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Congregation of Holy Cross

The Congregation of Holy Cross or Congregatio a Sancta Cruce is a Catholic congregation of missionary priests and brothers founded in 1837 by Blessed Basil Moreau, in Le Mans, France. Father Moreau founded the Marianites of Holy Cross, now divided into three independent congregations of sisters; the Congregations of women who trace their origins to Father Moreau are the Marianites of Holy Cross, the Sisters of the Holy Cross, the Sisters of Holy Cross. Basile Antoine-Marie Moreau was born at Laigné-en-Belin, near Le Mans, France, on February 11, 1799 in the final months of the French Revolution. Moreau was raised in a time when the Catholic Church was facing intense pressure and was being stripped of land and rights; when Moreau decided to enter the priesthood, he was forced to undergo his seminary training in secret for fear that the French government would arrest him. He completed his studies and was ordained for the Diocese of Le Mans in 1821; the French government continued to work for the removal of the Church from the educational system, which left many Catholics without a place to be educated or catechized.

It was out of this environment that Fr. Moreau and a fellow priest came forward to form. On July 15, 1820 a priest of the Diocese of Le Mans, Fr. Jacques-Francois Dujarié, brought together a group of zealous men to serve the educational needs of the people in the French countryside. Fr. Dujarié named this group the Brothers of St. Joseph, but at the time none of the men were vowed religious and the group had no formal recognition from the diocesan bishop. By 1835 this group was well Fr. Dujarié was slowing down and they were in need of a new leader; that same year Fr. Moreau had formed a similar group, which he called Auxiliary Priests, to serve the educational and evangelization needs of the Diocese of Le Mans. Fr. Dujarié and Fr. Moreau had met and discussed their views on the future of the Church in France and so Fr. Dujarié knew that Fr. Moreau was just the man. With the consent of the bishop, Moreau was given control of the Brothers of St. Joseph on August 31, 1835, he was now the head of the Auxiliary Priests and the Brothers of St. Joseph.

In 1837, Fr. Moreau made the decision to combine his two communities into one society so that the priests and brothers could share resources and ministries in common. On March 1, 1837 the priests and brothers gathered in the Sainte-Croix district of Le Mans to sign the Fundamental Act of Union which joined them into one association; this new group took on the name of where they became the Association of Holy Cross. Holy Cross was a diocesan group and so they served in whatever capacity the bishop asked of them. In 1840 this changed. Moreau received a request to send a delegation from his society to Algeria with the purpose of establishing schools and a seminary, it was at this point. Moreau shifted the focus of Holy Cross and after the first missionaries left in April 1840 the association took on the identity of a religious institute. On August 15, 1840, Fr. Moreau and four others became the first professed religious in the Association of Holy Cross; as part of his plan to form this religious institute, Fr.

Moreau brought together the first group of women who would become the Marianites of Holy Cross. Following the first mission to Algeria in 1840, Fr. Moreau began to spread his association to the four corners of the world. In 1841 he sent a group to the United States, establishing the first Holy Cross institution in North America at Notre Dame, Indiana; the institute expanded further by establishing missions in Canada in 1847 and in East Bengal in 1852. This association of priests and sisters, would continue in the same form until May 13, 1857 when Pope Pius IX approved the first constitutions of the priests and brothers. From that point on the Association became the Congregation of Holy Cross. Doubting the propriety of a mixed congregation of men and women, Rome separated the women into an independent community at that time. Fr. Moreau, in his role as their founder, continued to work for Rome's approval of the sisters' constitution. In 1865, Rome approved the constitutions of the Marianites of Holy Cross, granting them the status of an Apostolic congregation.

Fr. Moreau saw a visible image of the Holy Family in this Congregation of Holy Cross which he had conceived as an association of religious men and women working together on equal footing for the building of the reign of God, he intended that this Congregation, composed at its origins of three distinct Societies, Sisters and Brothers, be an apostolic institute. Calling on the spiritual aid of Jesus and Joseph, Moreau gave to each of the three groups a patron: he consecrated the priests to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, he established Mary, under her title of Our Lady of Sorrows, as special patroness for all of Holy Cross, whose members in their several congregations continue to cherish these devotions. As Father Moreau stated in one of his letters, he envisioned that: “Holy Cross will grow like a mighty tree and shoot forth new limbs and new branches which will be nourished by the same sap and endowed with the same life.” Fr. Basil Moreau, CSC Most Rev. Pierre Dufal, CSC Fr. Edward Sorin, CSC Fr. Gilbert Francais, CSC Fr.

James Wesley Donahue, CSC Fr. Albert Cousineau, CSC Fr. Christopher O'Toole, CSC Fr. Germain-Marie Lalande, CSC (


Pınarhisar, ancient Brysis, is a large town and district of Kırklareli Province in the Marmara region of Turkey. The mayor is Mustafa Cingöz; the population is 10,463 as of 2010. The town was a part of the defensive line Lüleburgaz - Karaağaç - Bunarhisar during the First Balkan War; the former spelling of its name was Bunarhisar. The settlement was captured by Bulgarians in the First Balkan War but was taken back by the Ottoman Empire in the course of the Second Balkan War. According to Turkish government resources, Pınarhisar was founded during the reign of Theodosius II, by c. 425, under the name "Brysis" meaning "spring" in Greek. The town's fortress was built during the Byzantine era. In 1190, the town was damaged by Crusader occupation, it was attacked by Tatars in 1264. The town was captured by the Ottomans in 1368, by the forces under the command of Ghazi Mihal, as a part of a campaign led by Murad I; the first mention of the archdiocese of Brysis is in an early 10th-century Notitia Episcopatuum associated with Emperor Leo VI the Wise.

Extant documents record the names of three of its ancient archbishops: John took part in the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. During the Fourth Crusade Brysis became a Latin Church archbishopric under the name Verissa. No longer a residential bishopric, Brysis is today listed by the Catholic Church. Soustal, Peter. Tabula Imperii Byzantini, Band 6: Thrakien. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Pp. 220–221. ISBN 3-7001-1898-8

Gathering of Developers

Gathering of Developers, Inc. was an American video game publisher based in New York City. Founded by Mike Wilson and associates in January 1998, based in Dallas, the company was acquired by Take-Two Interactive in May 2000. Between May 2000 and March 2001, Gathering of Developers operated a division, On Deck Interactive, which acted as their mass market label. In August 2001, Take-Two Interactive closed Gathering of Developers' Dallas headquarters and moved the label in-house, to New York City; the label was shut down with all assets consumed by Global Star Software. Gathering of Developers was announced by Mike Wilson in 1997, with the official opening scheduled for January 1998. Wilson had been the chief executive officer of Ion Storm, a video game developer; the opening of the company took place on January 13, 1998. Co-founders included Jim Bloom, Rick Stults and Doug Myres; the same month, video game developer Terminal Reality became an equity partner of Gathering of Developers, through which their vice-president, Brett Combs, took a seat on the publisher's board of directors.

Other founding partners included Edge of Reality, 3D Realms, Epic Games, PopTop Software, Ritual Entertainment. By February 1998, the company had struck an investment deal with Pennsylvania Merchants Group. On June 1, 1998, video game publisher Take-Two Interactive announced a "subsistantial non-equity investment" in Gathering of Developers, wherein Take-Two Interactive would distribute games published by Gathering of Developers. Take-Two Interactive went on to acquire a 20% stake in the company by February 1999. In February 1999, Gathering of Developers co-founded the Independent Games Festival, to premier Game Developers Conference, co-hosted and funded the 1999 edition of it. In May 1999, Gathering of Developers signed an agreement with Sega to distribute eight of their games on the platform. During the Electronic Entertainment Expo trade shows, Gathering of Developers offered free barbecue, live music and beer to the nearly 10,000 attendees that would cross the street into their parking lot, dubbed the "Promised Lot".

At the 2001 edition of the event, Gathering of Developers' booth displayed booth babes dressed up as schoolgirls to promote their adult content. On May 1, 2000, Take-Two Interactive announced; the deal was signed due to Gathering of Developers' financial instability. On May 4, 2000, Take-Two Interactive and Gathering of Developers launched On Deck Interactive as a publishing label for games with "a consumer friendly price point and a mass market appeal". Following the departure of On Deck Interactive's chief executive officer, Robert Westmoreland, the label was shut down again on March 5, 2001, with all of its upcoming games shifted to Gathering of Developers. On May 3, 2001, Gathering of Developers co-founder Myres unexpectedly died of an asthma attack. In his honor, Gathering of Developers announced the "Doug Myres Substance Award" in June that year, which would be handed out at the July 2001 edition of the Cyberathlete Professional League, with a donation to the Dallas Children's Advocacy Center made in the recipient's name.

Gathering of Developers' Dallas, Texas offices were closed down by Take-Two Interactive on August 9, 2001, all operations were relocated to Take-Two Interactive's headquarters in New York City. All staff were laid off or left the company, most of which were hired by SubstanceTV, a new venture launched by Wilson and Myres. On September 9, 2004, following poor financial results in Take-Two Interactive's Q3 2004 fiscal quarter, Gathering of Developers was folded into Global Star Software, Take-Two Interactive's budget range publishing label

Ocoee, Tennessee

Ocoee is an unincorporated community in Polk County, United States. Although it is unincorporated, it has a post office, with the ZIP code of 37361, its elevation is 797 feet, it is located at 35°7′28″N 84°43′6″W. Ocoee is located at the intersection of US 64/US 74 and US 411. Ocoee's economy is fueled by the Cherokee National Forest and the Ocoee River, known for its whitewater rafting; the upper section of the Ocoee was home to the 1996 Olympics slalom racing event. Ocoee has a McDonald's, a Dollar General Store, a Hardee's, a Huddle House, grocery store, a bank and the Whitewater Inn. On November 30, 2016, an EF3 tornado touched down in Ocoee, causing two deaths and severe damage to the post office, the volunteer fire department and a shop

The Grunt

"The Grunt" is a funk instrumental recorded in 1970 by James Brown's band The J. B.'s. It was released as a two-part single on King, it was one of only two instrumental singles recorded by the original J. B.'s lineup with Catfish Collins. Large parts of "The Grunt"'s melody and arrangement are borrowed, from The Isley Brothers' song "Keep on Doin'", released earlier in the same year. Part 1 of "The Grunt" was included on The J. B.'s' 1972 album Food for Thought. Clayton "Chicken" Gunnels - trumpet Darryl "Hasaan" Jamison - trumpet Robert McCollough - tenor sax Bobby Byrd - piano Phelps "Catfish" Collins - guitar William "Bootsy" Collins - bass Frank Waddy - drums unidentified maracas "The Grunt" has been a prolific source of samples for hip hop producers. Several different musical elements of the recording have been sampled, including a squealing saxophone glissando that begins the piece, a two-note saxophone riff that occurs in the middle of the recording, the underlying rhythmic groove that continues throughout.

Three different tracks on Public Enemy's album It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back loop portions of the recording. Other artists who have sampled "The Grunt" include Eric B. and Rakim, 2 Live Crew, Jungle Brothers, Compton's Most Wanted, Ultramagnetic MCs, Wu-Tang Clan, Pete Rock & C. L. Smooth, The Black Eyed Peas and Joe Public, it is included in the famous Ultimate Breaks and Beats series of break records in an extended remix format. "The Grunt" appears on the Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas soundtrack on the Master Sounds 98.3 station. List of songs that sample "The Grunt"

Shift-reduce parser

A shift-reduce parser is a class of efficient, table-driven bottom-up parsing methods for computer languages and other notations formally defined by a grammar. The parsing methods most used for parsing programming languages, LR parsing and its variations, are shift-reduce methods; the precedence parsers used before the invention of LR parsing are shift-reduce methods. All shift-reduce parsers have similar outward effects, in the incremental order in which they build a parse tree or call specific output actions. A shift-reduce parser scans and parses the input text in one forward pass over the text, without backing up; the parser builds up the parse tree incrementally, bottom up, left to right, without guessing or backtracking. At every point in this pass, the parser has accumulated a list of subtrees or phrases of the input text that have been parsed; those subtrees are not yet joined together because the parser has not yet reached the right end of the syntax pattern that will combine them. Consider the string A = B + C * 2.

At step 7 in the example, only "A = B +" has been parsed. Only the shaded lower-left corner of the parse tree exists. None of the parse tree nodes numbered 8 and above exist yet. Nodes 1, 2, 6, 7 are the roots of isolated subtrees covering all the items 1..7. Node 1 is variable A, node 2 is the delimiter =, node 6 is the summand B, node 7 is the operator +; these four root nodes are temporarily held in a parse stack. The remaining unparsed portion of the input stream is "C * 2". A shift-reduce parser works by doing some combination of Shift steps and Reduce steps, hence the name. A Shift step advances in the input stream by one symbol; that shifted. A Reduce step applies a completed grammar rule to some of the recent parse trees, joining them together as one tree with a new root symbol; the parser continues with these steps until all of the input has been consumed and all of the parse trees have been reduced to a single tree representing an entire legal input. At every parse step, the entire input text is divided into parse stack, current lookahead symbol, remaining unscanned text.

The parser's next action is determined by the lookahead symbol. The action is read from a table containing all syntactically valid combinations of stack and lookahead symbols. See for a simpler example. A grammar is the set of patterns or syntax rules for the input language, it doesn't cover all language rules, such as the size of numbers, or the consistent use of names and their definitions in the context of the whole program. Shift-reduce parsers use a context-free grammar. An example grammar as a tiny subset of the Java or C language capable of matching A = B + C*2 might be: Assign ← id = Sums Sums ← Sums + Products Sums ← Products Products ← Products * Value Products ← Value Value ← int Value ← idThe grammar's terminal symbols are the multi-character symbols or'tokens' found in the input stream by a lexical scanner. Here these include = + * and int for any integer constant, id for any identifier name; the grammar doesn't care what the int values or id spellings are, nor does it care about blanks or line breaks.

The grammar does not define them. They are always at the bottom bushy end of the parse tree; the capitalized terms like Sums are nonterminal symbols. These are names for patterns in the language, they are defined in the grammar and never occur themselves in the input stream. They are always above the bottom of the parse tree, they only happen as a result of the parser applying some grammar rule. Some nonterminals are defined with two or more rules. Rules can refer back to themselves; this grammar uses recursive rules to handle repeated math operators. Grammars for complete languages use recursive rules to handle lists, parenthesized expressions and nested statements. Any given computer language can be described by several different grammars; the grammar for a shift-reduce parser must be unambiguous itself, or be augmented by tie-breaking precedence rules. This means there is only one correct way to apply the grammar to a given legal example of the language, resulting in a unique parse tree and a unique sequence of shift/reduce actions for that example.

A table-driven parser has all of its knowledge about the grammar encoded into unchanging data called parser tables. The parser's program code is a simple generic loop that applies unchanged to many grammars and languages; the tables may be worked out by hand for precedence methods. For LR methods, the complex tables are mechanically derived from a grammar by some parser generator tool like Bison; the parser tables are much larger than the grammar. In other parsers that are not table-driven, such as recursive descent, each language construct is parsed by a different subroutine, specialized to the syntax of that one construct; the shift-reduce parser's efficiency is from backtracking. Its total time scales up linearly with the length of the input and the size of the complete parse tree. Other parser methods that backtrack may take exponential time. To avoid guessing, the shift-reduce parser looks ahead at the next scanned symbol, before deciding what to do with scanned symbols; the lexical scanner works one symbol ahead of the rest of the parser.

The lookahead symbol is the'right-hand context' for each parsing decision. A shift-red