Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix Railway
The Santa Fe, Prescott and Phoenix Railway was a common carrier railroad that became an operating subsidiary of the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway in Arizona. At Ash Fork, the SFP&P connected with Santa Fe's operating subsidiary, the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad mainline, that ran from California to Chicago; the SFP&P's 195-mile line extended the Santa Fe Railway south into Phoenix. The SFP&P extended another 100 miles to the east from Phoenix to Florence and Winkelman via the Phoenix and Eastern Railroad; the SFP&P served several mines in the Prescott area through its various subsidiary railroads. On December 28, 1911, the line was merged into Atchison and Santa Fe Railway's non-operating subsidiary of the California and Santa Fe Railway. Today the line from Ash Fork to Phoenix is operated by the BNSF Railway. Due to its many winding curves and bridges, the route is popularly known as the Peavine; the SFP&P was chartered on May 27, 1891. Construction commenced on August 1892, from the Atlantic & Pacific connection at Ash Fork.
By April 1893 trains were operating between Ash Prescott. On March 13, 1895, the line ran all the way to Phoenix. On June 30, 1899, the SFP&P began operating the Prescott and Eastern Railroad that ran between Entro to Mayer. In 1901–02 the SFP&P operated its subsidiary the Bradshaw Mountain Railroad. On November 27, 1904, the SFP&P started operating Santa Fe Railway's subsidiary, the Phoenix and Eastern Railroad between Phoenix - Florence - Winkelman; the SFP&P stopped operating the Phoenix & Eastern when Southern Pacific Railroad acquired the Phoenix–Winkelman line on March 13, 1907. On November 1, 1905, the SFP&P began operating the Arizona & California Railway that ran from a connection with the Santa Fe Railway in the Mojave Desert at Cadiz, California, to a connection with SFP&P at Matthie, Arizona. By the end of 1909 the Arizona & California was an operating subsidiary of the SFP&P, using 3 4-6-0 locomotives made by Brooks Locomotive Works. On December 29, 1911, the SFP&P was merged into the California and Santa Fe Railway, a non-operating subsidiary of the Santa Fe Railway.
The SFP&P operated a fleet of about 27 steam locomotives. 21 of the locomotives were Brooks Locomotive Works 4-6-0 steam locomotives built between 1893-1903. Most of these locomotives would be renumbered ATSF #2421-2435; the SFP&P had six Brooks Locomotive Works 2-8-0 steam locomotives built between 1904-1906. These locomotives would be renumbered ATSF #2439-2444. 1897–1911 by the Santa Fe, Prescott & Phoenix Railway 1912– by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Ash Fork Prescott Kirkland Congress Wickenburg Phoenix Prescott & Eastern Railroad Entro - Dewey - Poland Junction - Mayer Bradshaw Mountain Railroad Poland Junction - Poland Mayer - Turkey Creek - Saddle - Crown King Phoenix and Eastern Railroad Phoenix - Mesa - Florence - Kelvin - Winkelman Arizona & California Railway Cadiz - Parker, Arizona - Bouse - Salome - MatthieThe Arizona & California gave ATSF a more direct route from Los Angeles to Phoenix. List of defunct Arizona railroads Myrick, David F.. Santa Fe to Phoenix. Wilmot, California: Signature Press.
ISBN 1-930013-05-1. Robertson, Donald B.. Encyclopedia of Western Railroad History: The Desert States: Arizona, New Mexico, Utah. Caldwell, Idaho: The Caxton Printers. P. 102. ISBN 0-87004-305-6. Walker, Mike. Steam Powered Video's Comprehensive Railroad Atlas of North America - Arizona & New Mexico. Kent, United Kingdom: Steam Powered Publishing. ISBN 1-874745-04-8. Schweiterman, Joseph P; when the Railroad Leaves Town: American Communities in the Age of Rail Line Abandonment, Volume 2. Truman State University Press. P. 8. ISBN 978-1-9311-1214-7
H.K. Porter, Inc.
H. K. Porter, Inc. manufactured light-duty railroad locomotives in the US, starting in 1866. The company became the largest producer of industrial locomotives, built eight thousand of them; the last locomotive was built in 1950, but the company continues to produce industrial equipment to this day. Porter was known for building locomotives that were much smaller than those used by the larger Class I railroads; the company's locomotives were small enough that they were operated by only one person. Porter built steam locomotives, but they built some powered by gasoline and diesel engines, some that ran on compressed air; the largest collection of Porter photographs and information is housed in the Kentlein Porter Collection at the A. C. Kalmbach Memorial Library in Chattanooga, TN. Many of the 780 builder's photos and other locomotive data were republished in Porter Steam Locomotives, published by the library. 1866: Henry Kirke Porter formed a partnership with John Y. Smith and they called the company Smith & Porter.
The two opened a small machine shop on 28th Street in Pittsburgh and begin repairing and building industrial equipment. They received an order for their first locomotive on March 4, 1867, built the Joshua Rhodes for the New Castle Railroad and Mining Company, they went on to build 43 locomotives together, including the Minnetonka. They specialized in saddle tank locomotives for small industrial railroads. 1871: Fire broke out in the shop on February 7, destroying twelve locomotives under construction, the shop, 23 adjacent structures. Total losses were estimated at $200,000, the partnership was dissolved. Smith formed Dawson Locomotives, which became National Locomotive Works. Porter formed a partnership with Arthur W. Bell, called Porter, Bell & Co. and they built their first locomotive for the Jackson Furnace Co. of Michigan. They expanded their range to include light passenger engines and small freight engines for narrow gauge railroads, they built 223 locomotives, until Arthur Bell died in May 1878.
1878: Henry K. Porter continued the business on his own, as H. K. Porter & Co, he had established a reputation as a builder of specialized locomotives. He could custom build a locomotive and efficiently, with a system of interchangeable parts; some of the basic designs were kept in stock, could be ordered "off the shelf". 1890: Porter built their first compressed-air locomotive, for a coal mine in Pennsylvania. Air was stored in two tanks, used to drive the pistons instead of steam; this allowed locomotive use inside mines without the fumes of burning coal, or the dangers of high-pressure steam. Porter went on to build over 400 compressed-air locomotives for use in mines and the street railways of New Orleans. Others built compressed-air locomotives. 1899: Henry Porter incorporated the company as the H. K. Porter Co. Inc, he built a new plant at Harrison Street in Pittsburgh. Production peaked in 1906, with 400 locomotives built that year. 1911: Porter built their first gasoline-powered locomotive, in 1915 they built their first "fireless" locomotive, using a large pressure vessel to hold steam and hot water in place of a boiler.
These proved to be more useful than compressed-air locomotives, soon Porter dominated this niche market. 1921: The H. K. Porter Co. was prosperous, enjoying a post-World War I reconstruction boom in Europe, a road construction boom in the US. Porters were a favorite choice among grading contractors, who used light, portable tracks to carry the wooden tipper-cars that were the earthmoving equipment of the day. Henry Porter, still running the company at age 81, died on April 10. 1939: After a long decline, the H. K. Porter Co. declared bankruptcy. Thomas Mellon Evans purchased the company, determined to turn it around, he bought other manufacturing companies. Locomotive production increased again during World War II, the company was recognized for its service to the country in 1942, but demand for steam locomotives dwindled post-war, H. K. Porter became a holding company for the many subsidiaries Evans had acquired. 1950: The company built its last locomotive, exported to Brazil. The parts business and all the required patterns were sold to the Davenport Locomotive Works in Iowa.
1950s–1960s: Electrical Division National Electric Defense Products Facilities manufactured rocket motor bodies for Nike family of guided missiles.1969: The company acquired a saw manufacturer Shurly & Dietrich, which continued operations until 1973. The company had the following industrial divisions and subsidiaries: Rubber and Friction ProductsThermoid DivisionElectrical EquipmentDelta Star Electric Division National Electric DivisionCopper and AlloysRiverside Alloy Metal DivisionRefractoriesRefractories DivisionElectric Furnace SteelConnors Steel Division Vulcan-Kidd Steel DivisionFabricated ProductsDisston Division Forge and Fittings Division Leschen Wire Rope Division Mouldings DivisionAcross the border, company had wholly owned Canadian subsidiary – H. K. Porter Company Ltd., subdivided in the following order: Refractories Division Disston Tools Division Federal Wires and Cables Division Nepcoduct Systems Division List of locomotive builders Preserved H. K. Porter locomotive list Links to many Porter pages A.
C. Kalmbach Memorial Library
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of Arizona, with 1,626,000 people. It is the fifth most populous city in the United States, the most populous American state capital, the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents. Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is part of the Salt River Valley; the metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the United States, with 4.73 million people as of 2017. Phoenix is the seat of Maricopa County and the largest city in the state at 517.9 square miles, more than twice the size of Tucson and one of the largest cities in the United States. Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers and was incorporated as a city in 1881, it became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. It has a hot desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community with the original settler's crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton and hay.
Cotton, citrus and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. These remained the driving forces of the city until after World War II, when high-tech companies began to move into the valley and air conditioning made Phoenix's hot summers more bearable; the city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. This growth rate slowed during the Great Recession of 2007–09, has rebounded slowly. Phoenix is the cultural center of the state of Arizona; the Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. They created 135 miles of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable, paths of these canals were used for the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, they carried out extensive trade with the nearby Ancient Puebloans and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations. It is believed that periods of drought and severe floods between 1300 and 1450 led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area.
After the departure of the Hohokam, groups of Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The O'odham were offshoots of the Sobaipuri tribe, who in turn were thought to be the descendants of the Hohokam; the Akimel O'odham were the major group in the area and lived in small villages, with well-defined irrigation systems that spread over the entire Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west. Their crops included corn and squash for food, while cotton and tobacco were cultivated, they banded together with the Maricopa for protection against incursions by the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Maricopa are part of the larger Yuma people; the Tohono O'odham lived in the region, as well, but their main concentration was to the south and stretched all the way to the Mexican border. The O'odham lived in small settlements as seasonal farmers who took advantage of the rains, rather than the large-scale irrigation of the Akimel.
They grew crops such as sweet corn, tapery beans, lentils, sugar cane, melons, as well as taking advantage of native plants such as saguaro fruits, cholla buds, mesquite tree beans, mesquite candy. They hunted local game such as deer and javelina for meat; the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States, residents of that region became U. S. citizens. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in Maricopa County, to the northwest of Phoenix. Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated; the Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Indian uprisings. The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, the first settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. Other nearby settlements merged to become the city of Tempe; the history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War.
He saw a potential for farming. He formed a small community that same year about four miles east of the city. Lord Darrell Duppa was one of the original settlers in Swilling's party, he suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization; the Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, the first post office was established the following month with Swilling as the postmaster. On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County by dividing Yavapai County; the first election for county office was held in 1871. He ran unopposed; the town grew during the 1870s, President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Stanton is a populated place in Yavapai County, now used as an RV park. The town was a stagecoach stop known as Antelope Station, was renamed "Stanton" after the businessman and crook Chuck Stanton, who took over the town in the 1870s. Stanton is located about twenty miles north of Wickenburg, at the base of Rich Hill, near the ghost towns of Octave and Weaver; the town of Stanton, like the towns of Octave and Weaver, owe their existence to a group of pioneers who discovered gold in the area in 1863. Led by the frontiersman Pauline Weaver, the explorers were camped along Antelope Creek when one of the men - a tracker named Alvaro - decided to go chasing after a runaway burro. After climbing to the top of what would become known as Rich Hill, Alvaro tripped over a pile of gold nuggets that were "as big as potatoes." Soon after, Pauline Weaver and a friend named Jack Swilling found another pile of gold on top of nearby Antelope Hill. Weaver said that gold was so plentiful in the area that he could pop nuggets out of the ground with a knife, that one acre yielded nearly $500,000 in gold.
The 1863 strike transformed Antelope Station into a boomtown overnight. Just a small stage stop, by 1868 Antelope Station supported a population of 3,500 people. Chuck Stanton first arrived in town a few years later, he wasted no time in recruiting the help of some Mexican bandits so he could wipe out his competition and take control of the town. His first two victims were his neighbors, George "Yaqui" Wilson and William Partridge, both of whom owned a store and a stage stop. In August 1877, Stanton tricked Partridge into killing Wilson over some pigs, so Partridge was arrested and sent to the Yuma Territorial Prison. Once Wilson and Partridge were out of the way, Stanton focused on Wilson's business partner, John Timmerman, who arrived in town from Smith's Mill and formed a new partnership with a family-man named Barney Martin. Stanton's plan for dealing with Timmerman and Martin wasn't nearly as clever as Wilson's murder had been planned, he had his bandits ambush them out in the desert. The bandits killed Barney's wife and his two little boys in what has since become known as the "Martin Family Massacre."
Stanton was arrested for the murders, but due to the testimony of several false witnesses, the charges against him were dropped. On that year, Stanton was killed by a Mexican gunman named Lucero, buried about a mile outside of town. Following Stanton's death, the town continued to thrive for several years, but it was still considered to be a dangerous place. In 1892, for example, a Prescott newspaper reported that the residents of Stanton liked to "drink blood, eat fried rattlesnakes and fight mountain lions". By the 1890s, Stanton was a legitimate community filled with miners, their families, a general store, a stamp mill, a hotel, a boarding house, several other associated buildings. For some inexplicable reason, the town's name was changed back to Stanton in 1896, it didn't survive for much longer, though. By 1905 the gold in the area was just about gone; that same year the Stanton Post Office was closed for good, the town was abandoned. In the late 1950s, The Saturday Evening Post purchased the ten acre town and gave it away during a "jingle contest."
The new owners didn't know what to do with the town, they sold it. It remained uninhabited until the late 1960s, when hippies moved in and started burning the wooden buildings for firewood. In 1976, the Lost Dutchman's Mining Association acquired the property and has since used the town as a members-only recreational vehicle park, open for six months out of the year; the LDMA has restored a few of the town's original buildings, including Chuck Stanton's store, an old saloon and dance hall, a hotel. The town jail is standing, work has been done to restore the town's pioneer cemeteries. List of ghost towns in Arizona
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820