The Vienne is one of the most important rivers in south-western France. It is a significant left tributary of the lower Loire, it supports numerous hydro-electric dams, it is the main river of the northern part of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region. Two French departments are named after the Vienne: Haute-Vienne in the Limousin region and Vienne both in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region; the Vienne rises as a spring in the department of Corrèze, at the foot of Mont Audouze, on the Plateau de Millevaches, near Peyrelevade. It flows west to the city of Limoges where it once played a major role in the famous Limoges porcelain industry. A little way after Limoges it takes a turn to the north. En route to its confluence with the Loire, the Vienne is joined by the rivers Clain. After a journey of 372 km it reaches the Loire at Candes-Saint-Martin in the department of Indre-et-Loire; the Vienne flows through the following departments and towns: Corrèze: Peyrelevade Creuse Haute-Vienne: Eymoutiers, Saint-Léonard-de-Noblat, Aixe-sur-Vienne, Saint-Junien Charente: Chabanais, Confolens Vienne: L'Isle-Jourdain, Lussac-les-Châteaux, Chauvigny, Châtellerault Indre-et-Loire: L'Île-Bouchard, ChinonTributaries include: The Creuse, which joins the Vienne north of Châtellerault The Clain, which flows through the city of Poitiers, joins the Vienne in Châtellerault The Briance, which joins the Vienne in Condat-sur-Vienne The Taurion, which joins the Vienne north of Saint-Priest-Taurion http://www.geoportail.fr The Vienne at the Sandre database
Louis Pasteur was a French biologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases, his discoveries have saved many lives since, he reduced mortality from puerperal fever, created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine, he is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization. He is regarded as one of the three main founders of bacteriology, together with Ferdinand Cohn and Robert Koch, is popularly known as the "father of microbiology". Pasteur was responsible for disproving the doctrine of spontaneous generation, he performed experiments. Under the auspices of the French Academy of Sciences, he demonstrated that in sterilized and sealed flasks nothing developed, in sterilized but open flasks microorganisms could grow.
Although Pasteur was not the first to propose the germ theory, his experiments indicated its correctness and convinced most of Europe that it was true. Today, he is regarded as one of the fathers of germ theory. Pasteur made significant discoveries in chemistry, most notably on the molecular basis for the asymmetry of certain crystals and racemization. Early in his career, his investigation of tartaric acid resulted in the first resolution of what is now called optical isomers, his work led the way to the current understanding of a fundamental principle in the structure of organic compounds. He was the director of the Pasteur Institute, established in 1887, until his death, his body was interred in a vault beneath the institute. Although Pasteur made groundbreaking experiments, his reputation became associated with various controversies. Historical reassessment of his notebook revealed. Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole, France, to a Catholic family of a poor tanner, he was the third child of Jeanne-Etiennette Roqui.
The family moved to Marnoz in 1826 and to Arbois in 1827. Pasteur entered primary school in 1831, he was an average student in his early years, not academic, as his interests were fishing and sketching. He drew many pastels and portraits of his parents and neighbors. Pasteur attended secondary school at the Collège d'Arbois. In October 1838, he left for Paris to join the Pension Barbet, but became homesick and returned in November. In 1839, he entered the Collège Royal at Besançon to study philosophy and earned his Bachelor of Letters degree in 1840, he was appointed a tutor at the Besançon college while continuing a degree science course with special mathematics. He failed his first examination in 1841, he managed to pass the baccalauréat scientifique degree in 1842 from Dijon but with a mediocre grade in chemistry. In 1842, Pasteur took the entrance test for the École Normale Supérieure, he passed the first set of tests, but because his ranking was low, Pasteur decided not to continue and try again next year.
He went back to the Pension Barbet to prepare for the test. He attended classes at the Lycée Saint-Louis and lectures of Jean-Baptiste Dumas at the Sorbonne. In 1843, he entered the École Normale Supérieure. In 1845 he received the licencié ès sciences degree. In 1846, he was appointed professor of physics at the Collège de Tournon in Ardèche, but the chemist Antoine Jérôme Balard wanted him back at the École Normale Supérieure as a graduate laboratory assistant, he joined Balard and started his research in crystallography and in 1847, he submitted his two theses, one in chemistry and the other in physics. After serving as professor of physics at the Dijon Lycée in 1848, he became professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg, where he met and courted Marie Laurent, daughter of the university's rector in 1849, they were married on May 29, 1849, together had five children, only two of whom survived to adulthood. Pasteur was appointed professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg in 1848, became the chair of chemistry in 1852.
In 1854, he was named dean of the new faculty of sciences at University of Lille, where he began his studies on fermentation. It was on this occasion that Pasteur uttered his oft-quoted remark: "dans les champs de l'observation, le hasard ne favorise que les esprits préparés". In 1857, he moved to Paris as the director of scientific studies at the École Normale Supérieure where he took control from 1858 to 1867 and introduced a series of reforms to improve the standard of scientific work; the examinations became more rigid, which led to better results, greater competition, increased prestige. Many of his decrees, were rigid and authoritarian, leading to two serious student revolts. During "the bean revolt" he decreed that a mutton stew, which students had refused to eat, would be served and eaten every Monday. On another occasion he threatened to expel any student caught smoking, 73 of the 80 students in the school resigned. In 1863, he was appointed professor of geology and chemistry at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts, a position he held until his resignation in 1867.
In 1867, he became the chair of or
Anais is a commune in the Charente department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. Anais is located 14 km north of Angoulême, it is crossed from north to south by National Highway N10 from Angoulême to Poitiers which passes 1.5 km west of the town and is a landscaped expressway of four lanes. Anais is 4 km west of Jauldes, 6 km south-east of Saint-Amant-de-Boixe - the chief town of the district, 7 km east of Vars, 11 km south of Mansle, 5 km north-west of Brie; the commune is traversed from east to west by the D11 road from Chasseneuil to Rouillac via Vars which passes through the village and continues to join the N10 by an interchange on the western border of the commune. The D45 road goes from the village south to La Chignolle as well as the D113 from Montignac-Charente in the west to Cherves in the east. Anais is 5 km north of Angoulême airport; the nearest train station is that at Angoulême. The town has two large hamlets or villages as big as Anais town: Le Breuil d'Anais located to the south-east, Churet to the south on the old national highway 10 near La Chignolle in Champniers commune.
To the west of the town the area of La Touche has developed due to the interchange on the N10. The commune has many small hamlets and farms: La Claviere, les Nomblières, Puyfrançais, les Rivauds, Romefort, la Poutardière, etc; the soil of the town is made up of limestone dating from the Late Jurassic. The Argence Valley has alluvium from the Quaternary; the relief of the commune is that of a plateau with an average altitude of 100 m traversed from north to south by a small valley - the Argence Valley -, a Dry valley starting from Argence and descending to Anais. The highest point in the commune is at an altitude of 139 m and is located on the western boundary at the Vieille Touche; the lowest point is at 60 m located along the southerly limit of the Argence at Churet. The town is 80 m above sea level; the commune is traversed by a tributary of the right bank of the Charente at Balzac. The Argence is formed from two small tributaries: the Ruisseau du Moulin des Rivauds which rises in the east and l'Étang which has its source in the north with the river Argence taking its name downstream of the town.
The Fountaine de Maillou at the southern border near Churet feeds the Argence. As in the southern three-quarters and west of the department, the climate is oceanic Aquitaine. Anais is derived from the Latin Annacum or Villa Anni, meaning that the village was built around the property of a rich Gallo-Roman named Annus; the hamlet of Breuil d'Anais takes its name from the Low Latin brogilum, of Gallic origin from brogilos, meaning "small wood". Aerial archaeology has revealed the foundations of a medieval castle. From 1793 to 1801 Anais was in the canton of Jandes passed to the Canton of Saint-Amant-de-Boixe. List of Successive Mayors Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Anais and Charente Department in 2009 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE. Throughout the twentieth century, Anais had a high level of stability in its population but the population has increased since the 1970s.
The main area of activity in Anais is at La Touche along the N10 where there is an Intermarché base, trucks, a hotel restaurant, various companies such as: Aluplast, AMS, Crousti'charente, industrial boilermaker Guerin, SOMC and some Wholesalers, materials and petroleum products. In the town is a bakery with another in La Touche where there is a bakery company. There are trade enterprises such as masonry, a general construction company, a farm, a garage; the school is an RPI between Anais, Aussac-Vadalle, Tourriers. Anais has a kindergarten and a primary school while Aussac-Vadalle and Tourriers have elementary schools. Communes of the Charente department Anais on the National Geographic Institute website Anais on Lion1906 Anais on Google Maps Anais on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Anes on the 1750 Cassini Map Anais on the INSEE website INSEE
Ambleville is a commune in the Charente department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Amblevilloises. Ambleville is a commune in the west of the department of Charente located 7 km south of Segonzac, 18 km southeast of Cognac, 31 km west of Angoulême; the area of the commune of Ambleville is about 500 hectares. The village of Ambleville is 7 km east of Archiac, 10 km north of Barbezieux-Saint-Hilaire and 14 km west of Chateauneuf-sur-Charente; the main route to the commune is the D699 road from Angoulême to Archiac and Jonzac via Châteauneuf. This former national road was part of the road from Limoges in Haute-Vienne to Mirambeau in Charente-Maritime; the D44 road goes northwest towards Cognac via Saint-Fort-sur-le-Né and goes south towards Barbezieux. The nearest railway stations are Chateauneuf-sur-Charente and Jarnac Charente both located 14 km from the town; the Jonzac station is 21 km from the town and has services to Bordeaux Saint-Jean in one direction as well as La Rochelle and Nantes in the other direction.
The population is distributed in twenty hamlets or "villages" - the term used in Saintonge and the South-West of France. The town has a few houses grouped around the church; the two major population centres are: le Château and la Motte both near the village near the road to Chateauneuf. The town hall is located at le Château. La Voûte is the highest point in the commune in the north with other hamlets of Chez Philbert and La Bertillère in the south of the commune, le Guineuf on the Collinaud stream etc; the commune is made up of Campanian chalk limestone, which covers a large part of the South Charente. The valleys are covered by alluvium from the recent Quaternary period; the communal land has a quite hilly relief which rises to reach, at its northern end near the hamlet of la Voûte, a height 95 m. The small Collinaud valley in the south of the commune is located where the town and the main road are; the lowest point is 34 m at the western edge of the commune along the Collinaud. The town is 40 m above sea level.
The town is bounded on the south by the Collinaud stream. It is a sub-tributary of the Charente. Two small intermittent streams descend from both sides of the Castle to join the Collinaud near the village. Further west the Font Moreau rises; as for three-quarters of the department in the south and west, the climate is oceanic Aquitaine. In the absence of old spellings, we can relate Ambleville to the homonymous commune of Ambleville in Val-d'Oise, attested in the Latinized form of Amblenvilla in 1209; the name has a medieval source in -ville, a toponymic suffix meaning "rural area" or "village", from the Gallo-Roman villa meaning "rural area", itself derived from the Latin villa rustica. The first part is, as is the case, a Germanic personal name, it can be Amblinus - a man's name, or alternatively Amelinus. These anthroponyms are well represented in northern France; the radical amal- is found in the names Amélie and Amaury. La Motte is a medieval place name meaning "butte" or "mound of earth", attested in medieval Latin in the form motta in 836, for a term of pre-Latin origin *mutt.
This term meant once a stately home or castle. The commune has been occupied since ancient times as proto-historic ditches have been found: circular at Moulin du Guineuf and oval at a place called le Guineuf - a rounded shape that may be a tumulus, leveled - near the Ambleville church to the east. In the west of the commune fragments of Iron Age vases have been found; the land of Ambleville was most important and old, extending over five parishes. Ramnulphe d'Ambleville lived there in 1239 and Arnaud d'Ambleville was quoted in a judgment of 1311. An Ambleville lord was a herald for Joan of Arc; the lands of Ambleville passed into the Archiac family. The Marquise of Archiac left a daughter, who married Pierre Jourdain and transmitted to him the ownership of Ambleville. In 1548 during the salt tax revolt, François Jourdain was Baron of Ambleville. Wanting to stand up to sedition he only succeeded in rousing the people against him and was forced to flee; the insurgents seized the Ambleville castle, set it on fire, reduced it to ashes.
The Jordan family was succeeded by the Jussac family, the best known of whom was François de Jussac, who became captain of fifty men at arms under the orders of the king Governor of Cognac and lieutenant-general of Angoumois and Saintonge. In 1621 he lent his support to the Duke of Épernon to raise a body of troops to besiege the city of La Rochelle. Towards 1643, the Jussac family sold Ambleville to Henri d'Albret, Squire of Pons and Count of Miossens who, a few years assigned this land to his third son, François Amanieu, better known as the Chevalier d'Albret; the latter never married and was killed in a duel by Mr. Saint-Léger Corbon and Ambleville passed to the house of Pons represented by Charles Amanieu the Marquis d'Albret, his nephew, he shot himself on 5 August 1678 and his widow remarried to Charles, Viscount of Marsan, the youngest son of the Count of Harcourt. She left all her property to her second husband. Several children were born of this union including Jacques-Henri de Lorraine-Lixin who received a share of the land of Ambleville.
He was a General, killed on 2 June 1734 at the Siege of Philippsbourg in Germany. Ambleville was sold to Mr. de M
Pitlochry is a burgh in the county of Perthshire in Scotland, lying on the River Tummel. It is administered as part of the council area of Perth and Kinross, has a population of 2,776, according to the 2011 census, it is a Victorian town, which developed into a tourist resort because of Queen Victoria visiting the area in 1842 and the arrival of the railway in 1863. It remains a popular tourist resort today and is known as a centre for hillwalking, surrounded by mountains such as Ben Vrackie and Schiehallion, it is popular as a base for coach holidays. The town has retained many stone Victorian buildings, the high street has an unusual period cast iron canopy over one side. Pitlochry today dates from Victorian times, although the areas known as Moulin and Port-na-craig are much older. History records that Moulin Kirk was granted by the Earl of Atholl to Dunfermline Abbey in 1180 and Moulin became a burgh of barony in 1511. Port-na-craig was the site of the original ferry over the River Tummel which operated until the suspension footbridge was built in 1913.
Building between these two separate communities followed the construction of the military road north in the 18th century which followed the line of the present main street. Moulin contained the parish school, attended by Alexander MacKenzie the second Prime Minister of Canada; this schoolhouse "Blairmount" now operates as a luxury holiday rental. In 1842 Queen Victoria visited Perthshire on one of her grand tours and her favourable opinion of the area caused the town to be more noticed. After the railway station was built in 1863, Pitlochry became a favoured destination for tourists. In 1947 Pitlochry became a burgh; that year saw the beginning of construction of a dam as part of the Tummel hydro-electric power scheme. The dam and its fish ladder are a popular tourist attraction today; the damming of the river created an artificial loch, Loch Faskally but flooded a large area north of the town including the old Recreation Park, relocated to its current position. From the 1960s, Sir Robert Watson-Watt, an inventor of radar, his wife, Dame Katherine Jane Trefusis Forbes, Director of the Women's Auxiliary Air Force in World War II, lived at her summer house, "The Observatory", in Pitlochry.
Both are buried in the churchyard of the Episcopal Church of the Holy Trinity at Pitlochry. Pitlochry Festival Theatre was founded by John Stewart in 1951 situated in a tent in the grounds of Knockendarroch House in Lower Oakfield; the tent became semi-permanent and remained there for 30 years until the current building at Port-na-craig opened in 1981. The town was awarded a Gold Medal in the 2009 Britain in Bloom horticultural contest, outright winner in the category of Small Town. Pitlochry is part of the Kinross council area; the Scottish Parliamentary constituency is Tayside North, represented by John Swinney of the Scottish National Party. The British Parliament constituency is North Perthshire; the MP is Peter Wishart of the Scottish National Party. At the 2011 census, Pitlochry had a population of 2,776. In the same census, 29.2% of residents were reported as being 65 years old or older - higher than 16.8% for Scotland as a whole. The median ages for females and males were 51 and 49 compared to 42 and 40 for the whole of Scotland.
Pitlochry's main tourist attraction is its setting, with the surrounding mountains attracting hillwalkers and climbers. Other outdoor activities, such as angling and boating, are popular. Being in the geographical centre of Scotland, it is a popular touring base; the town has two whisky distilleries, whose visitor centres are popular attractions: Edradour, the smallest legal distillery in Scotland, Blair Athol Distillery, which dates back to 1798. Edradour sits to the east of town at the foot of the Moulin Moor, it is owned and produces only 12 casks per week with a production workforce of three men. Unchanged since it started making whisky, it is the last example of a traditional distillery and hugely popular with visitors. Blair Athol sits on the main road at the southeast of town and since 1933 has been owned by Bell's, now part of the Diageo group, its visitor facilities are state-of-the-art. The power station's dam is known for its 310-metre salmon ladder. Over 5,000 salmon pass through annually.
The dam and power station were completed in 1951 as the last link in the Tummel hydro-electric power scheme which comprises nine power stations and reservoirs. The new reservoir, named Loch Faskally, was built across the River Tummel, flooding a large area upstream; the concrete dam incorporates massive steel floodgates to control water levels, with a walkway across the top with viewing windows to the powerhouse. Despite considerable local opposition to the construction of the new loch and power station, it became an instant attraction and now includes a visitor centre, explaining hydro-electric generation and the lives of the gangs of workmen who built the system; the chain of reservoirs and dams has been a great help in controlling the flooding problems of the Tay valley to the east. The motto of Scottish Hydro-Electric is Neart-na-Gleann. There are a number of churches in Pitlochry, including the Church of Scotland Parish Church of Pitlochry Church of Scotland on Church Road, built in 1884.
Holy Trinity, an Episcopal Church at the eastern end of Pitlochry, was built in 1858. Pitlochry Baptist
Ansac-sur-Vienne is a commune in the Charente department in southwestern France. Communes of the Charente department INSEE