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Connecticut General Assembly

The Connecticut General Assembly is the state legislature of the U. S. state of Connecticut. It is a bicameral body composed of the 151-member House of the 36-member Senate, it meets in Hartford. There are no term limits for either chamber. During even-numbered years, the General Assembly is in session from February to May. In odd-numbered years, when the state budget is completed, session lasts from January to June; the governor has the right to call for a special session after the end of the regular session, while the General Assembly can call for a "veto session" after the close in order to override gubernatorial vetoes. During the first half of session, the House and Senate meet on Wednesdays only, though by the end of the session, they meet daily due to increased workload and deadlines; the three settlements that would become Connecticut were established in 1633, were governed by the Massachusetts Bay Company under terms of a commission for settlement. When the commission expired in 1636 and the Connecticut Colony was established, the legislature was established as the "General Corte", consisting of six magistrates along with three-member committees representing each of the three towns.

In 1639, the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut were adopted, which changed the spelling to "General Court. Although the magistrates and deputies sat together, they voted separately and in 1645 it was decreed that a measure had to have the approval of both groups in order to pass; the Charter of 1662 changed the name to the General Assembly, while replacing the six magistrates with twelve assistants and reducing the number of deputies per town to no more than two. In 1698, the General Assembly divided itself into its current bicameral form, with the twelve assistants as the Council and the deputies as the House of Representatives; the modern form of the General Assembly was incorporated in the 1818 constitution. Most of the General Assembly's committee and caucus meetings are held in the modern Legislative Office Building, while the House and Senate sessions are held in the State Capitol; the two buildings are connected via a tunnel known as the "Concourse," which stretches underneath an off-ramp of Interstate 84.

Most offices for legislators and their aides are housed in the LOB, though some legislative leaders choose to be based in the State Capitol itself. Each committee has its own office space, with most being located in the LOB. A few committees select committees, have their offices in the Capitol. Committee chairs and ranking members choose to have their personal offices near their committee offices, rather than staying in their caucus areas; the General Assembly is provided with facilities such as a cafeteria, private dining room and library. The General Assembly has 26 committees. Several committees have each with their own chair and special focus. Before most bills are considered in either the House or Senate, they must first go through the committee system; the primary exception to this rule is the emergency certification bill, or "e-cert," which can be passed on the floor without going through committee first. The e-cert is reserved for use during times of crisis, such as natural disasters or when deadlines are approaching too to delay action.

Most are permanent committees, which are authorized and required by state statute to be continued each session. The twenty-five permanent committees of the General Assembly are: Aging Committee Appropriations Committee Banks Committee Children Committee Commerce Committee Education Committee Energy and Technology Committee Environment Committee Executive and Legislative Nominations Committee Finance and Bonding Committee General Law Committee Government Administration and Elections Committee Higher Education and Employment Advancement Committee Housing Committee Human Services Committee Insurance and Real Estate Committee Internship Committee Judiciary Committee Labor and Public Employees Committee Joint Committee on Legislative Management Planning and Development Committee Public Health Committee Public Safety and Security Committee Regulation Review Committee Transportation Committee Veterans' Affairs CommitteeOf those, the Executive and Legislative Nominations Committee, Internship Committee, Joint Committee on Legislative Management, Regulation Review Committee are considered bi-partisan and feature leadership from each party.

Some committees are select committees, authorized to only function for a set number of years before being brought up for review. Most select committees deal with issues of major importance during a particular time period and are created in response to specific problems facing the state; as of the 2013 legislative session, there are no active select committees. Most committee chair positions are held by the ruling party, but committees considered bi-partisan have chairs from both the Republican and Democratic caucuses. Bi-partisan committees are ones that are administrative in nature, such as the Legislative Internship Committee. Most committees have ranking members, or leaders from the minority party who serve as the leaders of their party on each committee. All committees have their own staff members; the four largest committees (Appropriations, Fina

Dome Village

Dome Village was a self-governing community of "people unable or unwilling to live in traditional shelters". Located in Downtown Los Angeles at 847 Golden Avenue, the complex consisted of 20 geodesic domes and was inhabited by "up to 34 individuals and their family members". Operated by Justiceville/Homeless USA, a non-profit organization, members of Dome Village were politically active in homelessness and environmental issues. Prior to becoming the Dome Village, the site was a shantytown inhabited by the homeless. In 1993, the village was founded by activist Ted Hayes; the village setting is intended to create stability for residents who live an otherwise-precarious existence. A song titled "People In Need" recorded by Gospel legend, Edwin Hawkins, Tramaine Hawkins and the Edwin Hawkins Singers was dedicated to the creation of Dome Village by The Benefit Network in 1988. In 1987, Tom "Beefbone" Bolema produced a benefit 12 inch single "Justiceville/Ted's Rap" featuring The Butchers and Electro-Shock.

The song became the soundtrack for the video "Justiceville", produced by Gary Glaser, which documents the bull-dozing of a Ted Hayes encampment that preceded Dome Village. The dwellings were designed by a former student of Buckminster Fuller; the domes, which cost about $10,000 each and are easy to repair and maintain, are made of polyester fiberglass. Funding for the village provided by a subsidiary of British Petroleum. In late 2005, the inhabitants of Dome Village were threatened with eviction as the result of an increase to the property's rent; the owner of the property, Milton Sidley, was quoted as saying that he, "was tired of helping Ted and the Dome Village." The announcement about the increase came shortly after a Los Angeles Times article about an address Hayes delivered to the Bel-Air Republican Women's Club. According to Hayes, "When I founded the Dome Village 12 years ago, we had an understanding that he could ask for his property back at any time for any reason, I would say "absolutely" without hesitation."

Accordingly he has "no intention of causing any trouble for this property owner", "will not go to court". However, he admitted that he "cannot help but be saddened by the whole business....his reason was prejudice against Republicans."On August 31, 2006, Hayes announced that the residents of Dome Village were being evicted and that domes would be auctioned off online. Residents, were given until October 2006 to get out, moved in traditional homeless shelters, they hope to recreate Dome Village elsewhere in Los Angeles with the proceeds from the auction. Dome Village offered numerous programs for its residents, including workshops in computer literacy, legal issues, children's theatre, a community art program called Street Without a Name, two cricket teams, community gardening programs, many others

Naval Consulting Board

The Naval Consulting Board known as the Naval Advisory Board, was a US Navy organization established in 1915 by Josephus Daniels, the Secretary of the Navy at the suggestion of Thomas Alva Edison. Daniels created the Board with membership drawn from eleven engineering and scientific organizations two years before the United States entered World War I to provide the country with the "machinery and facilities for utilizing the natural inventive genius of Americans to meet the new conditions of warfare." Daniels was concerned that the U. S. was unprepared for the new conditions of warfare and that they needed access to the newest technology. Thomas Edison gave a speech in which he proposed a group of scientists should be involved with the World War I effort. In a statement issued in the New York Times on September 13, 1915, Josephus Daniels, the Secretary of the Navy asked Thomas Edison to be president of an advisory board. Miller Reese Hutchison, Edison's chief engineer became part of the Board.

Secretary Daniels "approached eleven engineering and scientific societies to nominate two members to present their society on the Board." There were 24 original members, including the following: American Chemical Society Willis Rodney Whitney Leo Baekeland American Institute of Electrical Engineers Frank Julian Sprague Benjamin Garver Lamme American Mathematical Society Robert Simpson Woodward, a civil engineer and mathematician. Arthur Gordon Webster American Society of Civil Engineers Andrew Murray Hunt Alfred Wingate Craven, Chief Engineer of the New York city Rapid Transit commission. American Aeronautical Society Matthew Bacon Sellers II Hudson Maxim The Inventor's Guild Peter Cooper Hewitt Thomas Robins American Society of Automotive Engineers Andrew J. Riker Howard E. Coffin American Institute of Mining Engineers William Lawrence Saunders Benjamin Bowditch Thayer American ElectroChemical Society Joseph William Richards Lawrence Addicks American Society of Mechanical Engineers William Le Roy Emmet Spencer Miller American Society of Aeronautic Engineers, merged into Society of Automotive Engineers in 1916.

Henry Alexander Wise Wood Elmer SperryLater, the physicists Arthur Compton, Robert Andrews Millikan and Lee De Forest, inventor of the radio tube and William Lawrence Saunders replaced Edison as chairman. The board had no legal status, budget or staff, its mission was unclear. Not until August 1916 did the United States Congress appropriate $25,000 for its operation; the initial publicity surrounding its creation resulted in a flood of suggestions about how to improve the US Navy's ships, totaling 110,000 during the war. The Board's members decided that they could be most effective if they divided into technical committees to utilize their specialist expertise, including the Committee on Aeronautics and Aeronautical Motors, they provided consultants and arranged for research to be carried out in established civilian laboratories. During World War I, the board was responsible for approving camouflage schemes for civilian ships, including one invented by William MacKay. One of the most significant committees was that on Industrial Preparedness, which drew up an inventory of manufacturing capacity and sought to develop common manufacturing standards.

On 10 February 1917 the Board established a Special Problems Committee with a Subcommittee on Submarine Detection by Sound. This led to the collaboration of the Submarine Signalling Company, the General Electric Co and Western Electric Co in experiments on the problem. An experimental station was established at Massachusetts. On May 11, 1917 the United States Secretary of the Navy created a Special Board on Antisubmarine Detection "for the purpose of procuring either through original research and manufacture, or through development of ideas and devices submitted by inventors at large, suitable apparatus for both offensive and defensive operations against submarines". Dr. Millikan of the United States National Research Council, Dr. Whitney of the General Electric Co. Dr. Jewett of the Western Electric Co. and Mr. Fay of the Submarine Signal Co. were appointed as advisory members. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Naval History and Heritage Command.

Naval Consulting Board of the United States by L. N. Scott Joseph William Richards biography


A breechloader describes a firearm in which the user loads the cartridge or shell by inserting it into a chamber integral to the rear portion of a barrel. Modern mass produced firearms are breech-loading—except for replicas of vintage weapons. Early firearms, on the other hand, were entirely muzzle-loading. Modern mortars are muzzle-loaded. Breech-loading provides the advantage of reduced reloading time, it is quicker to load the projectile and charge into the breech of a gun or cannon than to push them down a long tube—especially when the bullet fits and the tube has spiral ridges from rifling. In field artillery, the advantages were similar—crews no longer had to force powder and shot down a long barrel with rammers, the shot could now fit the bore, increasing accuracy, it made it easier to load a weapon with a fouled barrel. Turrets and emplacements for breechloaders can be smaller, since crews don't need to retract the gun for loading. After breech loading became common, it became common practice to fit recoil systems onto field guns to prevent the recoil from rolling the carriage back with every shot and ruining the aim.

That provided faster firing times, but is not directly related to whether the gun is breech loading or not. Now that guns were able to fire without recoiling, the crew was able to remain grouped around the gun, ready to load and put final touches on the aim, subsequent to firing the next shot; that led to the development of an armored shield fitted to the carriage of the gun, to help shield the crew from long range area or sniper fire from the new, high-velocity, long-range rifles, or machine guns. Although breech-loading firearms were developed as far back as the late 14th century in Burgundy, breech-loading became more successful with improvements in precision engineering and machining in the 19th century; the main challenge for developers of breech-loading firearms was sealing the breech. This was solved for smaller firearms by the development of the self-contained metallic cartridge. For firearms too large to use cartridges, the problem was solved by the development of the interrupted screw.

Breech-loading swivel guns were invented in the 14th century. They were a particular type of swivel gun, consisted in a small breech-loading cannon equipped with a swivel for easy rotation, loaded by inserting a mug-shaped chamber filled with powder and projectiles; the breech-loading swivel gun had a high rate of fire, was effective in anti-personnel roles. Breech-loading firearms are known from the 16th century. Henry VIII possessed one, which he used as a hunting gun to shoot birds. Meanwhile, in China, an early form of breech loading musket, known as the Che Dian Chong, was known to have been created in the second half of the 16th century for the Ming dynasty's arsenals. Like all early breech loading fireams, gas leakage was a limitation and danger present in the weapon's mechanism. More breech-loading firearms were made in the early 18th century. One such gun known to have belonged to Philip V of Spain, was manufactured circa 1715 in Madrid, it came with a ready-to load reusable cartridge.

Patrick Ferguson, a British Army officer, developed in 1772 the Ferguson rifle, a breech-loading flintlock firearm. Two hundred of the rifles were manufactured and used in the Battle of Brandywine, during the American Revolutionary War, but shortly after they were retired and replaced with the standard Brown Bess musket. On into the mid-19th century, there were attempts in Europe at an effective breech-loader. There were concentrated attempts at improved methods of ignition. In Paris in 1808, in association with French gunsmith François Prélat, Jean Samuel Pauly created the first self-contained cartridges: the cartridges incorporated a copper base with integrated mercury fulminate primer powder, a round bullet and either brass or paper casing; the cartridge was fired with a needle. The needle-activated central-fire breech-loading gun would become a major feature of firearms thereafter; the corresponding firearm was developed by Pauly. Pauly made an improved version, protected by a patent on 29 September 1812.

The Pauly cartridge was further improved by the French gunsmith Casimir Lefaucheux in 1828, by adding a pinfire primer, but Lefaucheux did not register his patent until 1835: a pinfire cartridge containing powder in a card-board shell. In 1845, another Frenchman Louis-Nicolas Flobert invented, for indoor shooting, the first rimfire metallic cartridge, constituted by a bullet fit in a percussion cap. Derived in the 6 mm and 9 mm calibres, it is since called the Flobert cartridge but it does not contain any powder. In English-speaking countries the Flobert cartridge corresponds to.22 CB ammunitions. In 1846, yet another Frenchman, Benjamin Houllier, patented the first metallic cartridge containing powder in a metallic shell. Houllier commercialised his weapons in association with the gunsmiths Charles Robert, but the subsequent Houllier and Lefaucheux cartridges if they were the first full-metal shells, were still pinfire cartridges, like those used in the LeMat and Lefaucheux revolvers, although the LeMat evolved in a revolver using rimfire cartridges.

The first centrefire cartridge was introduced in 1855 with both Berdan and Boxer priming. In 1842, the Norwegian Armed Forces adopted the breechloading caplock, the Kammerlader, one of the first instances in which a modern army adopted a breechloading rifle as its main infantry firearm. Th

On the Bright Side Festival

On The Bright Side is an annual Australian music festival held in Perth, Western Australia. Starting in 2010, the event is the result of collaboration between the promoters of Splendour in the Grass Festival held in Woodford and Rock-It held in Joondalup, Western Australia; the event is held under the supertop at Esplanade Park in Perth during July and in its first two years proved to be one of the highlights of the Perth winter music calendar. In 2012, the festival was cancelled due to "conflicting artist schedules". Despite a promise to return in 2013 there was no such announcement from the festival; the Strokes Mumford & Sons Angus & Julia Stone Band Of Horses Hot Chip The Middle East Bluejuice Art vs. ScienceThe Ting Tings were announced to play in 2010 but had to pull out due to rescheduling the release of their second album, their replacement on the bill was Art vs. Science; the Hives Pulp Modest Mouse Tame Impala The Kills The Grates Foster the People James Blake Warpaint Tim & Jean The festival was cancelled in 2012 due to "conflicting artist schedules".

Phoebe Jacobs

Phoebe Jacobs was an American promoter of jazz musicians. She was associated with Louis Armstrong, she was born Phoebe Pincus to Hyman Pincus, a bootlegger, the former Beatrice Watkins in The Bronx. She began her career when she was 17 years old, obtaining a job at Kelly's Stables, a jazz nightclub based in Manhattan run by her mother's relative Ralph Watkins. While at the nightclub she came into contact with Billie Holiday, Nat King Cole and the arranger Sy Oliver. Oliver enabled her to get a job at Decca Records where she was responsible for contacting and hiring musicians for recording sessions; when Ralph Watkins became part owner of the Basin Street East, Jacobs followed him, working as a publicist and general assistant for the nightclub. For the major part of her career Phoebe Jacobs was an independent publicist for such prominent musicians as Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, Peggy Lee, Sy Oliver, Della Reese and Sarah Vaughan. A major part of her career consisted of working for the Rainbow Room, where she functioned as Director of Public Relations and Producer of Special Events.

In this position she came into contact with many prominent performers in addition to her own clients including Benny Goodman and Cy Coleman. She worked closely with Louis Armstrong during the last decade of his life as a public relations specialist. In 1969, she helped found the Louis Armstrong Educational Foundation and served as that organization's Executive Vice President and Director. In 1989, she was a co-founder of the Jazz Foundation of America, a nonprofit that provides support to musicians in need, she was a supporter of Beth Israel Hospital's Louis Armstrong Center for Medicine. Jacobs died in at Beth Israel Hospital in New York City. Phoebe Jacobs was married three times, she had two children, a son, Jerry Fella, a daughter, Susan Devens as well as grandchildren and great-grandchildren. The Phoebe Jacobs papers in the Music Division of The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts