Connective tissue

Connective tissue is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, nervous tissue. It develops from the mesoderm. Connective tissue is found in between other tissues everywhere in the body, including the nervous system. In the central nervous system, the three outer membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord are composed of connective tissue, they protect the body. All connective tissue consists of three main components: ground substance and cells. Not all authorities include blood or lymph as connective tissue because they lack the fiber component. All are immersed in the body water; the cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes. The term "connective tissue" was introduced in 1830 by Johannes Peter Müller; the tissue was recognized as a distinct class in the 18th century. Connective tissue can be broadly subdivided into connective tissue proper, special connective tissue. Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue Loose and dense connective tissue are distinguished by the ratio of ground substance to fibrous tissue.

Loose connective tissue has much more ground substance and a relative lack of fibrous tissue, while the reverse is true of dense connective tissue. Dense regular connective tissue, found in structures such as tendons and ligaments, is characterized by collagen fibers arranged in an orderly parallel fashion, giving it tensile strength in one direction. Dense irregular connective tissue provides strength in multiple directions by its dense bundles of fibers arranged in all directions. Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage and blood. Other kinds of connective tissues include fibrous and lymphoid connective tissues. Fibroareolar tissue is a mix of fibrous and areolar tissue. Fibromuscular tissue is made up of muscular tissue. New vascularised connective tissue that forms in the process of wound healing is termed granulation tissue. Fibroblasts are the cells responsible for the production of some CT. Type I collagen is present in many forms of connective tissue, makes up about 25% of the total protein content of the mammalian body.

Characteristics of CT: Cells are spread through an extracellular fluid. Ground substance - A clear and viscous fluid containing glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans to fix the body water and the collagen fibers in the intercellular spaces. Ground substance slows the spread of pathogens. Fibers. Not all types of CT are fibrous. Examples of non-fibrous CT include adipose blood. Adipose tissue gives "mechanical cushioning" to the body, among other functions. Although there is no dense collagen network in adipose tissue, groups of adipose cells are kept together by collagen fibers and collagen sheets in order to keep fat tissue under compression in place; the matrix of blood is plasma. Both the ground substance and proteins create the matrix for CT. Connective tissues are derived from the mesenchyme. Types of fibers: Connective tissue has a wide variety of functions that depend on the types of cells and the different classes of fibers involved. Loose and dense irregular connective tissue, formed by fibroblasts and collagen fibers, have an important role in providing a medium for oxygen and nutrients to diffuse from capillaries to cells, carbon dioxide and waste substances to diffuse from cells back into circulation.

They allow organs to resist stretching and tearing forces. Dense regular connective tissue, which forms organized structures, is a major functional component of tendons and aponeuroses, is found in specialized organs such as the cornea. Elastic fibers, made from elastin and fibrillin provide resistance to stretch forces, they are found in the walls of large blood vessels and in certain ligaments in the ligamenta flava. In hematopoietic and lymphatic tissues, reticular fibers made by reticular cells provide the stroma—or structural support—for the parenchyma—or functional part—of the organ. Mesenchyme is a type of connective tissue found in developing organs of embryos, capable of differentiation into all types of mature connective tissue. Another type of undifferentiated connective tissue is the mucous connective tissue known as Wharton's jelly, found inside the umbilical cord. Various types of specialized tissues and cells are classified under the spectrum of connective tissue, are as diverse as brown and white adipose tissue, blood and bone.

Cells of the immune system, such as macrophages, mast cells, plasma cells and eosinophils are found scattered in loose connective tissue, providing the ground for starting inflammatory and immune responses upon the detection of antigens. There are many types of connective tissue disorders, such as: Connective tissue neoplasms including sarcomas such as hemangiopericytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in nervous tissue. Congenital diseases include Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. Myxomatous degeneration – a pathological weakening of connective tissue. Mixed connective tissue disease – a disease of the autoimmune system undifferentiated connective tissue disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus – a major autoimmune disease of connective tissue Scurvy, caused by a deficiency of vitamin C, necessary for the synthesis of collagen. Fibromuscular dysplasia is a disease of the blood vessels that leads to an abnormal growth in the arterial wall. Endometrium Fascia Parametr

El Capitan (train)

The El Capitan was a streamlined passenger train operated by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway between Chicago and Los Angeles, California. It operated from 1938 to 1971; the El Capitan was the only all-coach or "chair car" to operate on the Santa Fe main line between Chicago and Los Angeles on the same fast schedule as the railroad's premier all-Pullman Super Chief. It was the first train to receive the pioneering Hi-Level equipment with which it would become synonymous; the El Capitan debuted on February 22, 1938 on a twice-weekly schedule, using two five-car sets of streamlined equipment built by the Budd Company. Like the Pennsylvania Railroad's Trail Blazer, it offered "low-cost passage with high-speed convenience." The fare from Chicago to Los Angeles was $5.00 above the $39.50 regular coach fare in 1938. Conceived as the Economy Chief, the name El Capitan was chosen to commemorate the Spanish conquistadors. Unique in charging an extra fare despite being a coach train, it pioneered such features as "RideMaster" seats optimized for sleeping.

On its inaugural run the El Capitan left the main line at Williams and traveled up the Grand Canyon Railway to Grand Canyon Depot. In regular operation passengers bound for the Grand Canyon would connect at Williams. In its first year and a half the El Capitan ran at 80% capacity, superior to similar services. Reservations had to be made weeks in advance. In 1942 the consist expanded to 12 cars. Heavy traffic during World War II forced the Santa Fe to lengthen the train's schedule by two hours in July 1942. On September 29, 1946 the El Capitan began running every other day, departing Los Angeles and Chicago on odd-numbered days. Together with the Super Chief on even-numbered days, the two trains formed what the Santa Fe billed as "the first and only daily 39+3/4 hour service between Chicago and California." On January 25, 1948, one of the locomotives assigned to the El Capitan crashed through a steel bumper post and concrete wall at Los Angeles' Union Passenger Terminal, ending with the locomotive dangling about 20 feet above Aliso Street.

In 1948 the Santa Fe received additional equipment which permitted the Super Chief and El Capitan to start operating daily. The extra-fare charges were dropped from both El Capitan and the Chief on December 14, 1953. El Capitan was one of the first Santa Fe trains to use the Budd-built "Big Dome"-Lounge cars; these were soon given to the Chief, replaced by new double-decker "Hi-Level" chair cars developed by Budd and the railroad in 1954–1956. These experimental cars had a quieter ride, increased seating capacities, better views; the Sante Fe combined the Super Chief and El Capitan on January 12, 1958. The combined train used the Super Chief's numbers, 17 and 18, but the Santa Fe continued to use both names. On its formation Amtrak continued the combined Super Chief/El Capitan designation until April 29, 1973, when it dropped the El Capitan portion. Today the route of the El Capitan is served by Amtrak's Southwest Chief. Many Amtrak trains used a combination of refurbished former Santa Fe Hi-Level cars with newer Superliner railcars until the early 2000s.

The El Capitan debuted in February 1938 with two all-lightweight consists manufactured by the Budd Company. Each included a baggage-dormitory-coach, two coaches, a lunch counter-dining car, coach-observation car; the baggage-dormitory-coach had a small baggage area forward, followed by bunks for the train's crew and 32 coach seats. Both coaches seated 52 and featured men's and women's restrooms at opposite ends. In the observation car the restrooms were located forward, followed by 50 coach seats. During periods of high demand additional cars were added from the Scout's pool; the Santa Fe employed its experimental pendulum car. Between 1946–1948 the Santa Fe increased the length of the El Capitan and added new cars built during and after World War II; the new El Capitan included a storage mail car, baggage-dormitory, eight 44-seat "leg-rest" coaches, two lunch counter-dining cars, a club-lounge, a coach-observation car. Most of the coaches were built by Pullman-Standard; the reduced seating in the coaches was given over to improved leg room for passengers.

Between 1954 and 1956 the El Capitan's consist included the "Big Dome"-Lounge that replaced the mid-train club-lounge car. On July 15, 1956 the new, "Hi-Level" streamliner consist debuted. Santa Fe purchased enough "Hi-Level" equipment for five nine-car consists. Six of the railroad's older baggage-dormitory cars had a cosmetic fairing applied to the rear roofline to create the distinctive "transition" cars and maintain a streamlined appearance on El Capitan; the real transition cars were the 68-seat step down chair cars, which had a regular-height diaphragm at one end and a high-level at the other. The dining cars rode on six-wheel trucks due to their massive weight; the "Big Domes" were transferred to the Chief pool. As on many "named" long haul trains of the era, the rear of the observation car bore a lighted "Drumhead"; these signs included "El Capitan" in a distinctive logotype with the railroad's logo. Amtrak Southwest Chief Passenger train service on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway "Day Coach Limited".

Life. August 21, 1939. Pp. 48–55. Retrieved August 4, 2013. Abbey, Wallace W.. "Short hop on El Capitan". In McGonigal, Robert S.. Great Trains West. Waukesha, WI: Kalmbach Publishing. Pp. 60–65. ISBN 978-1-62700-435-0. Dorin, Patrick C.. The Super Chief and the El Capita

Pendleton, Lancashire

Pendleton is a small village and civil parish in Ribble Valley, within the county of Lancashire, England. It is close to the towns of Clitheroe; the parish lies on the north west side of Pendle Hill below the Nick o' Pendle. The village is just off the A59, Liverpool to York main road, since the construction of the Clitheroe By-Pass. Older roads through the parish include one from Clitheroe to Whalley which passes through the Standen area and another to Burnley which passes Pendleton Hall. Pendleton Brook runs down the centre of Main Street in the village; the village pub, the Swan with Two Necks won the Campaign for Real Ale's national pub of the year award. According to the 2001 census, the parish had a population of 203, however the United Kingdom Census 2011 grouped the parish with Mearley and Worston, giving a total of 349; the parish adjoins the other Ribble Valley parishes of Clitheroe, Sabden, Wiswell and Little Mitton. Higher areas of the parish, west of the village are part of the Forest of Bowland Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

The brief details of the Blackburnshire hundred in the Domesday survey, mention Pendleton with King Edward holding half a hide of land here. Wymondhouses was purchased in 1667 by the Nonconformist preacher Thomas Jollie, he had a meeting-place licensed in 1672 building a chapel, still in-use until the 1860s. Pendleton has an interesting history related to traditional folk customs and the witchcraft persecutions. A book was written on this subject entitled The Pendle Witches by William Harrison Ainsworth, published 1849. Doreen McGlashan, born Doreen Wilson, a Pendleton native states that as a child in the 1920s there was frequent talk of witches and witchcraft in the village, that she and her siblings were kept indoors on certain Saturdays because of "witches Sabbaths" happening in the town on those days, she recounts large May Day celebrations in her youth which included dancing around a maypole, states that as a girl she remembers "pretty girls" being suspected of witchcraft by the villagers.

Most all such folk beliefs and witchcraft stories have by now been forgotten or lost by the residents of Pendleton, except by people who possess family lore dating back to the early 20th century. Pendleton was once a township in the ancient parish of Whalley; this became a civil parish in 1866, forming part of the Clitheroe Rural District from 1894. Parts of the parish transferred to Sabden on its creation in 1904, however the area around Coldcoats was added in 1935. Since 1974 it has formed part of the Borough of Ribble Valley. Along with Wiswell, Barrow and Worston, the parish forms the Wiswell and Pendleton ward of Ribble Valley Borough Council. Richard Crawshaw Lord Crawshaw of Aintree was born and lived here until the start of the Second World War, 1917–1940 Nigel Evans, Conservative Party Member of Parliament Alan Fletcher, professional footballer Listed buildings in Pendleton, Lancashire Notes Citations Bibliography Lancashire Evening Telegraph, Tourist Guide to Pendleton Pendleton Conservation Area Appraisal