Milford is a city within Coastal Connecticut and New Haven County, between Bridgeport and New Haven, United States. The population was estimated to be 52,536 in a July 2016 estimate; the city includes the borough of Woodmont. Milford is part of NY-NJ-CT-PA Combined Statistical Area; the land which today comprises Milford and West Haven was purchased on February 1, 1639 from Ansantawae, chief of the local Paugussets by English settlers affiliated with the contemporary New Haven Colony. The area was known as "Wepawaug", after the small river which runs through the town, which has given its name to several streets in both Milford and Orange. A grist mill was first built over the Wepawaug River in 1640. During the Revolutionary War the Milford section of the Boston Post Road, a vital route connecting Boston, New York and other major coastal cities, was blockaded by Continental forces, Fort Trumbull was constructed to protect the town; the site of the blockade is commemorated by the Liberty Rock monument.
By 1822, the town had grown large enough that residents in the northern and eastern sections of Milford chartered their own independent course as the town of Orange. During the next century and a half, the remaining section of Milford was known for shipbuilding and oystering, although a small subset of industrial facilities developed in town. During this time, Milford became known as a beach resort for residents of New Haven and Bridgeport. In 1899, the "Memorial Bridge" was built at the site of the last mill over the Wepawaug after it was closed in 1894. "The stone bridge is simple in design, its broad copings surmounted with rough hewn blocks of granite, bearing the names of the first settlers. There are ten blocks on twenty on the north coping. At each end of the former is a stone four feet wide by five and a half high." It is located. In 1903, the southeastern portion of the town was incorporated as the Borough of Woodmont. In 1959, the town of Milford including the Borough of Woodmont was incorporated as the City of Milford.
Milford was one of the early settlements in south central Connecticut and, over time, gave rise to several new towns that broke off and incorporated separately. The following is a list of towns created from parts of Milford. Woodbridge in 1784 Bethany, created from Woodbridge in 1832 Orange in 1822 West Haven, created from Orange in 1921 Starting in 1902, Quaker Oats oatmeal boxes came with a coupon redeemable for the legal deed to a tiny lot in Milford; the lots, sometimes as small as 10 feet by 10 feet, were carved out of a 15-acre tract in a never-built subdivision called "Liberty Park". A small number of children residents living near Milford, collected the deeds and started paying the small property taxes on the "oatmeal lots"; the developer of the prospective subdivision hoped the landowners would hire him to build homes on the lots, although several lots would need to be combined before building could start. Since the subdivision into small lots predated Milford's planning and zoning regulations, the deeds were legal, although they created a large amount of paperwork for town tax collectors, who couldn't find the property owners and received no tax revenue from the lots.
In the mid-1970s, when the town wanted to develop the area, town officials put an end to the oatmeal lots in a "general foreclosure" that avoided the enormous expense of individual foreclosures by condemning nearly all of the property in one legal filing. One of the streets in the Liberty Park subdivision plans, Shelland Street, was built in the late 1990s as an access road to the Milford Power Company; the site is home to the BIC Corporation's lighter factory at 565 Bic Drive. In a separate land giveaway in 1955 tied to the Sergeant Preston of the Yukon television show, Quaker Oats offered in its Puffed Wheat and Puffed Rice cereal boxes genuine deeds to land in the Klondike. In the post-World War II period, Milford—like many Connecticut towns—underwent significant suburbanization. Interstate 95 was routed through town, the Milford section was completed in 1958; the 1960s and 1970s witnessed the construction of the Connecticut Post Mall, one of the state's largest shopping malls, the extensive commercial development of the town's stretch of the Boston Post Road.
One notable small business located on the Boston Post Road during the 1970s was SCELBI Computer Consulting, credited by many as being the world's first personal-computer manufacturer. Starting in 1975, the city began hosting the Milford Oyster Festival, which has since become established as an annual Milford tradition, held "rain or shine"; the city became host to several headquarters of multinational corporations, including the Schick Shaving company, Doctor's Associates, Inc. owners of the Subway chain of fast-food restaurants. The US operations of BIC were headquartered in Milford, but in March 2008 moved most of its operations to Shelton. Milford Hospital has developed into an important health care resource for the area, it has become home of smaller national corporations such as K-Mart and Orchid Medical. According to the 2010 US census Demographic Profile Data, there were 51,271 people living in 21,017 housing units of which 13,534 were counted as family households; the population density was 2,341/sq mi.
The average density of housing units was 1,017.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of Milford was 93.55% White, 1.91% African Ame
Wallingford is a town in New Haven County, United States. The population was 45,135 at the 2010 census; the urban center of the town is the Wallingford Center census-designated place, with a population of 18,209 at the 2010 census. The community was named in England; the Connecticut General Assembly created the town on October 10, 1667. This original plot of land near the Quinnipiac River is now considered Main Street. Starting on May 12, 1670 there were 126 people who lived in temporary housing, five years in 1675 there were 40 permanent homes. In 1697 Wallingford was the site of the last witchcraft trial in New England. Winifred Benham was thrice acquitted all three times; the 1878 Wallingford tornado struck on August 9 of that year. It killed at least 29 and 34 people in Wallingford, the most by any tornado event in Connecticut history. Wallingford has diversified its commercial and industrial base over the past decade attracting high-technology industries as compared to traditional heavy manufacturing.
It is the home of a large variety of industries and major corporations spanning the spectrum of the medical, health care, high-tech specialty metal manufacturing and research development. The development of the Barnes Industrial Park, Casimir Pulaski Industrial Park, Wharton Brook Industrial Park, the South Turnpike Road area have contributed to this transition; the Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, the town's largest taxpayer, has established a research and development facility in Wallingford's MedWay Industrial Park. An Interchange Zone which permits restrictive commercial development of office parks and development centers and hotels has been created at the intersection of Interstate 91 and Route 68. In terms of Wallingford's manufacturing and design history, silver-producing companies like Simpson, Miller & Co. and R. Wallace & Sons are of particular note. Simpson, Miller & Co. as well as Wallingford's Watrous Manufacturing became part of the International Silver Company, headquartered in the neighboring city of Meriden.
The town of Wallingford has both private education. The Wallingford Public School System consists of eight elementary schools, two middle schools, two high schools. Wallingford has a private sector of schools offering the following: Choate Rosemary Hall, Heritage Baptist Academy, Holy Trinity School. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 39.9 square miles, of which 39.0 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles, or 2.16%, is water. The town of Wallingford sits astride the Quinnipiac River in northern New Haven County, it is about 13 miles north of New Haven. Towns bordering Wallingford are Cheshire, Hamden, Middlefield, North Branford and North Haven. Situated in the Hartford-New Haven-Springfield corridor, Wallingford is traversed by U. S. Route 5, Interstate 91, State Highways Route 15, Route 68, Route 71 and Route 150. East Wallingford Quinnipiac Tracy Wallingford Center Yalesville As of the census of 2000, there were 43,026 people, 16,697 households, 11,587 families residing in the town.
The population density was 1,102.7 people per square mile. There were 17,306 housing units at an average density of 443.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.77% White, 1.02% African American, 0.17% Native American, 1.75% Asian, 1.16% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.52% of the population. There were 16,697 households out of which 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.3% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families. Of all households 25.6% were made up of individuals and 10.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.07. The median household income in Wallingford is $91,317; the median family income is $101,239. The per capita income in Wallingford is $40,903. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.7 males. From 1943 to 1944 the Boston Braves held spring training in Wallingford at Choate's Winter Exercise Building; the town is the home of a New England Football League team. Choate Rosemary Hall Oakdale Theatre Paul Mellon Arts Center Yalesville Underpass Ten buildings and districts in Wallingford are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: John Barker House, added August 3, 1974 Joseph Blakeslee House, added April 13, 1998 Center Street Cemetery, added August 1, 1997 Franklin Johnson House, added November 23, 1998 Theophilus Jones House, added January 30, 1992 Nehemiah Royce House, added August 24, 1998 Samuel Parsons House, added April 12, 1982 Samuel Simpson House, added June 18, 1986 Wallingford Center Historic District, added December 2, 1993 Wallingford railroad station, added November 19, 1993 Charles Henry Stanley Davis, History of Wallingford, Conn. from Its Settlement in 1670 to the Present Time, Including Meriden, One of Its Parishes until 1806, Cheshire, Incorporated in 1780.
Meriden, CT: Charles Henry Stanley Davis, 1870. John B. Kendrick, History of the Wallingford Disaster. Hartford, CT: Case and Brainard Co. 1878. Charles Bancroft Gillespie, Souvenir History of Wallingford, Connecticut, 1895. New Haven, CT: Jo
Shelton is a city in Fairfield County, United States. The population was 39,559 at the 2010 census. Shelton was settled by the English as part of the town of Stratford, Connecticut, in 1639. On May 15, 1656, the Court of the Colony of Connecticut in Hartford affirmed that the town of Stratford included all of the territory 12 miles inland from Long Island Sound, between the Housatonic River and the Fairfield town line. In 1662, Stratford selectmen Lt. Joseph Judson, Captain Joseph Hawley and John Minor had secured all the written deeds of transfer from the Golden Hill Paugussett Indian Nation for this vast territory that comprises the present-day towns of Trumbull and Monroe. Shelton was split off from Stratford as Huntington; the current name originated in a manufacturing village started in the 1860s named for the Shelton Company founded by Edward N. Shelton—also founder of Ousatonic Water Power Company; the growing borough of Shelton incorporated as a city in 1915 and was consolidated with the town of Huntington in 1919 establishing the present city of Shelton.
Shelton was the site of one of the largest arson fires in the United States history. It happened in 1975. Charles Moeller, president of parent company Grand Sheet Metal Products, was acquitted of criminal charges, but in a suit under civil law, a jury found in 1988 the insurer was entitled to disallow claims on the fire losses, based on the finding that the company's top officials arranged the fire to claim insurance money. Eight others were pleaded guilty; the explosion that destroyed the Sponge Rubber Plant on Canal Street in 1975 marked the start of the decline of Shelton's industries. During the remainder of the 1970s and 1980s several firms that operated factories along the banks of the Housatonic River either went out of business or relocated to areas where labor and operating costs were cheaper. In 1995, Sikorsky Aircraft closed a plant off Bridgeport Avenue that manufactured electrical components for helicopters. With the completion of Route 8, new office spaces and businesses were attracted to the town, due to its Fairfield County location coupled with low costs of doing business as opposed to places such as Stamford or Greenwich.
Major firms such as Tetley Tea, TIE Communication, I. T. T. Black and Decker, Sikorsky Aircraft, Gama Aviation, Chesebrough-Pond's, Tetra-Pak, General Electric, Bunker Ramo. Over 2,000,000 square feet of corporate office space spread across 12 buildings was constructed by the R. D. Scinto corporation alone. Efforts are underway to restore nineteenth-century industrial buildings in the downtown area; the 10-acre Riverwalk Park next to the Veterans Memorial was created on the site of the former Sponge Rubber Plant. Other buildings along Howe Avenue, one of the city's main thoroughfares, have been restored, while developers have renovated two 19th-century factory buildings on Bridge Street, converting them into luxury condominiums. Several downtown streets have been reconstructed as part of a streetscape improvement project: sidewalks were reconstructed with brick and cobblestone, trees were planted, some power lines were rerouted underground to improve the appearance of Shelton's central business district.
In March 2008, Connecticut Governor M. Jodi Rell announced that after negotiations with State Senator Dan Debicella and State Representative Jason Perillo, state bond funds in the amount of $2 million would be directed toward additional infrastructure improvements leading to over $100 million in private investment in the city's downtown. In November 2007, a tree growing on Soundview Avenue in Shelton was selected and felled to be the Rockefeller Center Christmas tree. On May 30, 2008, producers and staff for the upcoming movie All Good Things shot one scene on Canal St. in downtown Shelton. The scene was underneath the train trestle and involved one of the characters dragging a body and dumping it into the Housatonic River. On July 31, 2009, a line of heavy thunderstorms with weak rotation spawned an EF1 tornado, which touched down with wind speeds between 95 and 105 miles per hour. According to WTNH, the most concentrated damage was along the Oronoque Trail, where many trees were blown down.
There were no fatalities. In November 2013, a tree located on Kazo Drive was picked to be the second Rockefeller Center Christmas tree from Shelton. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.9 square miles, of which 30.6 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles, or 4.26%, is water. Downtown Coram Gardens White Hills Soundview Avenue South End Booth Hill Road Bridgeport Avenue Huntington Pine Rock Park As of the census of 2000, there were 38,101 people, 14,190 households, 10,543 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,246.4 people per square mile. There were 14,707 housing units at an average density of 481.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.44% White, 1.12% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 2.08% Asian, 0.89% from other races, 1.31% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.48% of the population. There were 14,190 households out of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.9% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.7% were non-families.
21.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living al
Rosa Luisa DeLauro is the U. S. Representative for Connecticut's 3rd congressional district, serving since 1991, she is a member of the Democratic Party. The district is based in New Haven, includes most of that city's suburbs, she is the dean of the Connecticut congressional delegation. DeLauro was born in New Haven, the daughter of Luisa "Louise", a New Haven Alderwoman, Theodore J. "Ted" DeLauro. Her father, all of her grandparents, were Italian immigrants, she earned her high school diploma from The Academy of Our Lady of Mercy, Lauralton Hall in Milford, Connecticut. She earned a bachelor's degree from Marymount College in Tarrytown, New York, as well as separate master's degrees from the London School of Economics and Columbia University. Before entering the House, DeLauro worked as Senator Chris Dodd's chief of staff and campaign manager, was the executive director of EMILY's List, coordinated the tri-state area campaign of 1988 Democratic presidential nominee Michael Dukakis. In 1990, four-term incumbent Democratic U.
S. Congressman Bruce Morrison of Connecticut's 3rd congressional district retired in order to run for governor of Connecticut. DeLauro sought the open seat and consolidated Democratic support behind her, earning Morrison's endorsement and prompting the withdrawal of state Representative Mike Lawlor's primary campaign. DeLauro defeated Republican state senator Thomas Scott 52%-48% in a brutal general election, in which Scott alleged that DeLauro had only kept her maiden name to appeal to the region's Italian voters, state Republican chair Richard Foley referred to DeLauro as "Walter Mondale in drag"; the campaign was combative over policy matters, with both candidates microphones being cut off during a radio debate after repeated attacks over abortion and capital punishment. DeLauro has never faced another contest nearly that close, has been reelected thirteen times, never dropping below 63% of the vote. 2006 In the 2006 election she was re-elected to a ninth term, defeating Republican challenger Joseph Vollano with 76% of the vote.
2008She won re-election to her tenth term with 77% of the vote. 2010DeLauro won re-election to her eleventh term with 65% of the vote against Connecticut Republican Party treasurer Jerry Labriola Jr.2012 DeLauro won re-election to her twelfth term with 74.6% of the vote against Republican candidate Wayne Winsley, a former member of the Navy. 2014 DeLauro won re-election to her thirteenth term with 67.1% of the vote against Republican candidate James Brown, a high school math teacher. 2016 DeLauro won re-election to her fourteenth term with 69.0% of the vote against Republican Candidate Angel Cadena, a former candidate for Connecticut State Comptroller in 2014. 2018 DeLauro won re-election to her fifteenth term with 64.6% of the vote against Angel Cadena, who ran against her in 2016 for the same seat. DeLauro is one of the most liberal members of the House, she is a founding member of the Congressional Progressive Caucus. DeLauro is interested in health policy issues women's health, she has introduced bills aimed at improving cancer treatment and research and women's health policies.
As chair of the appropriations subcommittee that funds the Food and Drug Administration, she has been a critic of that agency's failures to protect the public from unsafe foods and medical products. In May 2006, she was linked in press reports to U. S. Senator Christopher Dodd's potential bid for President in 2008. On February 2, 2008, DeLauro endorsed Illinois Senator Barack Obama for President. On October 3, 2008, DeLauro voted a second time in the House in favor the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008, she worked to pass the Paycheck Fairness Act. She has urged politicians to be "big thinkers" on the issue of universal health care; the Wall Street Journal reported on December 17, 2008, that DeLauro was "a top contender" for the position of Labor Secretary in the Obama administration. However, Obama nominated fellow congresswoman Hilda Solis for the position. DeLauro was critical of the Stupak-Pitts Amendment, which places limits on taxpayer-funded abortions in the context of the November 2009 Affordable Health Care for America Act.
Despite DeLauro's strong pro-choice stance, she was a noted supporter of David Bonior in his race against Steny Hoyer for House Majority Whip in 1991, seconding his nomination at a meeting of the Democratic caucus. DeLauro cited their work together during the Iran-Contra scandal, stated that Bonior's "position as whip will not impact the momentum the choice issue has in Congress right now." DeLauro is pro-choice. She supports the availability of abortions in all cases, along with the use of federal subsidies for abortion procedures. In 2006 she voted against HR 6099, a bill that would require abortion providers to follow specific procedures and formalities before performing abortions. In 2006 she voted against a bill that makes it illegal to transport pregnant women under the age of 18 across state lines in order to obtain an abortion. DeLauro has faced criticism from the Roman Catholic Church, of which she is a member, over her pro-choice position, she has voted in support of stronger regulation of firearms in the United States.
In 2006 she voted against the Trigger Lock Amendment that ends the use of funds from the Commerce Department FY2007 Appropriation bill to enforce laws requiring guns to be sold with locks. DeLauro voted in 1999 to increase the amount of time given to perform background checks from 24 hours to 72 hours. Earlier, in 1998 she voted to increase the minimum gun crime sentence. On January 14, 2013, she introduced a bill allowing for the voluntary surrender of assault-type weapons with compensation to come in the form of tax credits, she has an F rating from the NRA. In Ju
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
2004 United States presidential election
The 2004 United States presidential election was the 55th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004. Incumbent Republican President George W. Bush defeated Democratic nominee John Kerry, a United States Senator from Massachusetts. Bush and incumbent Vice President Dick Cheney were renominated by their party with no difficulty. Former Governor Howard Dean emerged as the early front-runner in the 2004 Democratic primaries, but Kerry won the first set of primaries in January 2004 and clinched his party's nomination in March after a series of primary victories. Kerry chose Senator John Edwards of North Carolina, who had himself sought the party's 2004 presidential nomination, to be his running mate. Bush's popularity had soared early in his first term after the September 11 attacks, but his popularity declined between 2001 and 2004. Foreign policy was the dominant theme throughout the election campaign Bush's conduct of the War on Terrorism and the aftermath of the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Bush presented himself as a decisive leader and attacked Kerry as a "flip-flopper", while Kerry criticized Bush's conduct of the Iraq War. Domestic issues were debated as well, including the economy and jobs, health care, same-sex marriage and embryonic stem cell research. Bush won by a slim margin, taking 286 electoral votes, he swept the South and the Mountain States and took the crucial swing states of Ohio and New Mexico. Some aspects of the election process were subject to controversy, but not to the degree seen in the 2000 presidential election. Bush was the first candidate since George H. W. Bush in the 1988 election to win a majority of the popular vote, as well as the last Republican candidate to have won the popular vote. Bush's victory marked the first time that the Republican nominee won a presidential election without carrying any state in the Northeastern United States. Bush would serve until 2009 and be succeeded by Barack Obama, whereas Kerry would continue to serve in the Senate and go on to become the 68th Secretary of State of the United States during Barack Obama's second term.
George W. Bush won the presidency in 2000 after the Supreme Court's decision in Bush v. Gore remanded the case to the Florida Supreme Court, which declared there was not sufficient time to hold a recount without violating the U. S. Constitution. Just eight months into his presidency, the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 transformed Bush into a wartime president. Bush's approval ratings surged to near 90%. Within a month, the forces of a coalition led by the United States entered Afghanistan, sheltering Osama bin Laden, suspected mastermind of the September 11 attacks. By December, the Taliban had been removed, although a ongoing reconstruction would follow; the Bush administration turned its attention to Iraq, argued the need to remove Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq had become urgent. The Iraq issue gave Bush an antagonist to present to the people. Rallying support against a common enemy rather than gaining voters through ideas or policy. Among the stated reasons were that Saddam's regime had tried to acquire nuclear material and had not properly accounted for biological and chemical material it was known to have possessed.
Both the possession of these weapons of mass destruction, the failure to account for them, would violate the UN sanctions. The assertion about WMD was hotly advanced by the Bush administration from the beginning, but other major powers including China, France and Russia remained unconvinced that Iraq was a threat and refused to allow passage of a UN Security Council resolution to authorize the use of force. Iraq permitted UN weapon inspectors in November 2002, who were continuing their work to assess the WMD claim when the Bush administration decided to proceed with war without UN authorization and told the inspectors to leave the country; the United States invaded Iraq on March 20, 2003, along with a "coalition of the willing" that consisted of additional troops from the United Kingdom, to a lesser extent, from Australia and Poland. Within about three weeks, the invasion caused the collapse of both the Iraqi government and its armed forces. However, the U. S. and allied forces failed to find any weapon of mass destruction in Iraq.
On May 1, George W. Bush landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, in a Lockheed S-3 Viking, where he gave a speech announcing the end of "major combat operations" in the Iraq War. Bush's approval rating in May was according to a CNN -- USA Today -- Gallup poll. However, Bush's high approval ratings did not last. First, while the war itself was popular in the U. S. the reconstruction and attempted "democratization" of Iraq lost some support as months passed and casualty figures increased, with no decrease in violence nor progress toward stability or reconstruction. Second, as investigators combed through the country, they failed to find the predicted WMD stockpiles, which led to debate over the rationale for the war. Bush's popularity rose as a wartime president, he was able to ward off any serious challenge to the Republican nomination. Senator Lincoln Chafee from Rhode Island considered challenging Bush on an anti-war platform in New Hampshire, but decided not to run after the capture of Saddam Hussein in December 2003.
On March 10, 2004, Bush clinched the number of delegates needed to be nominated at the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York City. He accepted the nomination on September 2, 2004, retained Vice President Dick Cheney as his running mate. During the convention and throughout the campaign, Bush focused on two themes: defending America against terrorism and building an ownership society. Bush us
John Forbes Kerry is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as a United States Senator from Massachusetts from 1985 until 2013, he was the Democratic nominee in the 2004 presidential election, losing to Republican incumbent George W. Bush. Kerry was born in Aurora and attended boarding school in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, he graduated from Yale University in 1966 with a major in political science. Kerry enlisted in the Naval Reserve in 1966, between 1968 and 1969, he served an abbreviated four-month tour of duty in South Vietnam as officer-in-charge of a Swift Boat. For that service, he was awarded combat medals that include the Silver Star Medal, Bronze Star Medal and three Purple Heart Medals. Securing an early return to the United States, Kerry joined the Vietnam Veterans Against the War organization, in which he served as a nationally recognized spokesman and as an outspoken opponent of the Vietnam War.
He appeared in the Fulbright Hearings before the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs where he described United States war policy in Vietnam as the cause of war crimes. After receiving a Juris Doctor from Boston College Law School, Kerry worked as an Assistant District Attorney in Massachusetts, he served as Lieutenant Governor under Michael Dukakis from 1983 to 1985 and was elected to the U. S. Senate in 1984 and was sworn in the following January. On the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he led a series of hearings from 1987 to 1989 which were a precursor to the Iran–Contra affair. Kerry was reelected to additional terms in 1990, 1996, 2002 and 2008. On October 11, 2002, Kerry voted to authorize the President "to use force, if necessary, to disarm Saddam Hussein," but warned that the administration should exhaust its diplomatic avenues before launching war. In his 2004 presidential campaign, Kerry criticized George W. Bush for the Iraq War, he and his running mate, U. S. Senator from North Carolina John Edwards, lost the election, finishing 35 electoral votes behind Bush and Vice President Dick Cheney.
Kerry returned to the Senate, becoming Chairman of the Senate Committee on Small Business and Entrepreneurship in 2007 and of the Foreign Relations Committee in 2009. In January 2013, Kerry was nominated by President Barack Obama to succeed outgoing Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and confirmed by the U. S. Senate, assuming the office on February 1, 2013. Kerry retained the position until the end of Obama's second term on January 20, 2017. John Forbes Kerry was born on December 11, 1943, at Fitzsimons Army Medical Center in Aurora, Colorado, he is the second of four children born to Richard John Kerry, a Foreign Service officer and lawyer, Rosemary Isabel Forbes, a nurse and social activist. His father was raised Catholic and his mother was Episcopalian, he was raised with an elder sister named Margaret, a younger sister named Diana, a younger brother named Cameron. The children were raised in their father's Catholic faith, John served as an altar boy. Kerry grew up a military brat until his father was discharged from the Army Air Corps, causing the family to settle in Washington, D.
C. in 1949. While in Washington, Richard took a spot in the Department of the Navy's Office of General Counsel and soon became a diplomat in the State Department's Bureau of United Nations Affairs, his maternal extended family enjoyed great wealth as members of the Forbes and Dudley–Winthrop families. Kerry's parents themselves were upper-middle class, a wealthy great-aunt paid for him to attend elite boarding schools such as Institut Montana Zugerberg in Switzerland. In 1957, his father was stationed at the U. S. Embassy in Oslo and Kerry was sent back to the United States to attend boarding school, he first attended the Fessenden School in Newton, St. Paul's, New Hampshire, where he learned skills in public speaking and began developing an interest in politics. Kerry founded the John Winant Society at St. Paul's to debate the issues of the day. In 1962, Kerry entered Yale University, majoring in political science and residing in Jonathan Edwards College. While at Yale, Kerry dated Janet Auchincloss, the younger half-sister of First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy.
Through Auchincloss, Kerry was invited to a day of sailing with then-President John F. Kennedy and his family. Kerry played on the varsity Yale Bulldogs Men's soccer team, earning his only letter in his senior year, he played freshman and JV hockey and, in his senior year, JV lacrosse. In addition, he took flying lessons. In his sophomore year, Kerry became the Chairman of the Liberal Party of the Yale Political Union, a year he served as President of the Union. Amongst his influential teachers in this period was Professor H. Bradford Westerfield, himself a former President of the Political Union, his involvement with the Political Union gave him an opportunity to be involved with important issues of the day, such as the civil rights movement and the New Frontier program. He became a member of Skull and Bones Society, traveled to Switzerland through AIESEC Yale. Under the guidance of the speaking coach and history professor Rollin G. Osterweis, Kerry won many debates against other college students from across the nation.
In March 1965, as the Vietnam War escalated, he won the Ten Eyck prize as the best orator in the junior class for a speech, critical of U. S. foreign policy. In the speech he said, "It is the spectre of Western imperialism that causes more fear among Africans and Asians than communism and t