Seal brown (horse)
Seal brown is a hair coat color of horses characterized by a near-black body color. The term is not to be confused with "brown", used by some breed registries to refer to either a seal brown horse or to a dark bay without the additional characteristics of seal brown genetics. Like bay, the seal brown color is produced by the Agouti gene acting upon a genetically black base coat, suppressing the black into point coloration and allowing the underlying reddish or brownish color to appear; however seal brown is designated with the qualifier At The genetic study of seal brown is new. Several theories were advanced in the last century to explain the heredity of the seal brown coat, while a DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, the test was never subjected to peer review and due to unreliable results was subsequently pulled from the market; the genetically and visually related dark bay coat color, which features black points and a near-black body, differs from true seal brown in the absence of tan markings.
The term "seal brown" is to be distinguished from the term "brown." Another mimic is the liver chestnut, an all-over dark brown coat including mane and tail, sometimes confused with seal brown. However, true seal browns have black points characteristic of all bay horses, while liver chestnuts do not; the research behind the classification of seal brown as distinct from dark bay is quite new, as a result, opinions vary on what constitutes a true seal brown. In Equine Color Genetics, Dan Phillip Sponenberg wrote "In general, all dark colors with black points that are lighter than black but darker than bay are called brown." In this text, he classifies black-pointed, clear reddish coats of any shade as bay, black-pointed coats of any shade with black countershading as brown. These definitions, while precise, are no longer accurate in light of current research. True seal brown is best described as a black or nearly-black coat with reddish or tan hairs on the "soft parts": the muzzle, inner ears, behind the elbow, in front of the stifle.
Like other coat colors, seal browns can range in shade. The darkest are just about black except for their tan areas. Lighter examples are confused with dark bays; the mane and legs are always black. Non-horse people refer to many horse coat colors as "brown," in particular the bay color. Among horse aficionados, a common assessment is that "... is only used by people with one horse or with two hundred." The implication is that lay observers will refer to a horse's coat color to be "brown" due to a lack of vocabulary, those discussing large populations of horses will use "brown" out of a need for a more specific vocabulary. The term "seal brown" is unlikely to be part of a novice's repertoire and is therefore preferable when discussing this specific coat color; this coat color is, called "black and tan" in some languages. In the most simple terms, the vast majority of horses are indeed some shade of brown, but not "seal brown." Such coat colors include: Chestnut copper-red to liver-brown, without true black hair.
Bay, reddish-brown to quite dark-brown body coat with true black mane and legs. Both bay and chestnut may be darkened by the sooty gene. Buckskin, tan or gold body coat with the black areas of a bay. Dun tan with evident primitive markings. Silver dapples, sometimes called "chocolate", are found in brownish shades. Not all breed registries or studbooks recognize seal brown as a distinct coat color; the American Quarter Horse Association and American Paint Horse Association both recognize "brown" as a separate category, while the Arabian Horse Association labels all non-black, black-pointed shades "bay."Still other registries, such as The Jockey Club which registers Thoroughbreds and Appaloosa Horse Club, offer the designation "dark bay or brown" to cope with the ambiguity in terminology and identification. Among German breeds and registries, the term rappe indicates a black horse, braun is bay, while dunkelbraun indicates dark bay and schwarzbraun indicates seal brown. In France, seal brown horses are recognized among the "black coat family".
The presence of other coat color genes can modify a seal brown coat. The seal brown family includes: Brown Buckskin, is a result of the dilution effect of a single copy of the cream gene. Sometimes called smoky brown; the black areas of the seal brown coat are unaffected or lightened, while the reddish areas are more golden, may have lighter eyes. Brown buckskins are quite hard to distinguish from seal browns. Sable champagne, a result of the dilution effect of the champagne gene. Like all champagnes, sable champagnes have pinkish, freckled skin; the coat is a flat, diluted grayish- or purplish-brown, somewhere between the warm pumpkin tones of the bay-based amber champagne, the cool purplish tones of the black-based classic champagne. Brown dun, a result of the dilution effect of the dun gene. Like all duns, brown duns have conspicuous primitive markings including at least a dorsal stripe and darker points; the primitive markings of brown duns are black, the coat color is somewhere between the slate gray of a grulla and the peanut butter of a bay dun.
The appearance of a horse's skin and coat-color is determined by pigment chemicals called melanins. Two types of melanins are used by mammals, such as horses and humans: eumelanin, visually black to brown, phaeomelanin
The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae; the horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began domesticating horses around 4000 BC, their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses; these feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, the only remaining true wild horse. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, colors, breeds and behavior. Horses' anatomy enables them to make use of speed to escape predators and they have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight response.
Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep more than adults. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for 11 months, a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training in harness between the ages of two and four, they reach full adult development by age five, have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years. Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance. There are more than 300 breeds of horse in the world today, developed for many different uses. Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture and therapy. Horses were used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control.
Many products are derived from horses, including meat, hide, hair and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers. Specific terms and specialized language are used to describe equine anatomy, different life stages and breeds. Depending on breed and environment, the modern domestic horse has a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years. Uncommonly, a few animals live into their 40s and beyond; the oldest verifiable record was "Old Billy", a 19th-century horse that lived to the age of 62. In modern times, Sugar Puff, listed in Guinness World Records as the world's oldest living pony, died in 2007 at age 56. Regardless of a horse or pony's actual birth date, for most competition purposes a year is added to its age each January 1 of each year in the Northern Hemisphere and each August 1 in the Southern Hemisphere; the exception is in endurance riding, where the minimum age to compete is based on the animal's actual calendar age.
The following terminology is used to describe horses of various ages: Foal: A foal of either sex less than one year old. A nursing foal is sometimes called a suckling and a foal, weaned is called a weanling. Most domesticated foals are weaned at five to seven months of age, although foals can be weaned at four months with no adverse physical effects. Yearling: A horse of either sex, between one and two years old. Colt: A male horse under the age of four. A common terminology error is to call any young horse a "colt", when the term only refers to young male horses. Filly: A female horse under the age of four. Mare: A female horse four years old and older. Stallion: A non-castrated male horse four years old and older; the term "horse" is sometimes used colloquially to refer to a stallion. Gelding: A castrated male horse of any age. In horse racing, these definitions may differ: For example, in the British Isles, Thoroughbred horse racing defines colts and fillies as less than five years old. However, Australian Thoroughbred racing defines fillies as less than four years old.
The height of horses is measured at the highest point of the withers. This point is used because it is a stable point of the anatomy, unlike the head or neck, which move up and down in relation to the body of the horse. In English-speaking countries, the height of horses is stated in units of hands and inches: one hand is equal to 4 inches; the height is expressed as the number of full hands, followed by a point the number of additional inches, ending with the abbreviation "h" or "hh". Thus, a horse described; the size of horses varies by breed, but is influenced by nutrition. Light riding horses range in height from 14 to 16 hands and can weigh from 380 to 550 kilograms. Larger riding horses start at about 15.2 hands and are as tall as 17 hands, weighing from 500 to 600 kilograms. Heavy or draft horses are at least 16 hands (64 inches, 16
Equine anatomy refers to the gross and microscopic anatomy of horses and other equids, including donkeys, zebras. While all anatomical features of equids are described in the same terms as for other animals by the International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature in the book Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, there are many horse-specific colloquial terms used by equestrians. Back: the area where the saddle sits, beginning at the end of the withers, extending to the last thoracic vertebrae Barrel: the body of the horse, enclosing the rib cage and the major internal organs Buttock: the part of the hindquarters behind the thighs and below the root of the tail Cannon or cannon bone: the area between the knee or hock and the fetlock joint, sometimes called the "shin" of the horse, though technically it is the metacarpal III Chestnut: a callosity on the inside of each leg Chin groove: the part of the horse's head behind the lower lip and chin, the area that dips down on the lower jaw.
Sometimes used colloquially to refer to the root of the tail, below. Elbow: The joint of the front leg at the point where the belly of the horse meets the leg. Homologous to the elbow in humans Ergot: a callosity on the back of the fetlock Face: the area between the forehead and the tip of the upper lip Fetlock: sometimes called the "ankle" of the horse, though it is not the same skeletal structure as an ankle in humans. Forehead: the area between the poll, the eyes and the arch of the nose Forelock: the continuation of the mane, which hangs from between the ears down onto the forehead of the horse Frog: the elastic wedge-shaped mass on the underside of the hoof, which makes contact with the ground every stride, supports both the locomotion and circulation of the horse Gaskin: the large muscle on the hind leg, just above the hock, below the stifle, homologous to the calf of a human Girth or heartgirth: the area right behind the elbow of the horse, where the girth of the saddle would go. Withers: the highest point of the thoracic vertebrae, the point just above the tops of the shoulder blades, seen best with horse standing square a
Equine nutrition is the feeding of horses, mules and other equines. Correct and balanced nutrition is a critical component of proper horse care. Horses are non-ruminant herbivores of a type known as a "hindgut fermenter." Horses have only one stomach. However, unlike humans, they need to digest plant fiber that comes from grass or hay. Ruminants like cattle are foregut fermenters, digest fiber in plant matter by use of a multi-chambered stomach, whereas horses use microbial fermentation in a part of the digestive system known as the cecum to break down the cellulose. In practical terms, horses prefer to eat small amounts of food throughout the day, as they do in nature when grazing on pasture lands. Although this is not always possible with modern stabling practices and human schedules that favor feeding horses twice a day, it is important to remember the underlying biology of the animal when determining what to feed, how and in what quantities; the digestive system of the horse is somewhat delicate.
Horses are unable to regurgitate food, except from the esophagus. Thus, if they overeat or eat something poisonous, vomiting is not an option, they have a long, complex large intestine and a balance of beneficial microbes in their cecum that can be upset by rapid changes in feed. Because of these factors, they are susceptible to colic, a leading cause of death in horses. Therefore, horses require clean, high-quality feed, provided at regular intervals, plus water and may become ill if subjected to abrupt changes in their diets. Horses are sensitive to molds and toxins. For this reason, they must never be fed contaminated fermentable materials such as lawn clippings. Fermented silage or "haylage" is fed to horses in some places. Horses and other members of the genus Equus are adapted by evolutionary biology to eating small amounts of the same kind of food all day long. In the wild, horses ate prairie grasses in semi-arid regions and traveled significant distances each day in order to obtain adequate nutrition.
Therefore, their digestive system was made to work best with a small but steady flow of food that does not change much from day to day. Digestion begins in the mouth. First, the animal selects pieces of forage and picks up finer foods, such as grain, with sensitive, lips; the front teeth of the horse, called incisors, nip off forage, food is ground up for swallowing by the premolars and molars. The esophagus carries food to the stomach; the esophagus enters the stomach at an acute angle, creating a one-way valve, with a powerful sphincter mechanism at the gastroesophageal junction, why horses cannot vomit. The esophagus is the area of the digestive tract where horses may suffer from choke. Horses have a small stomach for their size, which limits the amount of feed that can be taken in at one time; the average sized horse has a stomach with a capacity of only 4 US gallons, works best when it contains about 2 US gallons. One reason continuous foraging or several small feedings per day are better than one or two large meals is because the stomach begins to empty when it is two-thirds full, whether the food in the stomach is processed or not.
The small intestine holds 10 US gallons to 12 US gallons. This is the major digestive organ where 50 to 70 percent of all nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. Bile from the liver acts here, combined with enzymes from the pancreas and small intestine itself. Equids do not have a gall bladder, so bile flows an adaptation to a slow but steady supply of food, another reason for providing fodder to horses in several small feedings; the cecum is the first section of the large intestine. It is known as the "water gut" or "hind gut." It is a blind-ended pouch, about 4 feet long. The small intestine opens into the cecum, the cellulose plant fiber in the food is fermented by microbes for seven hours; the fermented material passes to the large colon. The microbes in the cecum produce vitamin K, B-complex vitamins and fatty acids; the reason horses must have their diets changed is so the microbes in the cecum are able to modify and adapt to the different chemical structure of new feedstuffs. Too abrupt a change in diet can cause colic.
The large colon, small colon, rectum make up the remainder of the large intestine. The large colon holds up to 20 US gallons of semi-liquid matter, its main purpose is to absorb carbohydrates. Due to its many twists and turns, it is a common place for a type of horse colic called an impaction; the small colon is 10 to 12 feet long, holds about 5 US gallons, is the area where the majority of water is absorbed, where fecal balls are formed. The rectum is about one foot long, acts as a holding chamber for waste, expelled from the body via the anus. Like all animals, equines require five main classes of nutrients to survive: water, proteins and minerals. Water is essential for life. Horses can only live a few days without water, becoming dangerously dehydrated if they lose 8-10% of their natural body water. Therefore, it is critically important for horses to have acce
Show jumping known as "stadium jumping", "open jumping", or "jumping", is a part of a group of English riding equestrian events that includes dressage, eventing and equitation. Jumping classes are seen at horse shows throughout the world, including the Olympics. Sometimes shows are limited to jumpers, sometimes jumper classes are offered in conjunction with other English-style events, sometimes show jumping is but one division of large, all-breed competitions that include a wide variety of disciplines. Jumping classes may be governed by various national horse show sanctioning organizations, such as the United States Equestrian Federation in the USA or the British Showjumping Association in Great Britain. International competitions are governed by the rules of the International Federation for Equestrian Sports. Show jumping events have jumper classes and hunt seat equitation classes. Hunters are judged subjectively on the degree to which they meet an ideal standard of manners and way of going.
Conversely, jumper classes are scored objectively, based on a numerical score determined only by whether the horse attempts the obstacle, clears it, finishes the course in the allotted time. Jumper courses tend to be much more complex and technical than hunter courses because riders and horses are not being judged on style. Courses are colorful and at times, quite creatively designed. Hunters have meticulous turnout and tend toward quiet, conservative horse tack and rider attire. Hunter bits, crops and martingales are regulated. Jumpers, while caring for their horses and grooming them well, are not scored on turnout, are allowed a wider range of equipment, may wear less conservative attire, so long as it stays within the rules. Formal turnout always is preferred. In addition to hunters and jumpers, there are equitation classes, sometimes called hunt seat equitation, which judges the ability of the rider; the equipment and fence styles used in equitation more resemble hunter classes, although the technical difficulty of the courses may more resemble jumping events.
Jumper classes are held over a course of show jumping obstacles, including verticals and double and triple combinations with many turns and changes of direction. The intent is to jump cleanly over a set course within an allotted time. Time faults are assessed for exceeding the time allowance. Jumping faults are incurred for blatant disobedience, such as refusals. Horses are allowed a limited number of refusals before being disqualified. A refusal may lead to a rider exceeding the time allowed on course. Placings are based on "faults" accumulated. A horse and rider who have not accumulated any jumping faults or penalty points are said to have scored a "clear round". Tied entries have a jump-off over a raised and shortened course, the course is timed. In most competitions, riders are allowed to walk the initial course but not the jump-off course before competition to plan their ride. Walking the course before the event is a chance for the rider to walk the lines he or she will have to ride, in order to decide how many strides the horse will need to take between each jump and from which angle.
Going off course will cost time if minor errors are made and major departures will result in disqualification. The higher levels of competition, such as "A" or "AA" rated shows in the United States, or the international "Grand Prix" circuit, present more technical and complex courses. Not only is the height and width of an obstacle increased to present a greater challenge, technical difficulty increases with tighter turns and shorter or unusual distances between fences. Horses sometimes have to jump fences from an angle rather than straight on. For example, a course designer might set up a line so that there are six and a half strides between the jumps, requiring the rider to adjust the horse's stride in order to make the distance. Unlike show hunter classes, which reward calmness and style, jumper classes require boldness, power and control; the first round of the class consists of the rider and horse having to go around the course without refusing or knocking down any jumps while staying within the time allowed.
If the horse/rider combination completes the first round then they move on to the second round, called the "jump-off". In a jump-off, the rider needs to plan ahead of time because they need to be speedy and not have any faults; the jump-off has fewer jumps than the first round but is much more difficult. To win this round, the rider has to be the quickest while still not refusing or knocking down any jumps. Show jumping is a new equestrian sport; until the Inclosure Acts, which came into force in England in the 18th century, there had been little need for horses to jump fences but with this act of Parliament came new challenges for those who followed fox hounds. The Inclosure Acts brought fencing and boundaries to many parts of the country as common ground was dispersed amongst separate owners; this meant that those wishing to pursue their sport
Bay is a hair coat color of horses, characterized by a brown body color with a black mane, ear edges, lower legs. Bay is one of the most common coat colors in many horse breeds; the black areas of a bay horse's hair coat are called "black points", without them, a horse cannot be considered a bay horse. Black points may sometimes be covered by white markings. Bay horses have dark skin, except under white markings -. Genetically, bay occurs when a horse carries both a black base coat; the addition of other genes creates many additional coat colors. While the basic concepts behind bay coloring are simple, the genes themselves and the mechanisms that cause shade variations within the bay family are quite complex and, at times, disputed; the genetics of dark shades of bay are still under study. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but subsequently pulled from the market. Sooty genetics appear to darken some horses' bay coats, that genetic mechanism is yet to be understood. Bay horses range in color from a light copper red, to a rich red blood bay to a dark red or brown called dark bay, mahogany bay, black-bay, or brown.
The dark, brown shades of bay are referred to in other languages by words meaning "black-and-tan." Dark bays/browns may be so dark as to have nearly black coats, with brownish-red hairs visible only under the eyes, around the muzzle, behind the elbow, in front of the stifle. Dark bay should not be confused with "Liver" chestnut, a dark brown color, but a liver chestnut has a brown mane and legs, no black points; the pigment in a bay horse's coat, regardless of shade, is rich and saturated. This makes bays lustrous in the sun if properly cared for; some bay horses exhibit dappling, caused by textured, concentric rings within the coat. Dapples on a bay horse suggest good condition and care, though many well-cared for horses never dapple; the tendency to dapple may be, to some extent, genetic. Bays have a two-toned hair shaft, which, if shaved too may cause the horse to appear several shades lighter, a somewhat dull orange-gold like a dun. However, as the hair grows out, it will darken again to the proper shade.
This phenomenon is part of bay color genetics, but not seen in darker shades of bay because there is less red in the hair shaft. There are many terms that are used to describe particular qualities of a bay coat; some shade variations can be related to nutrition and grooming, but most appear to be caused by inherited factors not yet understood. The palest shades, which lack specific English terminology found in other languages, are called wild bays. Wild bays are true bays with pigmented reddish coat color and black manes and tails, but the black points only extend up to the pastern or fetlock. Wild bay is found in conjunction with a trait called "pangare" that produces pale color on the underbelly and soft areas, such as near the stifle and around the muzzle. Bay horses have black skin and dark eyes, except for the skin under markings, pink. Skin color can help an observer distinguish between a bay horse with white markings and a horse which resembles bay but is not; some breed registries use the term "brown" to describe dark bays.
However, "liver" chestnuts, horses with a red or brown mane and tail as well as a dark brownish body coat, are sometimes called "brown" in some colloquial contexts. Therefore, "brown" can be an ambiguous term for describing horse coat color, it is clearer to refer to dark-colored horses as dark bays or liver chestnuts. However, to further complicate matters, the genetics that lead to darker coat colors are under study, there exists more than one genetic mechanism that darkens the coat color. One is a theorized sooty gene; the other is a specific allele of Agouti linked to a certain type of dark bay, called seal brown. The seal brown horse has dark brown body and lighter areas around the eyes, the muzzle, flanks. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but the test was never subjected to peer review and due to unreliable results was subsequently pulled from the market; some foals are born bay, but carry the dominant gene for graying, thus will turn gray as they mature until their hair coat is white.
Foals that are going to become gray must have one parent, gray. Some foals may be born with a few white hairs visible around the eyes and other fine-haired, thin-skinned areas, but others may not show signs of graying until they are several months old. Chestnuts, sometimes called "Sorrels," have a reddish body coat similar to a bay, but no black points, their legs and ear edges are the same color as the rest of their body and their manes and tails are the same shade as their body color or a few shades lighter. Black is confused with dark bays and liver chestnuts because some black horses "sunburn," that is, when kept out in the sun, they develop a bleached-out coat that looks brownish in the fine-haired areas around the flanks. However, a true black can be recognized by looking at the fine hairs around eyes; these hairs are always black on a black horse, but are reddish, brownish, or a light gold on a bay or chestnut. Traditionally, bay is considered to be one of the "hard" or "base" coat
Vikings were Norse seafarers speaking the Old Norse language, who during the late 8th to late 11th centuries and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, explored westwards to Iceland and Vinland. The term is commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Norse home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age; this period of Nordic military and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia, the British Isles, Kievan Rus' and Sicily. Facilitated by advanced sailing and navigational skills, characterised by the longship, Viking activities at times extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, the Middle East. Following extended phases of exploration and settlement, Viking communities and governments were established in diverse areas of north-western Europe, Belarus and European Russia, the North Atlantic islands and as far as the north-eastern coast of North America.
This period of expansion witnessed the wider dissemination of Norse culture, while introducing strong foreign cultural influences into Scandinavia itself, with profound developmental implications in both directions. Popular, modern conceptions of the Vikings—the term applied casually to their modern descendants and the inhabitants of modern Scandinavia—often differ from the complex picture that emerges from archaeology and historical sources. A romanticised picture of Vikings as noble savages began to emerge in the 18th century. Perceived views of the Vikings as alternatively violent, piratical heathens or as intrepid adventurers owe much to conflicting varieties of the modern Viking myth that had taken shape by the early 20th century. Current popular representations of the Vikings are based on cultural clichés and stereotypes, complicating modern appreciation of the Viking legacy; these representations are not always accurate — for example, there is no evidence that they wore horned helmets.
One etymology derives víking from the feminine vík, meaning "creek, small bay". Various theories have been offered that the word viking may be derived from the name of the historical Norwegian district of Viken, meaning "a person from Viken". According to this theory, the word described persons from this area, it is only in the last few centuries that it has taken on the broader sense of early medieval Scandinavians in general. However, there are a few major problems with this theory. People from the Viken area were not called'Viking' in Old Norse manuscripts, but are referred to as víkverir,'Vík dwellers'. In addition, that explanation could explain only the masculine and ignore the feminine, a serious problem because the masculine is derived from the feminine but hardly vice versa; the form occurs as a personal name on some Swedish runestones. The stone of Tóki víking was raised in memory of a local man named Tóki who got the name Tóki víking because of his activities as a viking; the Gårdstånga Stone uses the phrase "ÞeR drængaR waRu wiða unesiR i wikingu", referring to the stone's dedicatees as vikings.
The Västra Strö 1 Runestone has an inscription in memory of a Björn, killed when "i viking". In Sweden there is a locality known since the middle ages as Vikingstad; the Bro Stone was risen in memory of Assur, said to have protected the land from vikings. There is little indication of any negative connotation in the term before the end of the Viking Age. Another etymology, one that gained support in the early twenty-first century, derives Viking from the same root as Old Norse vika, f.'sea mile', originally'the distance between two shifts of rowers', from the root *weik or *wîk, as in the Proto-Germanic verb *wîkan,'to recede'. This is found in the Proto-Nordic verb *wikan,'to turn', similar to Old Icelandic víkja'to move, to turn', with well-attested nautical usages. Linguistically, this theory is better attested, the term most predates the use of the sail by the Germanic peoples of North-Western Europe, because the Old Frisian spelling shows that the word was pronounced with a palatal k and thus in all probability existed in North-Western Germanic before that palatalisation happened, that is, in the 5th century or before.
In that case, the idea behind it seems to be that the tired rower moves aside for the rested rower on the thwart when he relieves him. The Old Norse feminine víking may have been a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers, i.e. a long-distance sea journey, because in the pre-sail era, the shifting of rowers would distinguish long-distance sea journeys. A víkingr would originally have been a participant on a sea journey characterised by the shifting of rowers. In that case, the word Viking was not connected to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas. In Old English, the word wicing appears first in the Anglo-Saxon poem, which dates from the 9th century. In Old English, in the history of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen written by Adam of Bremen in about 1070, the term referred to Scandi