. Air-dried on racks for 6 weeks it is fermented in new oak & now bottle post-fermentation to retain freshness. Residual sugar sits at a comparatively low 59g/l Strohwein or Schilfwein is an Austrian wine term in the Prädikatswein category which designates a straw wine, a sweet dessert wine made from raisin-like dried grapes. Stroh is German for straw; the minimum must weight requirements for Strohwein or Schilfwein is 25 degrees KMW, the same as for Austrian Beerenauslese, these regulations are part of the Austrian wine law. The grapes are furthermore required to be dried for a minimum of three months, either by laying the grape bunches on mats of straw or reed, or by hanging the bunches up for drying by suspending them from pieces of string. However, if the grapes have reached a must weight of at least 30 ºKMW after a minimum of two months, the grapes are allowed to be pressed at this earlier time.
Strohwein and Schilfwein are treated as synonyms by the wine law, the choice between them therefore depends on local naming tradition rather than the specific material used for the drying mats for a specific batch of wine. The Strohwein Prädikat exists only in Austria, not in Germany; the raisin wine most seen in Croatia is Prošek, traditionally from the southern area of Dalmatia. It is made using dried wine grapes in the passito method. There are only a few commercial producers as it is a homemade affair. Slámové víno is the Czech term for straw wine that, under Czech wine law, is classified as a Predicate wine. Czech regulations require the harvested grapes to come from a single wine sub-region, the grapes must be dried for at least three months either on straw or reed mats or hung in a well-ventilated space, the must weight is required to reach at least 27° NM on the Normalizovaný moštomer scale. Straw wine in the Czech Republic is made from white grapes that are well-ripened and undamaged.
Vin de Paille is the French for'straw wine', made only in the ripest vintages. The best known example is made in the Cotes du Jura from a blend of Chardonnay and the red grape Poulsard. Vins de paille are made from Marsanne in Hermitage, from Riesling in Alsace. In Corrèze, it is called Vin Paillé. Traditionally the grapes are placed indoors on straw mats for up to three months, the final wine has 10-20% residual sugar, with flavours of peaches and apricots, it is an excellent accompaniment to foie gras. Some raisin wines are produced in Cyprus. Commandaria claims descent from the native Cypriot wine served at the wedding of King Richard the Lionheart, just after he conquered the island, produced by the Knights Templar at La Grande Commanderie in Cyprus after they purchased it from him, hence claims to be oldest named wine still in production. Commandaria is made from two indigenous grapes, the white Xynisteri and the red Mavro, an ancestor of the Négrette grape known as Pinot St-George in the US.
Vinsanto, the hallmark dessert wine of the island of Santorini, is made of the choicest Assyrtiko grapes, vinified after a few days of sundrying. It is barreled to mature for several years, as its capacity for aging is measured in decades; some varieties of the famed sweet wines of Samos Island are made of sundried Muscat Blanc à Petits