A connecting rod called a con rod, is the part of a piston engine which connects the piston to the crankshaft. Together with the crank, the connecting rod converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into the rotation of the crankshaft; the connecting rod is required to transmit the compressive and tensile forces from the piston, rotate at both ends. The predecessor to the connecting rod is a mechanic linkage used by water mills to convert rotating motion of the water wheel into reciprocating motion; the most common usage of connecting rods is in internal combustion engines and steam engines. The earliest evidence for a connecting rod appears in the late 3rd century AD Roman Hierapolis sawmill, it appears in two 6th century Eastern Roman saw mills excavated at Ephesus Gerasa. The crank and connecting rod mechanism of these Roman watermills converted the rotary motion of the waterwheel into the linear movement of the saw blades. In Renaissance Italy, the earliest evidence of a − albeit mechanically misunderstood − compound crank and connecting-rod is found in the sketch books of Taccola.
A sound understanding of the motion involved displays the painter Pisanello who showed a piston-pump driven by a water-wheel and operated by two simple cranks and two connecting-rods. By the 16th century, evidence of cranks and connecting rods in the technological treatises and artwork of Renaissance Europe becomes abundant. An early documentation of the design occurred sometime between 1174—1206 AD in the Artuqid State, when inventor Al-Jazari described a machine which incorporated the connecting rod with a crankshaft to pump water as part of a water-raising machine; the 1712 Newcomen atmospheric engine used chain drive instead of a connecting rod, since the piston only produced force in one direction. However, most steam engines after this are double-acting, therefore the force is produced in both directions, leading to the use of a connecting rod; the typical arrangement uses a large sliding bearing block called a crosshead with the hinge between the piston and connecting rod placed outside the cylinder, requiring a seal around the piston rod.
In a steam locomotive, the cranks are mounted directly on the driving wheels. The connecting connecting rod is used between the between the crank pin on the wheel and the crosshead; the equivalent connecting rods on diesel locomotives are called'side rods' or'coupling rods'. On smaller steam locomotives, the connecting rods are of rectangular cross-section, however marine-type rods of circular cross-section have been used. On paddle steamers, the connecting rods are called'pitmans'. A connecting rod for an internal combustion engine consists of the'big end','rod' and'small end'; the small end attaches to the gudgeon pin. The big end connects to the crankpin using a plain bearing to reduce friction. There is a pinhole bored through the bearing on the big end of the connecting rod so that lubricating oil squirts out onto the thrust side of the cylinder wall to lubricate the travel of the pistons and piston rings. A connecting rod can rotate at both ends, so that the angle between the connecting rod and the piston can change as the rod moves up and down and rotates around the crankshaft.
In mass-produced automotive engines, the connecting rods are most made of steel. In high performance applications, "billet" connecting rods can be used, which are machined out of a solid billet of metal, rather than being cast or forged. Other materials include T6-2024 aluminium alloy or T651-7075 aluminium alloy, which are used for lightness and the ability to absorb high impact at the expense of durability. Titanium is a more expensive option. Cast iron can be used for lower performance applications such as motor scooters. During each rotation of the crankshaft, a connecting rod is subject to large and repetitive forces: shear forces due to the angle between the piston and the crankpin, compression forces as the piston moves downwards, tensile forces as the piston moves upwards; these forces are proportional to the engine speed squared. Failure of a connecting rod called "throwing a rod", is one of the most common causes of catastrophic engine failure in cars driving the broken rod through the side of the crankcase and thereby rendering the engine irreparable.
Common causes of connecting rod failure are tensile failure from high engine speeds, the impact force when the piston hits a valve, rod bearing failure (usually due to a lubrication problem, or incorrect installation of the connecting rod. The sideways force exerted on the piston through the connecting rod by the crankshaft can cause the cylinders to wear into an oval shape; this reduces engine performance, since the circular piston rings are unable to properly seal against the oval-shaped cylinder walls. The amount of sideways force is proportional to the angle of the connecting rod, therefore longer connecting rods will reduce the amount of sideways force and engine wear. However, the maximum length of a connecting rod is constrained by the engine block size. Radial engines
Guangdong-Hong Kong Cup 1993–94 is the 16th staging of this two-leg competition between Hong Kong and Guangdong. The first leg was played in Mong Kok Stadium on 9 January 1994 while the second leg was played in Guangzhou on 16 January 1994. Guangdong regained the champion by winning an aggregate 8–7 after penalty shootout against Hong Kong; some of the players in the squad include: Chan Sau Yin 陳秀賢 Chiu Chun Ming 趙俊明 Chan Chi Keung 陳志強 Yan Lik Kin 甄力健 Chan Wai Chiu 陳偉超 Lee Kin Wo 李健和 Chiu Chung Man 招重文 Sham Kwok Pui 岑國培 Tim O'Shea 奧沙 Ross Greer 基亞 Dale Tempest 譚拔士 Lee Wai Man 李偉文 Ng Chun Chong 吳圳聰 Some of the players in the squad includes: Xie Yuxin 谢育新 Kong Guoxian 孔国贤 Mai Chao 麦超 Li Yong 李勇 Lü Jianjun 吕建军 Ling Xiaojun 凌小君 Yao Debiao 姚德彪 Zhang Bing 张兵 Yu Weiteng 余伟腾 Ou Chuliang 区楚良 Peng Weiguo 彭伟国 Chi Minghua 池明华 Fan Zhiyi 范志毅 Xu Hong 徐弘 Su Maozhen 宿茂臻 Fan Zhiyi's sent off in extra time made him the first player to be sent off in this competition. Yan Lik Kin is the only player. First Leg Second Leg HKFA website 省港盃回憶錄
Nahko and Medicine for the People is a world music group. The six member group is headed by frontman Nahko Bear. Nahko Bear is an American musician. Born in Portland, Oregon, of mixed ethnic background which includes Puerto Rican and Filipino descent, he was adopted at a young age by a religious Caucasian family, it wasn't until his early twenties. The band's song. Bear says his creative inspiration is the desire to bridge cultural gaps, that he has been musically inclined since the age of six, when he started learning piano, he has worked as a piano teacher and music director. In 2012, he began traveling around the United States in a van with his dog. Other members of the collective include: Justin Chittams Joe Hall Patricio Zuñiga Labarca Max Ribner Tim Snider TJ Schaper Past members include: Hope Medford Don Corey Dustin Thomas Chase Makai Nahko and Medicine for the People have toured with Nattali Rize, Michael Franti, Trevor Hall, Xavier Rudd, SOJA. Nahko Bear has performed duos with Leah Song of Rising Appalachia.
The band appears at alternative music festivals, including the Greenbelt Festival, the ARISE Music Festival and Tour de Fat. Dark As Night On the Verge HOKA My Name is Bear "Wash It Away" "Lifeguard" "Slow Down" “Garden” Nahko and Medicine for the People. Me and Mr. Washington. A film by Grototote. Kosmo Mimzi. Retrieved 2015-05-14. Nahko and Medicine for the People. Budding Trees. Grototote + Mari Kari. Retrieved 2015-05-14. Nahko and Medicine for the People. Manifesto. Film by Dominik Walczuk. Grota Film. Retrieved 2015-05-14. Nahko and Medicine for the People. Black as Night. Grototote. Retrieved 2015-05-14. Nahko and Medicine for the People. Ghosts Embodied. Medicine Tribe Records. Retrieved 2015-05-14. Nahko and Medicine for the People. I Mua. Medicine Tribe Records. Retrieved 2015-05-14. Nahko and Medicine for the People. San Quentin. Max Moore. Max Moore. Retrieved 2016-10-30. ReviewsSalrin, Ellie. " ARISE: A look at the future of sustainable festival culture". The UNTZ. Retrieved 2015-03-19. Weiss, Brian. "Review: Nahko, Medicine for the People".