The Congress of Deputies is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch. The Congress meets in the Palace of the Parliament in Madrid, it has 350 members elected by constituencies by proportional representation using the D'Hondt method. Deputies serve four-year terms; the presiding officer is the President of the Congress of Deputies, elected by the members thereof. It is the analogue to a speaker. In the Congress, MPs from the political parties, or groups of parties, form parliamentary groups. Groups must be formed by at least 15 deputies, but a group can be formed with only five deputies if the parties got at least 5% of the nationwide vote, or 15% of the votes in the constituencies in which they ran; the deputies belonging to parties who cannot create their own parliamentary group form the Mixed Group. After the 2019 general election in April, the number of female deputies was up to 168 representing 48% of all members, making Spain the European country with the highest percentage of women in parliament.
Section 68.1 of the Spanish Constitution establishes that the Congress of Deputies must be composed of among 300 deputies at least and 400 deputies at most. At present, the house has 350 deputies, determined by the General Electoral Regime Organic Act, approved in 1985; the Spanish Constitution establishes that the deputies are chosen by universal, equal and secret suffrage. The election is held every four years or before in case of snap election; the members of the Congress are elected by proportional representation with closed lists in each constituency. There are 50 multi-member constituencies for the Congress of Deputies which belong to the 50 provinces of Spain and the two single-member constituencies which belong to two autonomous cities. According to the Spanish Electoral Act, each province shall be represented by at least two deputies, thus 102 deputies apportioned; the remaining 248 deputies are allocated proportionally by constituency. This distribution can change in each election and it is specified when writs of election are issued.
After the General Election, seats are assigned to the electoral lists in each constituency using the D'Hondt method in each constituency separately. A proportional system would result in fractional seats; the D'Hondt method resolves this by favoring parties receiving larger votes. The 1985 General Electoral Regime Act establishes a 3% minimum valid votes by constituency requirement in order for a party to participate in the seat distribution for a constituency; this applies to the provinces. At present, this condition is applies only to Barcelona. In March 2011, the General Electoral Regime Organic Act was remodeled, requiring parties that are not represented either in Congress or in the Senate to collect signatures to support their candidacy to be able to run in the election. One-tenth of a percent of those registered to vote in a constituency are required to be on the ballot and each citizen can sign only once for a party candidacy; the Electoral Board establishes the regulations for collection of signatures.
With this system, the least populated provinces are overrepresented as the population is lower than other provinces which are still awarded one seat, than if the seats would be distributed in proportion to the population of each province. The most populated provinces are underrepresented; this system tends to favour the biggest political parties. In spite of using a proportional representation system, the electoral system of the Congress of Deputies favours the creation of a two-party system, it is due to different reasons such as: The large disparity of population between the provinces. Despite the smaller provinces being overrepresented, the number of deputies assigned to each one is small and tends to go to the two main parties; the election threshold of 3% only acts in the provinces which elect more than 30 deputies, Madrid and Barcelona. In the rest of constituencies where fewer seats are distributed, the real barrier to enter to the Congress is meaningfully larger. For example, the barrier of the provinces which have 3 seats is 25%.
The average number of seats per constituency is one of the lowest in Europe. That is because of the use of provinces as constituencies; the number of useless votes is big, there is a great number of votes which can not affect the result because they have been cast for a political party which does not get representation in the constituency where votes have been cast. The D'Hondt method favours the biggest parties compared to other electoral formulas such as the Webster/Sainte-Laguë method or the largest remainder method; this effect is larger than in many countries because of the small number of seats per constituency. However, the influence of the D'Hondt method in the bipolarization of the electoral system is limited compared to the factors mentioned above; the size of the Congress of Deputies is small, together with the aforementioned factors, favours the biggest parties and disproportional distribution of seats, compared to national or multi-province regional election results. The deputies' term of office finishes four years after their election or when the Cortes are dissolved, which can take place join
House of the Long Shadows is a 1983 comedy horror film directed by Pete Walker. It is notable; the screenplay by Michael Armstrong is based on the 1913 novel Seven Keys to Baldpate by Earl Derr Biggers, adapted into a famous play that gave birth in turn to several films. The original music score was composed by Richard Harvey. Kenneth Magee, a young writer, bets $20,000 that he can write a Wuthering Heights-calibre novel in 24 hours. To get in the mood for the undertaking, he goes to a deserted Welsh manor. Upon his arrival, Magee discovers that the manor is not as empty as he was told. Still there are Lord Grisbane and his daughter, who have been maintaining the mansion on their own; as the stormy night progresses, more people come to the mansion, including Lord Grisbane's sons Lionel and Sebastian, Magee's publisher's secretary, Mary Norton, Corrigan, a potential buyer of the property. After much coaxing, the Grisbanes reveal that they are here to release their brother, imprisoned in his room for 40 years because he seduced a village girl when he was 14 and killed her when he found out she was pregnant.
When they go to release him, they find the room empty and conclude that he broke out by breaking the bars in front of the window. Moments Lord Grisbane has a fatal heart attack; as Magee talks about getting the police, screams are heard and they find Victoria strangled to death. When Corrigan and Mary decide to leave, they discover all of their cars have slashed tires. Soon and Andrew, a young couple who Magee met at the train station, arrive seeking shelter from the storm, they are soon killed when Diane washes her face with water, replaced by acid and Andrew drinks poisoned punch. The remaining five decide to kill him before he kills them. Magee and Mary search a series of tunnels behind a bookcase. During their search, they get separated and Sebastian is hanged to death from the ceiling. Mary makes it back to Lionel while Magee remains lost in the tunnels. Corrigan soon reveals that he, in fact, is Roderick and that he escaped his prison decades ago, but returns every now and to make them think he was still trapped.
He proceeds to kill Lionel with a battle axe and chase Mary throughout the manor. Magee soon finds them and, after the ensuing fight, knocks Roderick down the stairs; as Roderick is dying, his victims walk into the room much alive. It is revealed that it was all Magee's story, as he finishes his novel and returns to give it to his publisher; when his publisher gives him his $20,000 he proceeds to rip it up, as he has learned that some things are more important than money. Vincent Price as Lionel Grisbane Christopher Lee as Corrigan/Roderick Grisbane Peter Cushing as Sebastian Grisbane Desi Arnaz, Jr. as Kenneth Magee John Carradine as Lord Elijah Grisbane Sheila Keith as Victoria Grisbane Julie Peasgood as Mary Norton Richard Todd as Sam Allyson Louise English as Diane Caulder Richard Hunter as Andrew Caulder Norman Rossington as Station Master The film was shot at Rotherfield Park, a manor house in rural Hampshire, England. In a contemporary review, Kim Newman stated that the main selling point of the film was the return of these particular horror actors, which in turn became a "major surprise, disappointment, is that the film should waste these Grand Old Icons on an superfluous remake of Seven Keys to Baldpate" The review states that, along with the producers' film The Wicked Lady, their work was long out of date and that the "preposterous twist ending" that showed "Armstrong and Walker display an appalling contempt for the audience", that the ending turned "a disappointing project into an infuriating one."
Dennis Washburn is the Jane and Raphael Bernstein Professor of Asian Studies at Dartmouth College where he has taught since 1992. He has served as chair of the Department of Asian and Middle Eastern Languages and Literatures and is chair of the Comparative Literature Program. Washburn has published extensively on Japanese literature and culture and is an active translator of both modern and classical Japanese fiction. In 2004 he received the Japanese Foreign Ministry's citation for contributions to cross-cultural understanding, in 2008 he received the Japan-US Friendship Commission Translation Prize. Yale University: Ph. D. – Along with Alan Tansman, Dennis earned his Ph. D under the tutelage of Edwin McClellan. Waseda University: Monbusho Fellow Pembroke College, Oxford University: MA Harvard University: BA – While at Harvard University, Dennis studied with some notable figures in American literature, such as Elizabeth Bishop. Translating Mount Fuji: Modern Japanese Fiction and the Ethics of Identity, New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.
The Dilemma of the Modern in Japanese Fiction, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. Editor with A. Kevin Reinhart, Converting Cultures: Ideology and Transformations of Modernity, Leiden: Brill, 2007. Editor with Carole Cavanaugh and Image in Japanese Cinema, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000; the Tale of Genji by Murasaki Shikibu, New York: W. W. Norton & Co. 2015. Laughing Wolf, a novel by Tsushima Yūko, Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 2011. Temple of the Wild Geese and Bamboo Dolls of Echizen, two novellas by Mizukami Tsutomu, Dalkey Archive Press, 2008. Shanghai, by Yokomitsu Riichi, Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, University of Michigan, 2001