The Confederate States Army was the military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, fighting against the United States forces. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Davis was a graduate of the U. S. Military Academy, colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War, he had been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U. S. Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U. S. Army garrison. By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.
An accurate count of the total number of individuals who served in the Confederate Army is not possible due to incomplete and destroyed Confederate records. This does not include an unknown number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications and defenses or driving wagons. Since these figures include estimates of the total number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war, they do not represent the size of the army at any given date; these numbers do not include men. Although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of exact records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of United States soldiers who were conscripts. Confederate casualty figures are incomplete and unreliable; the best estimates of the number of deaths of Confederate soldiers are about 94,000 killed or mortally wounded in battle, 164,000 deaths from disease and between 26,000 and 31,000 deaths in United States prison camps.
One estimate of the Confederate wounded, considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from other causes such as accidents, which would add several thousand to the death toll; the main Confederate armies, the Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E. Lee and the remnants of the Army of Tennessee and various other units under General Joseph E. Johnston, surrendered to the U. S. on April 9, 1865, April 18, 1865. Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16, 1865, June 28, 1865. By the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted, some estimates put the number as high as one third of Confederate soldiers; the Confederacy's government dissolved when it fled Richmond in April and exerted no control over the remaining armies. By the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4, 1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States, they seized federal property, including nearly all U.
S. Army forts, within their borders. Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U. S. control when he took office Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. On February 28, shortly before Lincoln was sworn in as president, the Provisional Confederate Congress had authorized the organization of a large Provisional Army of the Confederate States. Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C. S. troops under the command of General P. G. T. Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13, 1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14; the United States demanded war. It rallied behind Lincoln's call on April 15 for all the loyal states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to save the Union. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy. Both the United States and the Confederate States began in earnest to raise large volunteer, with the opposing objectives of putting down the rebellion and preserving the Union on the one hand, or of establishing independence from the United States on the other.
The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army. It was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army; the provisional, volunteer army was established by an act of the Provisional Confederate Congress passed on February 28, 1861, one week before the act which established the permanent regular army organization, passed on March 6. Although the two forces were to exist concurrently, little was done to organize the Confederate regular army; the Provisional Army of the Confederate States began organizing on April 27. All regular and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a higher rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army. If the war had ended for them, the Confederates intended that the PACS would be disbanded, leaving only the ACSA; the Army of the Confederate States of America was the regular army and was authorized to include 15,015 men, including 744 officers, but this level was never achieved.
Samuel S. Fifield was a Wisconsin politician and influential businessperson; the Town of Fifield in Price County, Wisconsin is named after him. He received an education as a printer, he moved to Wisconsin in 1854. He founded the Polk County Press in 1861. After the American Civil War, he entered politics and served as a Sergeant-at-Arms for the Wisconsin State Assembly in 1871 and 1872, he served as a Republican member of the Assembly from 1874 through 1876, serving as speaker the last year. He was elected to the Wisconsin State Senate in 1876, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Henry D. Barron, he served in the state senate until 1881, at which time he was elected as Wisconsin's 14th Lieutenant Governor. He lived in Ashland from 1872, helped found the Ashland Press newspaper, he was the chairman of the first board of supervisors in June 1872. After retiring from politics in 1887, he served as postmaster in Ashland, opened a summer resort on Sand Island in Lake Superior. Named Camp Stella, after Fifield's wife, the camp was one of the first successful resorts in northern Wisconsin.
The site is now within the boundaries of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore. Fifield died in 1915 at his home in Ashland. In Ashland, there is a street of historic homes named Fifield Row in his honor
The Central Maryland Transportation Alliance is a coalition of Baltimore area business and nonprofit groups intent on improving travel within Central Maryland, which consists of Baltimore City and the surrounding jurisdictions of Anne Arundel County, Baltimore County, Carroll County, Harford County and Howard County. The group's stated objectives are to reduce congestion, limit sprawl, increase job opportunities and make it easier and more efficient for anyone to travel within Central Maryland; the coalition is Maryland's most comprehensive regional alliance that focuses on transportation issues. Its board consists of advocates, business leaders and representatives of civic and non-profit institutions; the board is chaired by James L. Shea, who chairs the law firm of Venable LLP; the President and CEO of CMTA is Brian O'malley. CMTA's role is to advocate for the development and the implementation of a comprehensive, innovative Baltimore regional transportation plan. CMTA seeks to act as a convener of the region's diverse interest groups.
The Central Maryland Transportation Alliance was formed in 2007 as a diverse coalition of corporate and civic leaders uniting business and institutional sectors around a common agenda: improving and expanding transportation options for the citizens and businesses of Central Maryland. Sponsors of CMTA include The Annie E. Casey Foundation, the Baltimore Community Foundation, the Goldseker Foundation, Bank of America, M&T Bank, Mercy Medical Center, Associated Black Charities, the Baltimore Ravens, Clayton Baker Trust, H & S Properties, Lockhart Vaughn Foundation, Monumental Life, Otis Warren & Company, PNC Bank, the Rauch Foundation, Southern Management Corporation, Struever Brothers, Eccles & Rouse, the Surdna Foundation, Venable LLP and the William G. Baker, Jr. Memorial Fund. Other groups represented on the Board of Directors are the Downtown Partnership of Baltimore, the BWI Partnership, the Metropolitan Baltimore Council AFL-CIO Unions, Veolia Transportation, the Urban League of Greater Baltimore, ULI Baltimore, Citizens Planning & Housing Association, Colliers Pinkard, Economic Alliance of Greater Baltimore, 1000 Friends of Maryland, Baltimore City Public School System, LS Consulting, Inc. and the Baltimore Washington Corridor Chamber.
CMTA aims to create a thriving metropolitan Baltimore that boasts an array of transportation options–including a coordinated system of highways and interconnected mass transit options that allow citizens to move smoothly and inexpensively throughout the region. The group has established a decision matrix, abbreviated as R3=E3, to determine which projects to support. Projects must be regional and reliable transit and transportation initiatives that result in economic growth, equitable access, environmental protection. CMTA has been active in promoting the proposed 14-mile Red Line for Baltimore, extending from the federal government office complexes in Woodlawn in western Baltimore County, through the downtown business district to Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Campus on the city's eastern edge; the Red Line is unpopular in the neighborhoods along Edmondson Avenue and in the Canton community, due to cost cuts, trains would run at street level. A coalition representing those neighborhoods, called The West-East Coalition, says that it supports mass transit but not the street-level segments proposed for the Red Line.
The group maintains. CMTA co-sponsored “Transit around the Nation,” a set of tours by community and civic representatives to cities with Light Rail projects under construction. In August 2008, CMTA held a meeting during the Democratic National Convention in Denver for members of the Maryland delegation to hear from leaders of Denver's Regional Transportation District about political and fiscal challenges of building a Light Rail line. CMTA held a series of press conferences to announce support for a preferred alternative route for the Red Line; these media events featured business leaders, union leaders and medical officials and political leaders from Baltimore City and from the surrounding counties endorsing Alternative 4C. CMTA participated in outreach meetings with other constituencies to explain the importance of this east-west line. In October 2008, CMTA's board of directors announced its endorsement of Alternative 4C for the Red Line; this Light Rail route includes two tunnel alignments to avoid community opposition and downtown disruptions.
CMTA took the lead in advocating for Alternative 4C during the public hearings on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Red Line in November 2008 and during the 90-day comment period, ending Jan. 5, 2009. In January 2009, CMTA launched its “Culture of Transit” campaign; the first phase is a baseline study of residents’ attitudes and awareness of regional public transportation. A telephone survey and an intercept survey were conducted in March. Eleven focus groups were conducted in Central Maryland in April. A report will be issued during the fall of 2009 and will be used to build a marketing and awareness campaign that promotes greater support for public transportation, which CMTA sees as a key to achieving its objectives. On Feb. 24, 2009, CMTA sponsored the second annual Regional Transit Oriented Development Summit at the University of Baltimore where Baltimore County Executive Jim Smith and others emphasized the economic and environmental benefits successful TODs could bring to the region.
CMTA has retained Reconnecting America, a national transportation and community development organization, to identify