Thomas Hooker was a prominent Puritan colonial leader, who founded the Colony of Connecticut after dissenting with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts. He was known as an advocate of universal Christian suffrage. Called today "the Father of Connecticut", Rev. Thomas Hooker was a towering figure in the early development of colonial New England, he was one of the great preachers of his time, an erudite writer on Christian subjects, the first minister of Cambridge, one of the first settlers and founders of both the city of Hartford and the state of Connecticut, cited by many as the inspiration for the "Fundamental Orders of Connecticut", which some have called the world's first written democratic constitution establishing a representative government. Thomas Hooker was born in Leicestershire at "Marfield" or Birstall, he went to Dixie Grammar School at Market Bosworth. Family genealogist Edward Hooker linked Thomas Hooker to the Hooker family in Devon which produced the theologian and clergyman Richard Hooker.
Other Hooker genealogists, have traced Thomas Hooker to Leicestershire. Positive evidence linking Thomas to Leicestershire is lacking since the Marefield parish records from before 1610 perished. Any link to the Rev. Richard is lacking since the Rev. Thomas's personal papers were disposed of and his house destroyed after his death. In March 1604, he migrated to Emmanuel College, he received his Bachelor of Arts in 1608 and his Master of Arts in 1611. In 1609 he was elected to a Dixie fellowship at Emmanuel. Hooker was appointed to St George's Church, Surrey in 1620, where he earned a reputation as an excellent speaker and became noted for his pastoral care of Mrs. Joan Drake, the wife of the patron, she was a depressive whose stages of spiritual regeneration became a model for his theological thinking. While associated with the Drake household, he married Susannah Garbrand, Mrs. Drake's woman-in-waiting in Amersham, Mrs. Drake's birthplace. Around 1626, Hooker became a lecturer or preacher at what was St. Mary's parish church and curate to its rector, John Michaelson.
However, in 1629 Archbishop William Laud suppressed church lecturers, Hooker retired to Little Baddow where he kept a school. His leadership of Puritan sympathizers brought him a summons to the Court of High Commission. Forfeiting his bond, Hooker fled to Rotterdam in the Netherlands, considered a position in the English Reformed Church, Amsterdam, as assistant to its senior pastor, the Rev. John Paget. From the Netherlands, after a clandestine trip to England to put his affairs in order, he immigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony aboard the Griffin. Hooker arrived in Boston and settled in Newtown, where he became the pastor of the earliest established church there, known to its members as "The Church of Christ at Cambridge." His congregation, some of whom may have been members of congregations he had served in England, became known as "Mr. Hooker's Company". Voting in Massachusetts was limited to freemen, individuals, formally admitted to their church after a detailed interrogation of their religious views and experiences.
Hooker disagreed with this limitation of suffrage, putting him at odds with the influential pastor John Cotton. Owing to his conflict with Cotton and discontented with the suppression of Puritan suffrage and at odds with the colony leadership and the Rev. Samuel Stone led a group of about 100 who, in 1636, founded the settlement of Hartford, named for Stone's place of birth, Hertford in England; this led to the founding of the Connecticut Colony. Hooker became more active in politics in Connecticut; the General Court representing Wethersfield and Hartford met at the end of May 1638 to frame a written constitution in order to establish a government for the commonwealth. Hooker preached the opening sermon at First Church of Hartford on May 31, declaring that "the foundation of authority is laid in the free consent of the people."On January 14, 1639, freemen from these three settlements ratified the "Fundamental Orders of Connecticut" in what John Fiske called "the first written constitution known to history that created a government.
It marked the beginnings of American democracy, of which Thomas Hooker deserves more than any other man to be called the father. The government of the United States today is in lineal descent more nearly related to that of Connecticut than to that of any of the other thirteen colonies."In recognition of this, near Chelmsford Cathedral, England, where he was town lecturer and curate, there is a blue plaque fixed high on the wall of a narrow alleyway, opposite the south porch, that reads: "Thomas Hooker, 1586–1647, Curate at St. Mary's Church and Chelmsford Town Lecturer 1626–29. Founder of the State of Connecticut, Father of American Democracy." The Rev. Hooker died during an "epidemical sickness" in 1647, at the age of 61; the location of his grave is unknown, although he is believed to be buried in Hartford's Ancient Burying Ground. Because there was no known portrait of him, the statue of him that stands nearby, in front of Hartford's Old State House, was sculpted from the likenesses of his descendants.
However, the city is not without a sense of humor regarding its origins. Each year in October and citizens of Hartford dress up in outrageous costumes to celebrate Hooker Day with the Hooker Day Parade. T-shirts sold in the Old State House proclaim "Hartford was founded by a Hooker." Thomas Hooker advocated extended suffrage to include Puritan worshippers, a view which would lead him and his followers to colonize Connecticut. He also
Guilford is a coastal town in New Haven County, United States, that borders Madison, North Branford and Durham, is situated on I-95 and the Connecticut seacoast. The population was 22,375 at the 2010 census. In 2015 the population stands at 22,413 people, it was named one of the top 100 places to live in the United States by Money magazine in 2005. Guilford was named after the town of Guildford, in England, the native home of a share of its first settlers. In early maps of the Connecticut Colony, the town is seen on several maps as Gilford. First settled by Europeans in 1639 after being purchased from Native American leader Wequash, Guilford is considered by some to have the third largest collection of historic homes in New England, with important buildings from the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries. There are five historic house museums, including Dudley Farm and the Henry Whitfield House, the oldest dwelling house in Connecticut and the oldest stone house built by English settlers in North America.
The Comfort Starr House is one of the oldest wooden framed private dwellings in Connecticut, one of the few houses remaining of the original signers who settled Guilford. In June 1781, a skirmish was fought in Guilford between locals. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 49.7 square miles, of which 47.0 square miles is land and 2.7 square miles is water. The primary settlement in Guilford, known as Guilford Center, is located in the southern part of town around the intersection of U. S. Route 1 and Connecticut Route 77, it is served by three exits of Interstate 95. The Guilford Center census-designated place had a population of 2,597 at the 2010 census; the northwest side of Guilford is flanked by the Metacomet Ridge, a mountainous trap rock ridgeline that stretches from Long Island Sound to nearly the Vermont border. Notable features of the Metacomet ridge in Guilford include Totoket Mountain; the 50-mile Mattabesett Trail traverses Bluff Head. Guilford contains the Westwoods Trail System which covers 39 miles of trails on 1,200 acres of land.
The Shore Line East train stops at Guilford station with service to Branford, East Haven, New Haven and New London and the Connecticut Transit S bus travels between Guilford and New Haven several times each day. Guilford Center Leetes Island North Guilford Nut Plains Sachems Head Other minor communities and geographic features in Guilford are Guilford Lakes, Indian Cove, Old Quarry; as of the census of 2000, there were 21,398 people, 8,151 households, 6,039 families residing in the town. The population density was 454.8 people per square mile. There were 8,724 housing units at an average density of 185.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.04% White, 0.93% African American, 0.05% Native American, 1.65% Asian, 0.41% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.13% of the population. There were 8,151 households out of which 35.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.4% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.9% were non-families.
21.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.04. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 4.4% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 31.2% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $76,843, the median income for a family was $87,045. Males had a median income of $60,623 versus $40,307 for females; the per capita income for the town was $37,161. About 2.3% of families and 3.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.4% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over. American Cruise Lines has its headquarters in Guilford. Yet, there are many small businesses including the shops on the Guilford Green; the town government operates these parks: Bittner Park — 123 acres of woodlands and 15 acres of playground, a lighted softball field and soccer fields, jogging/walking path.
Ice skating available in winter. Chaffinch Island — Picnic areas, short walking trails, salt marsh. Chittenden Park — Softball and soccer fields, bocce courts, unsupervised beach area Jacobs Beach — Public swimming, volleyball courts, picnicking. Lake Quonnipaug — Public swimming, picnic area, small craft launch. Long Hill — 8-acre park with playing fields for baseball, soccer/lacrosse and field hockey Mill Pond — Lighted, supervised ice skating in winter.
A common definition of separatism is that it is the advocacy of a state of cultural, tribal, racial, governmental or gender separation from the larger group. While it refers to full political secession, separatist groups may seek nothing more than greater autonomy. While some critics may equate separatism with religious segregation, racist segregation, or sexist segregation, most separatists argue that separation by choice may serve useful purposes and is not the same as government-enforced segregation. There is some academic debate about this definition, in particular how it relates to secessionism, as has been discussed online. Separatist groups practice a form of identity politics, or political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice visited upon members of certain social groups; such groups believe attempts at integration with dominant groups compromise their identity and ability to pursue greater self-determination. However and political factors are critical in creating strong separatist movements as opposed to less ambitious identity movements.
Groups may have one or more motivations for separation, including: Emotional resentment and hatred of rival communities. Protection from genocide and ethnic cleansing. Resistance by victims of oppression, including denigration of their language, culture or religion. Influence and propaganda by those inside and outside the region who hope to gain politically from intergroup conflict and hatred. Economic and political dominance of one group that does not share power and privilege in an egalitarian fashion. Economic motivations: seeking to end economic exploitation by more powerful group or, conversely, to escape economic redistribution from a richer to a poorer group. Preservation of threatened religious, language or other cultural tradition. Destabilization from one separatist movement giving rise to others. Geopolitical power vacuum from breakup of larger states or empires. Continuing fragmentation as more and more states break up. Feeling that the perceived nation was added to the larger state by illegitimate means.
The perception that the state can no longer support one has betrayed their interests. Opposition to political decisions. How far separatist demands will go toward full independence, whether groups pursue constitutional and nonviolent or armed violence, depend on a variety of economic, political and cultural factors, including movement leadership and the government's response. Governments may respond in a number of ways; some include: accede to separatist demands improve the circumstances of disadvantaged minorities, be they religious, territorial, economic or political adopt "asymmetric federalism" where different states have different relations to the central government depending on separatist demands or considerations Allow minorities to win in political disputes about which they feel through parliamentary voting, etc. Settle for a confederation or a commonwealth relationship where there are only limited ties among states; some governments suppress any separatist movement in their own country, but support separatism in other countries.
Ethnic separatism is based more on cultural and linguistic differences than religious or racial differences, which may exist. Ethnic separatist movements include the following: Eurasia The Soviet Union's dissolution into its original ethnic groupings which formed their own nations of Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Russia, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Chechen separatism in the Caucasus the Republic of Chechnya is part of the Russian Federation. Serb separatism in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo. Albanian separatism in Kosovo, North Macedonia, Serbia Greeks separatism in Northern Epirus region of Albania. Turkish separatism in Cyprus. South Ossetian and Abkhazian separatism in Georgia. Armenian separatists of Nagorno-Karabakh in Azerbaijan. Azeri separatists in Iran want to unite the provinces of East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan and Ardabil with Azerbaijan. Kurdish separatism in Turkey, Syria and Iran. Sorbs separatism in Germany. Silesian separatism in Czech Republic. Basque and Catalan separatism in Spain.
Minor separatist movements in Andalusia, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Galicia, León, Navarre and Valencia. "Celtic nations" in the British Isles have created various separatist movements from the United Kingdom described as Scottish independence, Welsh Nationalism, Irish Republicanism and Cornish Nationalism. France's Basque, Corsican, Breton and Savoyan separatists. Italy's separatist movements in Friuli, Sicily, South Tyrol and Veneto. Bavarian separatism in Germany, despite the Bavarian Land being referred to as the Bavarian Free State. Belgium granting Dutch-speaking Flanders and French-speaking Wallonia greater autonomy. In the Netherlands, some Frisians covet an autonomous area. Switzerland's division into cantons along geographical and linguistic lines. Russian separatism in Crimea Separatist movements of Pakistan including Balochistan movement and the Sindhudesh movement. Separatist movements of India Jammu and Kashmir Assam separatist movements Insurgency in Northeast India Sri Lanka's ethnic Tamil minority separatism in Tamil Eelam.
Several ethnic minority groups fighting for separate states in Myanmar, including the Chin, Karen, Rohingya
John Davenport (minister)
John Davenport was an English Puritan clergyman and co-founder of the American colony of New Haven. Born in Coventry, England to a wealthy family, Davenport was educated at Oxford University, he matriculated at Merton College in 1613 but migrated to Magdalen Hall two years probably because of its reputation at the time for its Calvinist and Puritan sympathies. However, Davenport did not complete his degree during this time, returning to Oxford in 1625 when he took the degrees of BD and MA, his father was Henry Davenport, draper and mayor of Coventry, son of Edward Davenport, mayor of Coventry. His mother was Winifred Barnaby. After serving as chaplain of Hilton Castle, he became curate of St Lawrence Jewry in London. In 1624, he was chosen vicar of St. Stephen's Church, in Coleman Street, London, he became an associate of John Preston, a leading Puritan teacher and scholar, edited his works for posthumous publication. His efforts to organize the re-purchase of "lay-impropriations" for the support of rural clergy were frustrated by Bishop William Laud and condemned by the Court of Exchequer, as were his efforts for the relief of Reformed clergy displaced by war in the Electorate of the Palatinate.
In 1633 he moved to Holland. While in Holland, it is believed that he was the model for several portraits by Rembrandt, though these are now thought to be self-portraits of Rembrandt. In 1637, he acquired the patent for a colony in Massachusetts and sailed with much of his congregation for Boston. While staying in Boston with Reverend John Cotton in March 1638, he sat during the church trial of Anne Hutchinson which resulted in her excommunication from the Boston church, ending the Antinomian Controversy; that month he co-founded the Colony of New Haven along with his classmate, Theophilus Eaton, a wealthy merchant from London who became the colony's first governor. He was a large proponent of education in his colony and is credited with the co-founding of Hopkins School; as a burgess, he was an important figure in the colony up until his departure to Boston in 1668. He unsuccessfully opposed the incorporation of the New Haven colony into the reorganized colony of Connecticut under a royal charter in 1667.
Davenport was a lifelong advocate of the rigorous Puritan standards for church membership and for the strict qualifications for infant baptism, which he believed should be administered only to the children of full church members. His time in Holland had been disrupted by a controversy with his supervising pastor John Paget over this issue, it led to his withdrawal from the Puritan church in Amsterdam. In New England, he was a staunch opponent of the recommendations made by the Synod of 1662, known as the Half-Way Covenant, which proposed that the children of "half-way" members be allowed to receive baptism. In September 1667, after the death of their pastor, John Wilson, the First Church in Boston invited Davenport to be their new pastor. A minority in that church opposed the invitation, objecting to his rejection of the compromise on infant baptism. Convention required that Davenport secure a release from his former congregation before accepting a new post, the church in New Haven was reluctant to let him go.
Still, he moved to Boston in the spring of 1668, produced excerpts of a letter from the New Haven church that appeared to grant his release. He was installed as pastor of the First Church in December 1668, but a faction opposed to his appointment sought to withdraw from the church to form a new congregation. A council of clergy from local churches endorsed their request, they formed the Third Church in May 1669. On May 19, 1669, Davenport preached the Election Sermon before the General Court in Boston, using the occasion to condemn the actions of "Councils" that interfered with the liberty and administration of individual congregations. Instigated by this sermon, the Deputies named a commission to investigate the actions of the founders of the Third Church and the ministers who had endorsed the separation. However, the Assistants blocked any action, including the publication of Davenport's sermon at public expense; that summer, it was discovered that the release letter from New Haven had been redacted to give an impression, not warranted, though Davenport's First Church rejected charges that they had been misrepresented.
Davenport's appointment to the leading church in New England and his inflammatory election sermon brought to a head the simmering disagreements over the compromise settlement of the Half-way Synod. But Davenport died the following year. Davenport died in Boston of apoplexy on March 15, 1670, was buried in the same tomb as John Cotton in King's Chapel Burying Ground, Boston. Yale University was envisioned by Davenport, although his proposal for it would not be realized until some 30 years after his death. Davenport College is named in his honor and an oil portrait of him is in the Yale collection, he was instrumental in the founding of Hopkins School, a grammar school, in 1660. Notable descendants include Abraham Davenport, of John Greenleaf Whittier's "Dark Day" poem. New Haven, Connecticut History of Conne
United States Declaration of Independence
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on July 4, 1776. The Declaration announced that the Thirteen Colonies at war with the Kingdom of Great Britain would regard themselves as thirteen independent sovereign states, no longer under British rule. With the Declaration, these new states took a collective first step toward forming the United States of America; the declaration was signed by representatives from New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia. The Lee Resolution for independence was passed on July 2 with no opposing votes; the Committee of Five had drafted the Declaration to be ready. John Adams, a leader in pushing for independence, had persuaded the committee to select Thomas Jefferson to compose the original draft of the document, which Congress edited to produce the final version.
The Declaration was a formal explanation of why Congress had voted to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. Adams wrote to his wife Abigail, "The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America" – although Independence Day is celebrated on July 4, the date that the wording of the Declaration of Independence was approved. After ratifying the text on July 4, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in several forms, it was published as the printed Dunlap broadside, distributed and read to the public. The source copy used for this printing has been lost and may have been a copy in Thomas Jefferson's hand. Jefferson's original draft is preserved at the Library of Congress, complete with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin, as well as Jefferson's notes of changes made by Congress; the best-known version of the Declaration is a signed copy, displayed at the National Archives in Washington, D.
C. and, popularly regarded as the official document. This engrossed copy was ordered by Congress on July 19 and signed on August 2; the sources and interpretation of the Declaration have been the subject of much scholarly inquiry. The Declaration justified the independence of the United States by listing 27 colonial grievances against King George III and by asserting certain natural and legal rights, including a right of revolution, its original purpose was to announce independence, references to the text of the Declaration were few in the following years. Abraham Lincoln made it the centerpiece of his policies and his rhetoric, as in the Gettysburg Address of 1863. Since it has become a well-known statement on human rights its second sentence: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life and the pursuit of Happiness; this has been called "one of the best-known sentences in the English language", containing "the most potent and consequential words in American history".
The passage came to represent a moral standard. This view was notably promoted by Lincoln, who considered the Declaration to be the foundation of his political philosophy and argued that it is a statement of principles through which the United States Constitution should be interpreted; the Declaration of Independence inspired many similar documents in other countries, the first being the 1789 Declaration of United Belgian States issued during the Brabant Revolution in the Austrian Netherlands. It served as the primary model for numerous declarations of independence in Europe and Latin America, as well as Africa and Oceania during the first half of the 19th century. Believe me, dear Sir: there is not in the British empire a man who more cordially loves a union with Great Britain than I do. But, by the God that made me, I will cease to exist before I yield to a connection on such terms as the British Parliament propose. By the time that the Declaration of Independence was adopted in July 1776, the Thirteen Colonies and Great Britain had been at war for more than a year.
Relations had been deteriorating between the colonies and the mother country since 1763. Parliament enacted a series of measures to increase revenue from the colonies, such as the Stamp Act of 1765 and the Townshend Acts of 1767. Parliament believed that these acts were a legitimate means of having the colonies pay their fair share of the costs to keep them in the British Empire. Many colonists, had developed a different conception of the empire; the colonies were not directly represented in Parliament, colonists argued that Parliament had no right to levy taxes upon them. This tax dispute was part of a larger divergence between British and American interpretations of the British Constitution and the extent of Parliament's authority in the colonies; the orthodox British view, dating from the Glorious Revolution of 1688, was that Parliament was the supreme authority throughout the empire, so, by definition, anything that Parliament did was constitutional. In the colonies, the idea had developed that the British Constitution recognized certain fundamental rights that no government could violate, not Parliament.
After the Townshend Acts, some essayists began to question whether Parliament had any legitimate jurisdiction in the colonies at all. Anticipating the arrangement of the British Commonwealth, by 1774 American writers such as
Roger Wolcott (Connecticut)
Roger Wolcott was an American weaver and politician from Windsor, Connecticut. He served as colonial governor of Connecticut from 1751 to 1754. Wolcott was born the son of Simon Wolcott and Martha Pitkin Wolcott in Connecticut, his formal education was limited by the nature of the frontier village, so at age twelve he was apprenticed to a weaver, at the age of twenty-one entered that business on his own. He married Sarah Drake on December 3, 1702, they had fifteen children before her death in 1748, their son Oliver Wolcott Sr. signed the Declaration of Independence and went on to become governor of Connecticut. In May 1709, Wolcott began to practice law. In 1711, during Queen Anne's War, He accompanied militia forces on an expedition to Quebec as a commissary. On his return he served as Clerk of the House, 1710-1711 and was elected Deputy to the colony's Lower House in 1709-1714, 1718, 1719, serving as Speaker in October, 1719. In 1714 he was elected to the Upper House and served as Assistant, 1714-1718, 1720-1741, 1754-1760.
He was Commissioner of Connecticut for the Adjustment of Colonial boundaries, 1717, 1718, 1723-1726, 1728, 1730, 1737, 1740, 1742, 1750. Captain of the Trainband of Windsor, 1722. Captain of Troops raised for active service, 1724, he was made judge of the Hartford County court in 1723, serving through 1732, of the colony's Superior Court in 1732, serving through 1741. Wolcott was made Colonel of the First regiment, 1739. In 1741 Wolcott was elected Deputy Governor of the colony; as deputy governors traditionally served as the Chief Justice of the Superior Court of Connecticut, he assumed that position, which he held until 1750. In 1745 Wolcott was again active in this time as a Major General. In King George's War, Massachusetts governor William Shirley issued a general call to the New England colonies for an expedition against the French in Île-Royale. Wolcott served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in the Expedition to Cape Breton. General Wolcott headed the Connecticut troops in Sir William Pepperrell's expedition that captured Fortress Louisbourg.
With the death of Governor Jonathan Law in 1750, Wolcott succeeded to the position of governor. He was re-elected annually to that position through 1753. Shortly after he retired as governor, his son, Roger Wolcott, Sr. attended negotiations with six other British colonies and around 200 members of various Indian nations at the Albany Congress in June and July 1754. During his administration, a disabled Spanish ship, the St. Joseph and St. Helena, with a cargo valued at 400,000 Spanish dollars, ran aground near New London. Wolcott ordered the ship seized and the cargo impounded in order to allow time to resolve conflicting claims between the vessel's captain and the salvage crew. While in the colony's custody, a large portion of the ship's cargo mysteriously disappeared. Tainted with the scandal surrounding the Spanish Ship case, he was defeated for re-election in 1754. All previous governors had died in office. Following his defeat, Wolcott withdrew from public life to study and follow literary pursuits.
In 1759, Wolcott authored a short history of the Connecticut colony titled, Roger Wolcott's Memoir Relating to the History of Connecticut. Wolcott is interred at the Old Burying Ground there. Roger Wolcott at Find a Grave The Poems of Roger Wolcott, Esq. 1725
Connecticut Western Reserve
The Connecticut Western Reserve was a portion of land claimed by the Colony of Connecticut and by the state of Connecticut in what is now the northeastern region of Ohio. The Reserve had been granted to the Colony under the terms of its charter by King Charles II. Connecticut relinquished claim to some of its western lands to the United States in 1786 following the American Revolutionary War and preceding the 1787 establishment of the Northwest Territory. Despite ceding sovereignty to the United States, Connecticut retained ownership of the eastern portion of its cession, south of Lake Erie, it sold much of this "Western Reserve" to a group of speculators who operated as the Connecticut Land Company. The phrase Western Reserve is preserved in numerous institutional names in Ohio, such as Western Reserve Academy, Case Western Reserve University, Western Reserve Hospital; the Reserve encompassed all of the following Ohio counties: Ashtabula, Cuyahoga and Huron, Lake, Medina, Trumbull. After the American Revolutionary War, Connecticut was forced by the federal government to surrender the Pennsylvania portion of its "sea-to-sea land grant" following the Yankee-Pennamite Wars.
The state held fast to its claim on the lands between the 41st and 42nd-and-2-minutes parallels that lay west of the Pennsylvania state border. The claim within Ohio was for a 120-mile -wide strip between Lake Erie and a line just south of present-day Youngstown, New London, Willard, about 3 miles south of present-day U. S. Highway 224; the claim beyond Ohio included parts of Michigan, Illinois, Nebraska, Utah and California. The eastern boundary of the reserve follows a true meridian along Ellicott's Line, the boundary with Pennsylvania; the western boundary veers more than four degrees from a meridian to maintain the 120-mile width, due to convergence. Connecticut gave up western land claims following the American Revolutionary War in exchange for federal assumption of its debt, as did several other states. From these concessions, the federal government organized the old Northwest Territory, earlier known as the "Territory Northwest of the River Ohio"; the deed of cession was issued on 13 September 1786.
As population increased in portions of the Northwest Territory, new states were organized and admitted to the Union in the early 19th century. Connecticut retained 3,366,921 acres in Ohio, which became known as the "Western Reserve"; the state sold the Western Reserve to the Connecticut Land Company in 1796 for $1,200,000. The Land Company were a group of investors who were from Suffield, Connecticut; the initial eight men in the group planned to divide the land into homestead plots and sell it to settlers from the east. But the Indian titles to the Reserve had not been extinguished. Clear title was obtained east of the Cuyahoga River by the Greenville Treaty in 1795 and west of the river in the Treaty of Fort Industry in 1805; the western end of the reserve included the Firelands or "Sufferers' Lands," 500,000 acres reserved for residents of several New England towns, destroyed by British-set fires during the Revolutionary War. The next year, the Land Company sent surveyors led by Moses Cleaveland to the Reserve to divide the land into square townships, 5 miles on each side (25 square miles.
Cleaveland's team founded the city of Cleveland along Lake Erie, which became the largest city in the region. The territory was named "New Connecticut", settlers began to trickle in during the next few years. Youngstown was founded in 1796, Warren in 1798, Hudson in 1799, Ravenna in 1799, Ashtabula in 1803, Stow in 1804. Connecticut ceded sovereignty over the Western Reserve in 1800; the United States absorbed it into the Northwest Territory, which organized Trumbull County within the boundaries of the Reserve. Warren, Ohio, is the former county seat of the Reserve and identifies itself as "the historical capital of the Western Reserve." Several more counties were carved out of the territory. The name "Western Reserve" survives in the area in various institutions such as the "Western Reserve Historical Society" and Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio; this area of Ohio became a center of resource development and industrialization through the mid-20th century. It was a center of the steel industry, receiving iron ore shipped through the Great Lakes from Minnesota, processing it into steel products, shipping these products to the east.
This industry stimulated the development of great freight lakers, as the steam ships were known, including the first steel ships in the 20th century. Railroads took over some of the commodity transportation from the lake ships. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, these cities attracted hundreds of thousands of European immigrants and migrants from the rural South to its industrial jobs. At the request of Congress in 2011, the National Park Service prepared a feasibility study for declaring the 14-county region of the Western Reserve as a National Heritage Area; this is a means to encourage broad-based preservation of such historical sites and buildings that are related to a large historical theme. Such assessment and designation has been significant for recognizing assets, encouragi