Ngô Đình Thục
Pierre Martin Ngô Đình Thục was the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Huế, a member of the Ngô family who ruled South Vietnam in the years leading up to the Vietnam War. He was the founder of Dalat University. While Thục was in Rome attending the second session of the Second Vatican Council, the 1963 South Vietnamese coup overthrew and assassinated his younger brother Ngo Dinh Diem, president of South Vietnam. Thục was unable to return to Vietnam and lived the rest of his life exiled in Italy and the United States. During his exile, he was involved with Traditionalist Catholic movements and consecrated a number of bishops without the Vatican's approval for the Palmarian and Sedevacantist movements; as a result, he was excommunicated by the Holy See and reconciled with the Vatican a number of times. Ngô Đình Thục was born in Huế to an affluent Roman Catholic family as the second of the six surviving sons born to Ngô Đình Khả, a mandarin of the Nguyễn dynasty who served Emperor Thành Thái during the French occupation of Vietnam.
Thục's elder brother, Khôi, served as a governor and mandarin of the French-controlled Emperor Bảo Đại's administration. At the end of World War Two, both Khôi and Thục's younger brother Diệm were arrested for having collaborated with the Japanese. Diệm was released, but Khôi was subsequently shot by the Việt Minh as part of the August Revolution of 1945. All of Thục's brothers, including Diệm, Nhu and Cẩn, were politically active. Diệm had been Interior Minister under Bảo Đại in the 1930s for a brief period, sought power in the late 1940s and 1950s under a Catholic anti-communist platform as various groups tried to establish their rule over Vietnam. Diệm led a coup, overthrowing the emperor and becoming president of South Vietnam in 1955. Diệm, Nhu and Cẩn were all assassinated during and shortly after the 1963 South Vietnamese coup. Cardinal François Xavier Nguyễn Văn Thuận was Thục's nephew. At age twelve, Thục entered the minor seminary in An Ninh, he spent eight years there before going on to study philosophy at the major seminary in Huế.
Following his ordination as a priest on 20 December 1925, he was selected to study theology in Rome, is said to have earned three doctorates from the Pontifical Gregorian University in philosophy and Canon law. He lectured at the Sorbonne and gained teaching qualifications before returning to Vietnam in 1927, he became a professor at the College of Vietnamese Brothers in Huế, a professor at the major seminary in Huế, Dean of the College of Providence. In 1938, he was chosen by Rome to direct the Apostolic Vicariate at Vĩnh Long, he was consecrated a bishop on 4 May 1938, being the third Vietnamese priest raised to the rank of bishop. In 1950 Diệm and Thục applied for permission to travel to Rome for the Holy Year celebrations at the Vatican but went instead to Japan to lobby Prince Cường Để to enlist support to seize power, they met Wesley Fishel, an American academic consultant for the U. S. government. Fishel was a proponent of the anti-colonial, anti-communist third force doctrine in Asia and was impressed by Diệm.
He helped the brothers organise meetings in the United States to enlist support. With the outbreak of the Korean War and McCarthyism in the early 1950s, Vietnamese anti-communists were a sought-after commodity in the United States. Diệm and Thục were given a reception at the State Department with the Acting Secretary of State James Webb, where Thục did much of the talking. Diệm and Thục forged links with Cardinal Francis Spellman, the most politically influential cleric of his time, Spellman became one of Diệm's most powerful advocates. Diệm managed an audience with Pope Pius XII in Rome with his brother's help, settled in the US as a guest of the Maryknoll Fathers. Spellman helped Diệm to garner support among Catholic circles. Thục was seen as more genial and diplomatic than his brother, it was acknowledged that Thục would be influential in the future regime; as French power in Vietnam declined, Diệm’s support in America, which Thục helped to nurture, made his stock rise. Bảo Đại made Diệm the Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam because he thought Diệm's connections would secure foreign financial aid.
In October 1955, Diệm deposed Bảo Đại in a fraudulent referendum organised by Nhu and declared himself President of the newly proclaimed Republic of Vietnam, which concentrated power in the Ngô family, who were dedicated Roman Catholics in a Buddhist majority country. Power was enforced through secret police and the imprisonment and torture of political and religious opponents; the Ngôs' policies and conduct inflamed religious tensions. The government was biased towards Catholics in public service and military promotions, as well as the allocation of land, business favors and tax concessions. In May 1963, in the central city of Huế, where Thục was archbishop, Buddhists were prohibited from displaying the Buddhist flag during Vesak celebrations commemorating the birth of Gautama Buddha, when the government cited a regulation prohibiting the display of non-government flags at Thục's request. A few days earlier, Catholics were encouraged to fly Vatican flags to celebrate Thục's 25th anniversary as bishop.
Government funds were used to pay for Thục's anniversary celebrations, the residents of Huế—a Buddhist stronghold—were forced to contribute. These perceived double standards led to a Buddhist protest against the government, ended when nine civilians were shot dead or run over when the military attacked. Despite footage showing otherwis
Mark Anthony Pivarunas, CMRI is a U. S.-based sedevacantist and traditionalist Catholic bishop and Superior General of the Congregation of Mary Immaculate Queen. Pivarunas was born to his father, Walter Pivarunas, an ethnic Italian mother in Chicago, Illinois, he has a sister. He entered the religious life in September 1974, entering the Congregation of Mary Immaculate Queen and taking the religious name Brother Mary Tarcisius, he made his final profession on September 12, 1980, at CMRI's headquarters at Mount Saint Michael in Spokane, Washington. In May 1984, Pivarunas was among the clergy who removed Bishop Francis Schuckardt, founder of the CMRI, under controversial circumstances. On April 23, 1985, after some time without a clear leader and the clergy met with Bishop George Musey, who agreed to advance Pivarunas and two others to the priesthood on June 27, 1985. Bishop Musey's connections with Mount Saint Michael were limited after that; the priests concluded that, while it was important to dispense the Mass and sacraments, the condition of sedevacantism in the Roman Catholic Church resulted in a vacuum of canonical ecclesiastical authority.
A coalition of the priests elected the 30-year-old Pivarunas to the post of Superior General of the Congregation of Mary Immaculate Queen in August 1989. In 1991, the CMRI clergy made contact with another sedevacantist bishop, the Mexican Moisés Carmona, who offered to elevate Pivarunas to the episcopate, without the required papal mandate. On September 24, 1991, Father Pivarunas was consecrated a bishop by Carmona at Mount Saint Michael. On November 30, 1993, Bishop Pivarunas conferred episcopal consecration upon Father Daniel Dolan in Cincinnati, on May 11, 1999, he consecrated Martin Davila for the Sociedad Sacerdotal Trento to succeed Moisés Carmona. Bishop Pivarunas now resides in Omaha, serving as Superior General of CMRI and as rector of the congregation's Mater Dei Seminary there. Congregation of Mary Immaculate Queen Traditional Catholic Sermons
The Order of Preachers known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216. Members of the order, who are referred to as Dominicans carry the letters OP after their names, standing for Ordinis Praedicatorum, meaning of the Order of Preachers. Membership in the order includes friars, active sisters, affiliated lay or secular Dominicans. Founded to preach the Gospel and to oppose heresy, the teaching activity of the order and its scholastic organisation placed the Preachers in the forefront of the intellectual life of the Middle Ages; the order is famed for its intellectual tradition, having produced many leading theologians and philosophers. In the year 2017 there were 5,742 Dominican friars, including 4,302 priests; the Dominican Order is headed by the Master of the Order Bruno Cadoré. A number of other names have been used to refer to its members.
In England and other countries the Dominican friars are referred to as "Black Friars" because of the black cappa or cloak they wear over their white habits. Dominicans were "Blackfriars", as opposed to "Whitefriars" or "Greyfriars", they are distinct from the Augustinian Friars who wear a similar habit. In France, the Dominicans were known as "Jacobins" because their convent in Paris was attached to the Church of Saint-Jacques, now disappeared, on the way to Saint-Jacques-du-Haut-Pas, which belonged to the Italian Order of Saint James of Altopascio Sanctus Iacobus in Latin, their identification as Dominicans gave rise to the pun that they were the "Domini canes", or "Hounds of the Lord". The Dominican Order came into being in the Middle Ages at a time when men of God were no longer expected to stay behind the walls of a cloister. Instead, they travelled among the people, taking as their examples the apostles of the primitive Church. Out of this ideal emerged two orders of mendicant friars: one, the Friars Minor, was led by Francis of Assisi.
Like his contemporary, Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization, the quick growth of the Dominicans and Franciscans during their first century of existence confirms that the orders of mendicant friars met a need. Dominic sought to establish a new kind of order, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders like the Benedictines to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities, but with more organizational flexibility than either monastic orders or the secular clergy; the Order of Preachers was founded in response to a perceived need for informed preaching. Dominic's new order was to be trained to preach in the vernacular languages. Dominic inspired his followers with loyalty to learning and virtue, a deep recognition of the spiritual power of worldly deprivation and the religious state, a developed governmental structure. At the same time, Dominic inspired the members of his order to develop a "mixed" spirituality.
They were both active in preaching, contemplative in study and meditation. The brethren of the Dominican Order were urban and learned, as well as contemplative and mystical in their spirituality. While these traits affected the women of the order, the nuns absorbed the latter characteristics and made those characteristics their own. In England, the Dominican nuns blended these elements with the defining characteristics of English Dominican spirituality and created a spirituality and collective personality that set them apart; as an adolescent, he had a particular love of theology and the Scriptures became the foundation of his spirituality. During his studies in Palencia, Spain, he experienced a dreadful famine, prompting Dominic to sell all of his beloved books and other equipment to help his neighbors. After he completed his studies, Bishop Martin Bazan and Prior Diego d'Achebes appointed Dominic to the cathedral chapter and he became a Canon Regular under the Rule of Saint Augustine and the Constitutions for the cathedral church of Osma.
At the age of twenty-four or twenty-five, he was ordained to the priesthood. In 1203, Dominic de Guzmán joined Diego de Acebo on an embassy to Denmark for the monarchy of Spain, to arrange the marriage between the son of King Alfonso VIII of Castile and a niece of King Valdemar II of Denmark. At that time the south of France was the stronghold of the Cathar movement; the Cathars were a heretical neo-gnostic sect. They believed that matter was evil and only the spirit was good; the Albigensian Crusade was a 20-year military campaign initiated by Pope Innocent III to eliminate Catharism in Languedoc, in southern France. Dominic saw the need for a response that would attempt to sway members of the Albigensian movement back to mainstream Christian thought. Dominic became inspired into a reforming zeal after they encountered Albigensian Christians at Toulouse. Diego saw one of the paramount reasons for the spread of the unorthodox movement- the representatives of the Holy Church acted and moved with an offensive amount of pomp and ceremony.
In contrast, the Cathars led ascetic lifestyles. For these reasons, Diego suggested that the papal legates begin to live a reformed apostolic l
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County. Omaha is located in the Midwestern United States on the Missouri River, about 10 miles north of the mouth of the Platte River; the nation's 40th-largest city, Omaha's 2018 estimated population was 466,061. Omaha is the anchor of the bi-state Omaha-Council Bluffs metropolitan area; the Omaha Metropolitan Area is the 59th largest in the United States, with an estimated population of 944,316. The Omaha-Council Bluffs-Fremont, NE-IA Combined Statistical Area encompasses the Omaha-Council Bluffs MSA as well as the separate Fremont, NE Micropolitan Statistical Area, which consists of the entirety of Dodge County, Nebraska; the total population of the CSA was 970,023 based on 2017 estimates. 1.3 million people reside within the Greater Omaha area, within a 50 mi radius of Downtown Omaha. Omaha's pioneer period began in 1854, when the city was founded by speculators from neighboring Council Bluffs, Iowa; the city was founded along the Missouri River, a crossing called Lone Tree Ferry earned the city its nickname, the "Gateway to the West".
Omaha introduced this new West to the world in 1898, when it played host to the World's Fair, dubbed the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. During the 19th century, Omaha's central location in the United States spurred the city to become an important national transportation hub. Throughout the rest of the 19th century, the transportation and jobbing sectors were important in the city, along with its railroads and breweries. In the 20th century, the Omaha Stockyards, once the world's largest, its meatpacking plants gained international prominence. Today, Omaha is the home to the headquarters of four Fortune 500 companies: mega-conglomerate Berkshire Hathaway. Berkshire Hathaway is headed by local investor Warren Buffett, one of the richest people in the world, according to a decade's worth of Forbes Magazine rankings, some of which have ranked him as high as No. 1. Omaha is the home to five Fortune 1000 headquarters: Green Plains Renewable Energy, TD Ameritrade, Valmont Industries, Werner Enterprises, West Corporation.
Headquartered in Omaha are the following: First National Bank of Omaha, the largest held bank in the United States. Notable modern Omaha inventions include the following: the bobby pin and the "pink hair curler" created at Omaha's Tip Top Products. S. at Omaha's KOWH Radio. Various Native American tribes had lived in the land that became Omaha, including since the 17th century, the Omaha and Ponca, Dhegian-Siouan-language people who had originated in the lower Ohio River valley and migrated west by the early 17th century; the word Omaha means "Dwellers on the bluff". In 1804 the Lewis and Clark Expedition passed by the riverbanks where the city of Omaha would be built. Between July 30 and August 3, 1804, members of the expedition, including Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, met with Oto and Missouria tribal leaders at the Council Bluff at a point about 20 miles north of present-day Omaha. South of that area, Americans built several fur trading outposts in succeeding years, including Fort Lisa in 1812.
There was fierce competition among fur traders until John Jacob Astor created the monopoly of the American Fur Company. The Mormons built a town called Cutler's Park in the area in 1846. While it was temporary, the settlement provided the basis for further development in the future. Through 26 separate treaties with the United States federal government, Native American tribes in Nebraska ceded the lands constituting the state; the treaty and cession involving the Omaha area occurred in 1854 when the Omaha Tribe ceded most of east-central Nebraska. Logan Fontenelle, an interpreter for the Omaha and signatory to the 1854 treaty, played an essential role in those proceedings. Before it was legal to claim land in Indian Country, William D. Brown was operating the Lone Tree Ferry to bring settlers from Council Bluffs, Iowa to the area that became Omaha. Brown is credited as having the first vision for a city where Omaha now sits; the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act in 1854 was presaged by the staking out of claims around the area to become Omaha by residents from neighboring Council Bluffs.
On July 4, 1854, the city was informally established at a picnic on Capital Hill, current site of Omaha Central High School. Soon after, the Omaha Claim Club was formed to provide vigilante justice for claim jumpers and others who infringed on the land of many of the city's founding fathers; some of this land, which now wraps aro
Traditionalist Catholicism is a set of religious beliefs made up of the customs, liturgical forms and private devotions, presentations of the teaching of the Catholic Church before the Second Vatican Council. It is associated with an attachment to the pre-1970 Roman Rite Mass, referred to as the Traditional Latin Mass. Traditionalist Catholics were disturbed by the liturgical changes that followed the Second Vatican Council, arguing that they stripped the liturgy of its outward sacredness and made it too Protestant, eroding faith in the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist. Many oppose the social teachings given by the Church during and after the Council, that on ecumenism, claiming that the latter blurs the lines between Catholicism and other religions; the modern traditionalist movement traces its roots to at least the early 1970s, when conservative Catholics opposed to or uncomfortable with the social and liturgical changes brought about by Second Vatican Council began to coalesce. In 1970, French Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre founded the Society of Saint Pius X, made up of priests who would say only the Traditional Latin Mass and who stood opposed to what he saw as excessive liberal influences in the Church.
Over time, Lefebvre's movement grew despite split-offs by various offshoot groups. Some Catholics, many never affiliated with Lefebvre, took the position of sedevacantism, which teaches John XXIII and his successors are heretics and cannot therefore be considered popes, that the new Church and new expressions of the sacraments are not valid. Other, marginal groups known as conclavists have elected their own popes in opposition to the men considered by the world to be the true popes; the Society of Saint Pius V broke off from Lefebvre over its objections to the SSPX's use of the missal of Pope John XXIII, preferring the much older 1570 missal of Pope Pius V, publicly questioning the legitimacy of the post-Vatican II popes. Lefebvre renounced these positions, but his movement still drew the suspicion of Roman authorities. In 1988, he and another bishop consecrated four men as bishops without papal permission, resulting in an Latae sententiae excommunication for all six men directly involved, not of the Society.
The excommunications were lifted for the surviving bishops by Pope Benedict XVI in 2009. Some members of the SSPX, unwilling to participate in what they considered schism and founded the Priestly Fraternity of Saint Peter, which celebrates the Traditional Latin Mass but in full communion with the Holy See. During the papacy of Pope Benedict XVI, numerous attempts were made to bring the SSPX back from its separation from the authority of the Church, including the lifting of the excommunications on the four surviving bishops; these failed, but the efforts of the SSPX to negotiate with Rome led to the establishment of the minority SSPX Resistance. Traditionalist Catholics may be divided into four broad groups. Since the Second Vatican Council, several traditionalist organizations have been started with or have subsequently obtained approval from the Catholic Church; these organizations accept in principle the documents of the Second Vatican Council, regard the changes associated with the Council as legitimate, if prudentially unwise, but celebrate the older forms with the approval of the Holy See.
Priestly Fraternity of St Peter Institute of Christ the King Sovereign Priest, Sons of the Most Holy Redeemer Institute of the Good Shepherd Servants of Jesus and Mary Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem Canons Regular of Saint John Cantius Canons Regular of the Holy Cross Fraternity of Saint Vincent Ferrer Personal Apostolic Administration of Saint John Mary Vianney Miles Christi There are multiple monastic communities, including Monastery of Our Lady of the Annunciation of Clear Creek Monastery of St. Benedict in Norcia Monks of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel Monastery of Our Lady of the Cenacle Le Barroux AbbeySee Communities using the Tridentine Mass for a more detailed list. In addition, many traditionalist Catholics in good standing with Rome are served by local diocesan or religious priests who are willing and able to offer the traditional rites. Many other Catholics who sympathize with or who identify themselves as traditionalist are not able to attend the traditional liturgy because it is not offered in their area and attend the Mass of Paul VI, the current ordinary or normal Roman Rite of Mass following the Second Vatican Council.
Others may attend the liturgies of Eastern Catholic Churches. There are numerous local and international lay organizations of traditionalist Catholics, such as the youth-groups of Juventutem. Traditionalist Catholics are considered by some to differ from neo-conservatives in that the neo-conservative bases his entire belief system on the teaching of the present magisterium, while the traditionalist interprets the present with the perspective of the past; some traditionalists receive the Sacraments from priests considered suspended a divinis by Church authorities, though these priests and the Catholics that flock to them affirm their loyalty to the Church, while at the same time affirming that teachings of the Second Vatican Council on ecumenism, religious liberty, collegiality are inconsistent with Catholic teaching and doctrine. They form what Julie Byrne terms the right wing of independent Catholicism: "Independents vary ranging from right to left in the political spectrum. On the right traditionalist churches practice versions of Catholicism more conservative than Rome.
These include the Society of St. Pius X, foun
In the Christian churches, holy orders are ordained ministries such as bishop, priest, or deacon, the sacrament or rite by which candidates are ordained to those orders. Churches recognizing these orders include the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, Old Catholic, Independent Catholic and some Lutheran churches. Except for Lutherans and some Anglicans, these churches regard ordination as a sacrament; the Anglo-Catholic tradition within Anglicanism identifies more with the Roman Catholic position about the sacramental nature of ordination. Denominations have varied conceptions of holy orders. In the Anglican churches and some Lutheran churches the traditional orders of bishop and deacon are bestowed using ordination rites; the extent to which ordination is considered sacramental in these traditions has, been a matter of some internal dispute. Baptists are among the denominations that do not consider ministry as being sacramental in nature and would not think of it in terms of "holy orders" as such.
The word "order" designated an established civil body or corporation with a hierarchy, ordinatio meant legal incorporation into an ordo. The word "holy" refers to the Church. In context, therefore, a holy order is set apart for ministry in the Church. Other positions, such as pope, cardinal, archbishop, archpriest, hieromonk and archdeacon, are not sacramental orders but specialized ministries; the Eastern Orthodox Church considers ordination to be a Sacred Mystery. Although all other mysteries may be performed by a presbyter, ordination may only be conferred by a bishop, ordination of a bishop may only be performed by several bishops together. Cheirotonia always takes place during the Divine Liturgy, it was the mission of the Apostles to go forth into all the world and preach the Gospel, baptizing those who believed in the name of the Holy Trinity. In the Early Church those who presided over congregations were referred to variously as episcopos or presbyteros; these successors of the Apostles were ordained to their office by the laying on of hands, according to Orthodox theology formed a living, organic link with the Apostles, through them with Jesus Christ himself.
This link is believed to continue in unbroken succession to this day. Over time, the ministry of bishops and presbyters or priests came to be distinguished. In Orthodox terminology, priesthood or sacerdotal refers to the ministry of priests; the Eastern Orthodox Church has ordination to minor orders, performed outside of the Divine Liturgy by a bishop, although certain archimandrites of stavropegial monasteries may bestow cheirothesia on members of their communities. A bishop is the collector of the money of the diocese and the living Vessel of Grace through whom the energeia of the Holy Spirit flows into the rest of the church. A bishop is consecrated through the laying on of hands by several bishops; the consecration of a bishop takes place near the beginning of the Liturgy, since a bishop can, in addition to performing the Mystery of the Eucharist ordain priests and deacons. Before the commencement of the Holy Liturgy, the bishop-elect professes, in the middle of the church before the seated bishops who will consecrate him, in detail the doctrines of the Orthodox Christian Faith and pledges to observe the canons of the Apostles and Councils, the Typikon and customs of the Orthodox Church and to obey ecclesiastical authority.
After the Little Entrance, the arch-priest and arch-deacon conduct the bishop-elect before the Royal Gates where he is met by the bishops and kneels before the altar on both knees. The Gospel Book is laid over his head and the consecrating bishops lay their hands upon the Gospel Book, while the prayers of ordination are read by the eldest bishop. After this, the newly consecrated bishop ascends the synthranon for the first time. Customarily, the newly consecrated bishop ordains a priest and a deacon at the Liturgy during which he is consecrated. A priest may serve only at the pleasure of his bishop. A bishop bestows faculties giving a priest an antimins; the ordination of a priest occurs before the Anaphora in order that he may on the same day take part in the celebration of the Eucharist: During the Great Entrance, the candidate for ordination carries the Aër over his head as a symbol of giving up his diaconate, comes last in the procession and stands at the end of the pair of lines of the priests.
After the Aër is taken from the candidate to cover the chalice and diskos, a chair is brought for the bishop to sit on by the northeast corner of the Holy Table. Two deacons go to priest-elect who, at that point, had been standing alone in the middle of the church, bow him down to the west and to the east, asking their consent by saying “Command ye!” and lead him through the holy doors of the altar where the archdeacon asks the bishop’s co
Louis de Montfort
Saint Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort was a French Roman Catholic priest and Confessor. He was known in his time as a preacher and was made a missionary apostolic by Pope Clement XI; as well as preaching, Montfort found time to write a number of books which went on to become classic Catholic titles and influenced several popes. Montfort is known for his particular devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary and the practice of praying the Rosary. Montfort is considered as one of the early writers in the field of Mariology, his most notable works regarding Marian devotions are contained in Secret of the Rosary and True Devotion to Mary. The Roman Catholic Church, under the pontificate of Pope Pius XII, canonized Montfort on July 20, 1947. A "founders statue" created by Giacomo Parisini is located in an upper niche of the south nave of St. Peter's Basilica, he was born in 1673 in Montfort-sur-Meu, the eldest surviving child of eighteen born to Jean-Baptiste and Jeanne Robert Grignion. His father was a notary.
Louis-Marie passed most of his infancy and early childhood in Iffendic, a few kilometers from Montfort, where his father had bought a farm. At the age of 12, he entered the Jesuit College of St Thomas Becket in Rennes, where his uncle was a parish priest. At the end of his ordinary schooling, he began his studies of philosophy and theology, still at St Thomas in Rennes. Listening to the stories of a local priest, the Abbé Julien Bellier, about his life as an itinerant missionary, he was inspired to preach missions among the poor. And, under the guidance of some other priests he began to develop his strong devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary, he was given the opportunity, through a benefactor, to go to Paris to study at the renowned Seminary of Saint-Sulpice towards the end of 1693. When he arrived in Paris, it was to find that his benefactor had not provided enough money for him, so he lodged in a succession of boarding houses, living among the poor, in the meantime attending the Sorbonne University for lectures in theology.
After less than two years, he became ill and had to be hospitalized, but survived his hospitalization and the blood letting, part of his treatment at the time. Upon his release from the hospital, to his surprise he found himself with a place reserved at the Little Saint-Sulpice, which he entered in July 1695. Saint-Sulpice had been founded by Jean-Jacques Olier, one of the leading exponents of what came to be known as the French school of spirituality. Given that he was appointed the librarian, his time at Saint-Sulpice gave him the opportunity to study most of the available works on spirituality and, in particular, on the Virgin Mary's place in the Christian life; this led to his focus on the Holy Rosary and his acclaimed book the Secret of the Rosary. As a seminarian in Paris, Montfort was known for the veneration he had toward the angels: he "urged his confreres to show marks of respect and tenderness to their guardian angels." He ended his letters with a salutation to the guardian angel of the person to whom he was writing: "I salute your guardian angel".
He saluted all the angels in the city of Nantes, a custom that, it appears, he repeated when he entered a new village or city. One of the reasons why Saint Louis Marie de Montfort had such devotion to the angels is that veneration of the pure spirits was an integral part of his training and of his culture, his college teachers, the Jesuits, were known for their zeal in propagating devotion to the angels. Montfort's seminary training under the Sulpicians brought him into contact with the thought of Cardinal de Bérulle and Olier, both of whom had deep veneration for the angels. Furthermore, in the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, manuals of piety and treatises on the pure spirits were numerous, he was ordained a priest in June 1700, assigned to Nantes. His great desire was to go to the foreign missions, preferably to the new French colony of Canada, but his spiritual director advised against it, his letters of this period show that he felt frustrated from the lack of opportunity to preach as he felt he was called to do.
In November 1700 he joined the Third Order of the Dominicans and asked permission not only to preach the rosary, but to form rosary confraternities. He began to consider the formation of a small company of priests to preach missions and retreats under the standard and protection of the Blessed Virgin; this led to the formation of the Company of Mary. At around this time, when he was appointed the chaplain of the hospital of Poitiers, he first met Blessed Marie Louise Trichet; that meeting became the beginning of Blessed Marie Louise's 34 years of service to the poor. Montfort set off to ask Pope Clement XI what he should do; the Pope recognized his real vocation and, telling him there was plenty of scope for its exercise in France, sent him back with the title of Apostolic Missionary. On his return from his long pilgrimage to Rome, Montfort made a retreat at Mont Saint Michel "to pray to this archangel to obtain from him the grace to win souls for God, to confirm those in God's grace, to fight Satan and sin".
These occasions gave him time to think and write. For several years he preached in missions from Brittany to Nantes; as his reputation as a missioner grew, he became known as "the good Father from Montfort". At Pontchateau he attracted hundreds of people to help him in the construction of a huge Calvary. However, on the eve of its blessing, the Bishop, having heard it was to be destroyed on the orders of the King of France under the influence of members of the Jansenist school, forbade its benediction, it is reported that upon receiving this news, he said, "Blessed be God." He left Nantes and the next sever