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Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were negotiating by late September 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars; the goal was not to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe. France lost all its recent conquests while Prussia and Russia made major territorial gains. Prussia added smaller German states in Swedish Pomerania and 60 % of the Kingdom of Saxony. Russia gained parts of Poland; the new Kingdom of the Netherlands had been created just months before, included Austrian territory that in 1830 became Belgium.

The immediate background was Napoleonic France's defeat and surrender in May 1814, which brought an end to 23 years of nearly continuous war. Negotiations continued despite the outbreak of fighting triggered by Napoleon's dramatic return from exile and resumption of power in France during the Hundred Days of March to July 1815; the Congress's "final act" was signed nine days before his final defeat at Waterloo on 18 June 1815. The Congress has been criticized for causing the subsequent suppression of the emerging national and liberal movements, it has been seen as a reactionary movement for the benefit of traditional monarchs. However, others praise it for having created long-term stability and peaceful conditions in most of Europe. In a technical sense, the "Congress of Vienna" was not properly a congress: it never met in plenary session, most of the discussions occurred in informal, face-to-face sessions among the Great Powers of Austria, France and sometimes Prussia, with limited or no participation by other delegates.

On the other hand, the congress was the first occasion in history where, on a continental scale, national representatives came together to formulate treaties instead of relying on messages among the several capitals. The Congress of Vienna settlement, despite changes, formed the framework for European international politics until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914; the Treaty of Chaumont in 1814 had reaffirmed decisions, made and that would be ratified by the more important Congress of Vienna of 1814-15. They included the establishment of a confederated Germany, the division of Italy into independent states, the restoration of the Bourbon kings of Spain, the enlargement of the Netherlands to include what in 1830 became modern Belgium; the Treaty of Chaumont became the cornerstone of the European Alliance that formed the balance of power for decades. Other partial settlements had occurred at the Treaty of Paris between France and the Sixth Coalition, the Treaty of Kiel that covered issues raised regarding Scandinavia.

The Treaty of Paris had determined that a "general congress" should be held in Vienna and that invitations would be issued to "all the Powers engaged on either side in the present war". The opening was scheduled for July 1814; the Congress functioned through formal meetings such as working groups and official diplomatic functions. The Four Great Powers had formed the core of the Sixth Coalition. On the verge of Napoleon's defeat they had outlined their common position in the Treaty of Chaumont, negotiated the Treaty of Paris with the Bourbons during their restoration: Austria was represented by Prince Metternich, the Foreign Minister, by his deputy, Baron Johann von Wessenberg; as the Congress's sessions were in Vienna, Emperor Francis was kept informed. Britain was represented first by Viscount Castlereagh. In the last weeks it was headed by the Earl of Clancarty, after Wellington left to face Napoleon during the Hundred Days. Tsar Alexander I controlled the Russian delegation, formally led by the foreign minister, Count Karl Robert Nesselrode.

The tsar had two main goals, to gain control of Poland and to promote the peaceful coexistence of European nations. He succeeded in forming the Holy Alliance, based on monarchism and anti-secularism, formed to combat any threat of revolution or republicanism. Prussia was represented by Prince Karl August von Hardenberg, the Chancellor, the diplomat and scholar Wilhelm von Humboldt. King Frederick William III of Prussia was in Vienna, playing his role behind the scenes. France, the "fifth" power, was represented by its foreign minister, Talleyrand, as well as the Minister Plenipotentiary the Duke of Dalberg. Talleyrand had negotiated the Treaty of Paris for Louis XVIII of France; these parties had not been part of the Chaumont agreement, but had joined the Treaty of Paris: Spain – Marquis Pedro Gómez de Labrador PortugalPlenipotentiaries: Pedro de Sousa Holstein, Count of Palmela. SwedenCount Carl Löwenhielm Denmark – Count Niels Rosenkrantz, foreign minister. King Frederick VI was present in Vienna.

The Netherlands – Earl of Clancarty, the British Ambassador at the Dutc

David Kotei

David Kotey was a world featherweight boxing champion between 1975 and 1976 and was the first Ghanaian professional boxer to win a world title. He was popularly called "D. K. Poison". DK Poison started his amateur career on in Accra, he is one of many boxers spawned by Bukom, a suburb in the heart of the city populated by the Ga people. Many top Ghanaian boxers such as Roy Ankrah, Azuma Nelson and Ike Quartey are products of Bukom. David Kotey turned professional under trainer Attuquaye Clottey, his first professional bout was on 5 February 1966 in Accra when he outpointed his opponent over six rounds. He became the national featherweight champion that year. Although he fought once in neighbouring Togo in 1967, all his subsequent fights through to 1971 were all in Ghana. In 1972 however, he fought as much as seven times in Australia, losing two, he won the African featherweight title on 2 February 1974 when he knocked out Tahar Ben Hassen in the first round of a scheduled 15 round fight in Tunis, Tunisia.

On 7 December 1974, he won the Commonwealth featherweight title with a technical knock out over Evans Armstrong, a British boxer in round 10 of a scheduled 15 rounds bout. This victory gave him an opportunity to go for the World Boxing Council version of the world title. On 20 September 1975, in The Forum, California, United States, he beat Rubén Olivares by split points decision after 15 rounds to become the first Ghanaian world boxing champion, he relinquished the Commonwealth titles following this victory. The Ghana government gave him an estate house at Teshie-Nungua, an Accra suburb in honour of this achievements in boxing, he however lost the title in his third defence on 6 November 1976 by unanimous points decision to Danny "Little Red" Lopez in a fierce fight in Accra, Ghana. He is married with three daughters, he defeated Fuku Yama in Japan. DK Poison was never the same again after this defeat, he failed in 1978 to regain either the commonwealth featherweight titles. His last professional bout was in 1989.

David Kotey has lived a modest and quiet life after retirement. He has gone through marital and financial difficulties and has some grievances about how his purse was disbursed during his boxing years. According to reports and Kotei's own story, in 1976, he loaned an amount of 45,000 dollars to the Government of Ghana led by Ignatius Kutu Acheampong; the money was intended for the purchase of canned mackerel to mitigate the harsh economic and food conditions the country was facing. The loan had been facilitated by his management, led be Col John Slater. According to Kotei, the money was part of his reward for defending his title against Japan's Fuku Yama in 1976; the loan has not been paid back to date because shortly after the canned mackerels arrived in the country, the Acheampong's regime was overthrown by General Akuffo in a military palace coup. In September 2019, the president of Ghana, Nana Akufo Addo noted; this was at a meeting with a delegation of former world boxing champions from Ghana.

List of WBC world champions Professional boxing record for David Kotei from BoxRec http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php? ID=26610 http://www.citifmonline.com/index.php?id=1.669463

Augusto Pestana

Augusto Pestana is a Brazilian municipality in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. It is located at 28°31′01″S 53°39′01″W, at an altitude of 390 m; the city is 320 km northwest of Porto Alegre, 1,540 km southwest of Brasília and just 120 km east of the border with Argentina. It was named after a Brazilian engineer and politician; the area was inhabited by indigenous peoples of South America about ten thousand years ago. In 1697, Spaniard Jesuits founded a Reduction in São João Batista, 40 km west of present-day Augusto Pestana; the whole region was annexed by the Portuguese in 1801. One hundred years Augusto Pestana director for Public Lands in Northwest Rio Grande do Sul, founded a settlement on the Cadeado Range, between the Conceição and the Ijuizinho rivers; the first settlers were most of them from Pomerania. During World War II, soldiers from Augusto Pestana fought for Brazil against Nazi Germany; the list of Pestanense members in the Brazilian Expeditionary Force, active in the Mediterranean Theatre of the conflict, included Artur Goergen, Eugenio Ladvig and Helmuth Matte, now honored with street names in the city.

The other FEB veterans were Sebaldo Goergen, Waldemar Senn, Albino Wilhens, Benno Müller, Oswin Wunder, Alípio Schmitt, Osvino Henrique Geiss, Adelino Mathias Dambroz, Emílio Papke, Alfonso Steiernagel e Arnoldo Gustavo Frantz. In the 1950s and 1960s, the settlement experienced a boom in wheat production and was incorporated in September 1965 as the municipality of Augusto Pestana; the first city government was formally installed on 14 May 1966. Augusto Pestana has a total area of 347,44 km2, it borders the municipalities of Ijuí and Coronel Barros to the north, Boa Vista do Cadeado to the east, Jóia to the south and Eugênio de Castro to the west. The municipality is drained by the Ijuizinho and Conceição rivers, tributaries of the Ijuí river, in the Uruguay basin; the climate is classified as a humid subtropical. Summers are warm and humid, while winters are cold and windy; the hottest month is January, with an average high temperature of 29.9 °C. The coldest month is July, with an average low of 8.4 °C.

The population of Augusto Pestana was 7,096 at the 2010 Brazilian census. The population density was 20.4 inhabitants per square kilometer. Life expectancy is 75.8 years. Most Pestanenses are of Italian-Brazilian and Portuguese-Brazilian ancestry. 66% of them are Roman Catholic, whereas 32% are Protestant Lutherans. Riograndenser Hunsrückisch is one of the names given to a Germanic language spoken in this municipality since pioneer days. According to the statistics bureau of Rio Grande do Sul, Augusto Pestana's gross domestic product reached 74.9 million US dollars in 2010. The GDP per capita was 10.5 thousand US dollars. Agribusiness is the driving force of the local economy; the municipality is a great producer of wheat, corn and dairy. There are one private school and one public library in Augusto Pestana; the city is just 15 km away of the main campus of the University of Ijuí, one of the largest universities in southern Brazil. Augusto Pestana is crossed by the RS 522 State Highway, which connects the city to the BR 295 National Highway.

The road distance to the State capital, Porto Alegre, is 405 km. There is a commuter bus service between the major transportation hub in the region; the closest airport is located in Ijuí. City Government of Augusto Pestana