British Rail Class 319
The British Rail Class 319 is a dual-voltage electric multiple unit train capable of operating on 25 kV 50 Hz AC from overhead wires or 750 V DC from a third rail. They were built by BREL York for use on north-south cross-London services. Built in two batches in 1987–88 and 1990, the units were used on the then-new Thameslink service operating from Bedford to Brighton and various other destinations south of London; the majority of the fleet remained in use on the Thameslink route after its reshaping and privatisation in 1997. Some of the fleet was used on various other services operating out of London Victoria, including flagship expresses to Brighton. Since delivery of new Class 700 rolling stock for Thameslink services commenced in 2015, the Class 319 units have been redeployed for use in the North West of England by Northern on newly electrified lines. Of the 86 Class 319s built, 41 remain in active service, 27 with Northern and fourteen with West Midlands Trains; as of April 2019, five units have been converted to dual mode Class 769s, with another 34 due for conversion.
Plans for north-south railways across central London go back to the 1940s at least, when there were several proposals in the 1943 County of London Plan which were developed further in a following report in 1946. The Victoria Line, which opened in stages from 1968, was one of the routes suggested in these plans, but reviving the Farringdon to Blackfriars route for passenger trains began to be considered in the 1970s; the British Railways Board developed plans for what would become Thameslink, the newly-created business sector of Network SouthEast inherited responsibility for the project in 1986. Services between Bedford, Farringdon and Brighton began under the Thameslink brand in 1988; as the Thameslink service was to use a route with 25 kV AC OHLE north of Farringdon and along the branch to Moorgate, 750 V DC third-rail electrification south of Farringdon, the Class 319 trains were equipped for dual-voltage operation, making them versatile. They were the first British Rail units to use modern thyristor control in place of a camshaft and resistor bank.
The body shape of the Class 319 is different from contemporary electric units due to restrictions in the loading gauge in Kings Cross tunnel, which meant that other dual-voltage units were not suitable. They were required to have emergency end doors in the cabs, due to the twin single-bore layout of Smithfield tunnel preventing normal train evacuation. Two sub-classes of Class 319 units, 60 Class 319/0s and 26 Class 319/1s, were built. Over the years, units have been refurbished. Class 321 passenger units and Class 325 postal units were developed from the Class 319 design, using similar traction equipment and the same steel body design, with revised cab designs; the first batch of 60 units, built in 1987–88, was classified as Class 319/0. Units had a maximum speed of 100 mph; each unit consisted of four steel carriages: two outer driving trailers, an intermediate motor with a roof-mounted Stone Faiveley AMBR pantograph and four DC GEC G315BZ traction motors, an intermediate trailer housing a compressor, motor alternator and two toilets.
Seating was standard-class only, in 2+3 layout. The technical description of the unit formation is DTSO+MSO+TSO+DTSO. Individual vehicles were numbered as follows: 77291–77381 and 77431–77457 — DTSO 62891–62936 and 62961–62974 — MSO 71772–71817 and 71866–71879 — TSO 77290–77380 and 77430–77456 — DTSOVehicles were numbered in two ranges, corresponding to units 319001–046 and 319047–060; the gaps in the number series were filled by the Class 442 units, built around the same period. DTSO featured a lockable sliding door between the driving cab and the first set of power doors and tip-up longitudinal seating to enable parcels to be carried securely; this facility was used and the sliding door has since been removed. Units 319001–013 are the remaining members of the 319/0 subclass. Built in 1990, this second batch of 26 units was numbered in the range 319161–186; the formation of the second batch of sets was similar to that of the earlier units, with the addition of first-class seating at one end of the train for use on longer-distance Bedford to Brighton services.
Like the first batch, standard-class seating was of a 2+3 layout in standard class. First-class seating was in 2+2 layout. Units were formed in the arrangement DTCO+MSO+TSO+DTSO. Individual vehicles were numbered as follows: 77459–77497 and 77973–77983 — DTCO 63043–63062 and 63093–63098 — MSO 71929–71948 and 71979–71984 — TSO 77458–77496 and 77972–77984 — DTSOVehicles were numbered in two ranges, corresponding to units 319161–180 and 319181–186. A more modern Brecknell Willis high speed pantograph was fitted. All 319/1 units were converted to Class 319/3 in the late 1990s. In the late 1990s, seven of the Class 319/0 sets were converted for use on Connex South Central express services between London Victoria and Brighton. Work carried out at Railcare Wolverton included new, lower-density seating, a disabled toilet, a special'lounge' seating area in the saloon space below the pantograph in the MSO, where stowage for a refreshment trolley and a small serving counter were fitted. Units involved were renumbered from the series 319014–020 to 319214–220.
They retain their low-density layout, but the lounge area has been replaced by standard seating since their return to use on Thameslink services. In the period 1997-99, Thameslink arranged for all of its 319/1 units to be conver
British Rail Class 423
The British Rail Class 423 electrical multiple units were built by British Rail at York Works from 1967 to 1974, although the MBSOs and TSOs of the first 20, 7701-7720, were constructed at Derby Works. They feature manually opening doors next to every seating row and were the last coaching stock built in this pattern for BR, they were found working outer suburban services in South London, rural services in Kent and Sussex, up to 2005 when they were replaced by Electrostar and Desiro units. The fleet had a lifespan of 38 years. 194 standard four-car units were built between 1967 and 1974, numbered 7701-7894. They were subsequently renumbered in the 1980s into the 30xx and 31xx series, in order to make numbers TOPS compliant. Between 1988 and 1990 the units were internally facelifted; the work involved fitting fluorescent lighting and public address equipment, rebuilding the MBS vehicles with an additional two bays of seating in space used for luggage. On refurbishment only the first 20 units were renumbered in the 34xx series.
All other units were renumbered in the order they were refurbished. All units ended up swapping motor vehicles on refurbishment - the additional work on these cars made the work take longer than that carried out on trailer vehicles. In 1968, due to a shortage of suitable stock for the Bournemouth electrification scheme, BR formed an eight-carriage 8Vab unit, no. 8001. The unit was formed of carriages from three standard sets, nos. 7739/41/42, plus a conventional locomotive-hauled buffet carriage. Three MBSOs were required within the make-up as the standard'TRB' was not through-wired for traction power distribution. In view of this the two MBSOs in the five-car portion had collector shoes fitted to one bogie on each; the unit worked on occasions with a 4-TC. Its normal running formation was with another 4-VEP to make a 12-car set. The'TRB' vehicle retained its gas-powered appliances so, unlike 4-REP buffet cars, was able to provide hot food and beverages while on diversions away from third-rail areas.
Adjacent MBSO 62203 had most of its doors locked out of use and tables fitted across them for the service of meals on a 2-and-2 basis. The unit was reclassified as Class 480 following the introduction of TOPS; the numbering of individual vehicles are shown in the table below. The unit was disbanded in 1974, following deliveries of 4Rep stock, but at least one of the original units was not reformed, as spare vehicles from the unit had replaced crash-damaged Vep vehicles in the meantime. In 1978, 12 units, nos. 7788-7799, were fitted with extra luggage racks and reclassified as Class 427 4Veg units. The units were renumbered into the range 7901-7912; these units were dedicated to the Gatwick Express services from London Victoria to Gatwick Airport. Externally these units were marked by an orange/yellow coloured band at cantrail level with lettering'London-Gatwick express service', they ran only with other 4-VEG units. In 1984 they were replaced on this service by Class 73 electro-diesel locomotives operating in push-pull with Class 488 coaching sets and Class 489 luggage vans.
The twelve units were converted back to standard sets, regained their original unit numbers. The numbering of individual vehicles and details of when units were built are shown in the table below. Following the privatisation of British Rail the three southern train operators all inherited large fleets of Vep units; the fleet of each franchise is described below. South Eastern Trains operated the largest fleet of 4Vep units; the franchise was operated as Connex South Eastern, which lost the franchise in 2003. The fleet contained several unusual units, included no. 3473, which contained a driving trailer with the compartments removed, no. 3582, which contained former 4TC driving trailer 76275. Many units survived into 2005 because of the closure of the Folkestone—Dover section of railway for tunnel refurbishment; this ended in September 2005. The final passenger service was operated on 7 October 2005, using units 3565, 3545 and 3568. Incidentally unit 3545 contained the first 4Vep MBSO built. All the South Eastern Trains 4Vep units have now been withdrawn.
One driving trailer from unit 3568, another from 4Vep 3545, have been claimed by the National Railway Museum, the former 4TC driving trailer from unit 3582 have been preserved. The Network SouthCentral division inherited a fleet of 50 standard Class 423/1 units; the franchise was won by Connex South Central, which soon applied its yellow and white livery to the fleet. However, following poor levels of service, the franchise was transferred to South Central Trains in 2000, renamed as Southern in 2004. Only one unit, no. 3514, was repainted in Southern's green livery. In 1998-1999, whilst still under the control of Connex, 19 units were modified to operate inner suburban South London "Metro" services; the work involved declassification of 1st class seating. The units were reclassified as Class 423/9 and renumbered in the range 3901-3919. Due to the lack of first class seating and toilets, these units were not used on long-distance services. In 2003, with the general run-down of slam door trains, it was decided to reform some of the 4Vop units by swapping one driving trailer with that from a standard unit.
The new hybrid units were reclassified as Class
Charing Cross railway station
Charing Cross railway station is a central London railway terminus between the Strand and Hungerford Bridge in the City of Westminster. It is the terminus of the South Eastern main line to Dover via Ashford. All trains are operated by Southeastern, which provides the majority of commuter and regional services to south-east London and Kent, it is connected to Charing Cross Underground station and is near to Embankment Underground station and Embankment Pier. The station was opened by the South Eastern Railway in 1864, it takes its name from its proximity to the road junction Charing Cross, the notional "centre of London" from which distances from the city are measured. During the 19th century the station became the main London terminus for continental traffic via boat trains, served several prestigious international services, it was badly extensively rebuilt. It became an important meeting point for military and government traffic during World War I. By this time, Charing Cross station was seen as out of date by some politicians and proposals were made to replace Hungerford Bridge with a road bridge or road/rail combination, with the station moving to the south bank of the River Thames in the case of a road-only replacement.
The station was bombed several times during World War II, was rebuilt afterwards, re-opening in 1951. In the late 1980s, the station complex was redesigned by Terry Farrell and rebuilt to accommodate a modern office block, now known as Embankment Place. Charing Cross Station is located at the western end of The Strand in the City of Westminster, east of Trafalgar Square and northeast of Whitehall, it is close to the Embankment Pier, providing river services along the River Thames. The railway leads directly out onto Hungerford Bridge and across the river towards the London Borough of Lambeth; the station code is CHX. It is one of nineteen stations in the United Kingdom that are managed by Network Rail and is the 14th busiest station in the country. A number of key bus routes run in the area, are designated "Trafalgar Square for Charing Cross"; the station was planned as the London terminus of the South Eastern Railway. They had wanted to extend the line from Bricklayers Arms towards Hungerford Bridge, but a bill presented in 1846 was unsuccessful.
In 1857, they proposed to Parliament that they would build a railway terminus in the West End, hoping to use Victoria, before reaching an agreement with the London and South Coast Railway to build a line west from London Bridge. In the year, the SER secretary Samuel Smiles looked for potential routes and decided the best location would be on the site of the former Hungerford Market adjacent to The Strand, that the line should be directly connected to Waterloo, allowing a link with London and South Western Railway services; the Charing Cross Railway Company was formed in 1859 in order to build the extension, the SER paid £300,000 in capital to help build this. The line towards Charing Cross was expensive to build as it traversed a built-up area, exacerbated in 1862 when the company chose to upgrade the two running lines to three, doubled the capacity over the bridge to four tracks; the bridge replaced the original suspension bridge designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel which opened in 1845. Work took around three years.
The old suspension bridge remained open. A trial run over the new line took place on 1 December 1863; the station was designed by Sir John Hawkshaw, featured a single span wrought iron roof, 510 feet long and 164 feet wide, arching over the six platforms on its cramped site. It was built on a brick arched viaduct, the level of the rails above the ground varying up to 30 feet; the space underneath the line was used as wine cellars. The roof above the tracks is a single 164-foot wide great arch, rising to 102 feet at its highest point. Charing Cross station opened on 11 January 1864; the Charing Cross Railway was absorbed into the SER on 1 September, shortly after the station opened. The Charing Cross Hotel, designed by Edward Middleton Barry, opened on 15 May 1865 and gave the station an ornate frontage in the French Renaissance style, it had 250 bedrooms spread over seven floors and extended along Villiers Street as well as the front of the Strand. The public rooms had balconies overlooking the main station concourse.
It became popular and was profitable, leading to a 90-bedroom annexe on the other side of Villiers Street opening in 1878. A bridge over the street connected the two parts of the hotel together. In 1887, Hungerford Bridge was widened to 48 feet 9 inches in order to provide three more tracks into the station. On 1 January 1899, the SER merged with the London and Dover Railway to form the South Eastern and Chatham Railway, which took over operations at Charing Cross. Contemporary with the Charing Cross Hotel was a replica of the Eleanor Cross in Red Mansfield stone designed by Edward Middleton Barry, erected in the station forecourt, it was based on the original Whitehall Cross built in 1291, demolished in 1647 by order of Parliament. Distances in London are measured from the original site of the cross, now the statue of Charles I facing Whitehall, not from this replica; the cross deteriorated over time until it was in such a vulnerable condition that it was placed on English Heritage's "Heritage At Risk Register" in 2008.
A ten-month project to repair and restore the cross was completed in August 2010. This work included recreating and attaching 100 missing ornamental features including heraldic shields, an angel, pinnacle
East Grinstead railway station
East Grinstead railway station is one of the two southern termini of the Oxted line in the south of England and serves East Grinstead in West Sussex. It is 30 miles 4 chains from London Bridge, although off peak trains run to and from London Victoria; the station is managed by Southern. The station was divided into two levels: the higher level platforms serving the Three Bridges to Tunbridge Wells Central Line, whilst the lower level platforms received services from the Oxted line and the East Grinstead to Lewes Line. Only the lower level platforms remain open today, the high level having closed in 1967 with the Three Bridges to Ashurst Junction line as part of the closure programme proposed by the Beeching Report. A third low-level platform has been constructed at the south of the station by the Bluebell Railway. Bluebell services began running south to Sheffield Park in 2013; the current East Grinstead station is the fourth to have been constructed in the town. Prior to the arrival of the railway, the nearest stations were 6 miles away at Godstone on the South Eastern Railway's Redhill to Tonbridge line and at Three Bridges on the London and South Coast Railway's Brighton line.
The first station to serve East Grinstead was built by the East Grinstead Railway as the terminus of its 6-mile-67-chain single-track line from Three Bridges. It was opened on 9 July 1855 in Swan Mead off the London Road, well-situated for the town centre, with the first train out at 12:12 pm. Constructed at a cost of £3,000, the station comprised a sandstone main building which survives to this day, as well as timber goods and engine sheds with slate roofs; the goods facilities were described in a specification as being equal to those at Hailsham railway station. There were two platform faces and the goods yard was on the up side; the first stationmaster was a Peter Nesbitt. The initial passenger service two on Sundays; the service appears to have exceeded expectations as the service increased to nine each way on weekdays, with three on Sundays. So well-patronised were the Sunday services that Reverend Woodington, the curate of East Grinstead visited the station to distribute religious tracts requesting passengers to "listen to the church bells instead of the railway bells."The journey time to Three Bridges was 20 minutes and the first train departed at 6:55 am for arrival in London at 9:15 am after a 43-minute wait at Three Bridges for a connecting service via the Brighton main line.
The fastest time to London was 1¼ hours achieved by the 4:00 pm down train, first-class only. As from September 1855, an additional mid-afternoon train was provided each way; this was increased to nine each way by 1862. The rail fare from East Grinstead to London was 3s third class; the line was operated from its outset by the London and South Coast Railway for an annual rental of £2,000 until January 1865, when it purchased the East Grinstead Railway. In August 1862 parliamentary approval was obtained for the 13.5-mile extension of the line to Tunbridge Wells West via Groombridge, with the new line forming an end-on junction with the Three Bridges line at East Grinstead. The extension required East Grinstead station to be relocated a few yards north at a lower level in a cutting to the west of the London Road at TQ392383 in order to allow the line to pass under the highway, it was reached by steps from the road by the bridge. During construction, the Surveyor of Highways of the Parish of East Grinstead complained to the Board of Trade that the station approaches were "inconvenient and dangerous" and that the road entrance for carriages was situated on the narrow bridge over the line.
Whilst the Board of Trade agreed that the layout was not ideal, it did not order any alterations save for the carriage access to the booking hall which it felt was cramped and should be modified "as soon as there are any complaints of horses being frightened by the steam and smoke of the locomotives which will come through the present opening between the overbridge and the station."The station building straddled the double track with basements at platform level which contained the stationmaster's office and porter's room. A large brick goods shed replaced the previous timber structure, whilst the site of the old station became a goods yard; the new station was opened for traffic on 1 October 1866, the old one closed the same day. The initial passenger service was poor, with only six trains each way and the withdrawal of three East Grinstead to Three Bridges services. Journey time to Tunbridge Wells was just under an hour. In 1869 annual season tickets to London were £32 first class and £24 second class, while returns were 9s 6d first, 7s 6d second and 4s 8d third.
A third re-modelling of East Grinstead station was made necessary by the arrival in the town of two lines: the Lewes and East Grinstead Railway from the south on 1 August 1882, followed by the Croydon and East Grinstead Railway from the north on 10 March 1884. The L&EG would approach the Three Bridges line from the south at a right-angle and the CO&EG would make an end-on junction with it, it was not possible to enlarge the 1866 station to accommodate the new lines and arrange the new station in the form of a Mitcham Junction or Polegate as this would have meant purchasing the adjoining timber yard, which the LB&SCR was not prepared to do. It was therefore decided to build a new station around 300 yards to the west which would be arranged on two levels; the main buildings were on the low level platform. The low level station was set at a
Watford Junction railway station
Watford Junction is a railway station that serves Watford, Hertfordshire. The station is on the West Coast Main Line, 17 miles 34 chains from London Euston and the Abbey Line, a branch line to St Albans. Journeys to London take between 16 and 52 minutes depending on the service used: shorter times on fast non-stop trains and slower on the stopping Watford DC line services. Trains run to Clapham Junction and East Croydon via the West London Line; the station is a major hub for local bus services and the connecting station for buses to the Harry Potter studio tour. The station is located north of a viaduct over the Colne valley and south of Watford Tunnel; the first railway station to open in Watford was situated on the north side of St Albans Road 200 metres further up the line from the present-day station. This small, single-storey red-brick building was built 1836-7 when the first section of the London and Birmingham Railway was opened between London and Boxmoor; the station provided first and second-class waiting rooms, a departure yard, a carriage shed and engine house.
The platforms were situated in a deep cutting, accessed via a staircase. In its 21 years of operation it served as a station for royalty; the old station closed when it was replaced by a new, larger station, which opened on 5 May 1858. The new Watford Junction station was located south of St Albans Road in order to accommodate the newly constructed branch line to St Albans; the junction station was rebuilt in 1909, was extensively redeveloped in the 1980s. The Grade-II-listed Old Station House still stands at 147A St Albans Road, a rare surviving example of architecture from the beginning of the railway age, today the building is occupied by a second-hand car dealership. In 1862, the Watford and Rickmansworth Railway opened a route from Watford to Rickmansworth. Now closed, this route began by running south and west to a more central station on Watford's High Street, which remains in use. From 1846, the L&BR was absorbed into the London and North Western Railway and Watford Junction was now run by this large, ambitious company.
Seeking to compete with local buses and trams, the LNWR built an additional suburban line from Euston to Watford in the early years of the 20th century, now known as the Watford DC Line. This veered away from the main line at Bushey to loop around Watford to pass through the High Street station. A second suburban branch line was built from High Street west towards Croxley Green to serve new housing developments in that area. Both branches were electrified as part of this improvement plan, on the same DC three-rail system; the Rickmansworth branch was connected to the Main Line via two through platforms with a junction to the north. At one time tube-style trains were used on the branches to counter the low voltage caused by the lack of a sub-station near Rickmansworth; the Bakerloo line was extended to Watford Junction in 1917, giving a shared service north of Willesden Junction with the main line electric trains which served Euston and Broad Street stations. However, since 1982 the line north of Harrow & Wealdstone has only been served by what is now the London Overground service from Euston station.
Oyster Card capability was extended to this station on 11 November 2007 on both the London Overground and Southern. It was extended to London Midland services on 18 November 2007. However, the station is outside London fare zones special fares apply. With the electrification of the entire West London Line in the 1990s, it became practical to run services from Watford Junction to Clapham Junction, allowing passengers to cross London without changing trains. Southern rail now operate an hourly service from Milton Keynes through Watford to East Croydon with connections to Brighton and Gatwick; the LNWR built a locomotive depot at the station in 1856, replaced by a larger building in 1872, further enlarged in 1890. It was closed by British Railways in March 1965. In 1984 the Victorian station buildings were demolished and the station was rebuilt in a modern architectural style with a travel centre and a large office block above the station, occupied by the lorry and bus manufacturing company Iveco.
Some 19th-century waiting rooms survived, but were demolished in 1987. To enlarge the car park and provide more space, the St. Albans branch line was realigned northwards, with the original St. Albans platforms becoming a single terminating bay now used by Southern services; the station forecourt was extensively remodelled in 2013. Due to problems with the road layout, buses were unable to gain access to the bus station, there were problems with access to the relocated car park. London Northwestern Railway are considering revising the design. Further redevelopment of the station and its surroundings is planned for the next 10 years, they may be delayed because the redevelopment of Watford Junction has been placed within the Pre-Qualification pool of proposed schemes by the Department for Transport. On 3 February
London Trams Tramlink and Croydon Tramlink, is a light rail tram system serving Croydon and surrounding areas in South London, England. It began operation in 2000, the first tram system in London since 1952, it is owned by London Trams, an arm of Transport for London, operated by Tram Operations Ltd. a subsidiary of FirstGroup. The network consists of 39 stops along 28 km of track, on a mixture of street track shared with other traffic, dedicated track in public roads, off-street track consisting of new rights-of-way, former railway lines, one right-of-way where the Tramlink track parallels a third rail-electrified Network Rail line; the network's lines coincide in central Croydon, with eastbound termini at Beckenham Junction, Elmers End and New Addington, a westbound terminus at Wimbledon, where there is an interchange for London Underground. Tramlink is the fourth-busiest light rail network in the UK behind Manchester Metrolink and Wear Metro and the Docklands Light Railway. In 1990 Croydon Council with London Regional Transport put the project to Parliament and the Croydon Tramlink Act 1994 resulted, which gave LRT the power to build and run Tramlink.
In 1996 Tramtrack Croydon Limited won a 99-year Private Finance Initiative contract to design, build and maintain Tramlink. The equity partners in TCL were Amey, Royal Bank of Scotland, 3i and Sir Robert McAlpine with Bombardier Transportation contracted to build and maintain the trams and FirstGroup operate the service. TCL retained the revenue generated by Tramlink and LRT had to pay compensation to TCL for any changes to the fares and ticketing policy introduced later. One of the factors leading to its creation was that the London Borough of Croydon has no London Underground service. Tramlink makes use of a number of National Rail lines, running parallel to franchised services, or in some cases, runs on abandoned railway corridors. Between Birkbeck and Beckenham Junction, Tramlink uses the Crystal Palace line, running alongside Southern rail services; the National Rail track had been singled some years earlier. From Elmers End to Woodside, Tramlink follows the former British Rail branch line to Woodside where the old station buildings stand disused, the original platforms have been replaced by accessible low platforms.
Tramlink follows the former Woodside and South Croydon Railway to reach the current Addiscombe tram stop, adjacent to the site of the demolished Bingham Road railway station. It continues along the former railway route to near Sandilands where Tramlink curves towards Sandilands tram stop. Another route from Sandilands tram stop curves on to Woodside and South Croydon Railway before passing through Park Hill tunnels and to the site of Coombe Road railway station after which it curves away across Lloyd Park. Tramlink follows the former West Croydon to Wimbledon Line, first opened in 1855 and closed on 31 May 1997 to allow for conversion into Tramlink. Within this section, from near Phipps Bridge to near Reeves Corner, Tramlink follows the Surrey Iron Railway, giving Tramlink a claim to one of the world's oldest railway alignments – Tramway Path beside Mitcham tram stop. A partial obstruction near this point has necessitated the use of interlaced track. A Victorian footbridge beside Waddon New Road was dismantled to make way for the flyover over the West Croydon to Sutton railway line.
The footbridge has been re-erected at Corfe Castle station on the Swanage Railway. In March 2008, TfL announced; the purchase was finalised on 28 June 2008. The background to this purchase relates to the requirement that TfL compensates TCL for the consequences of any changes to the fares and ticketing policy introduced since 1996. In 2007 that payment was £4m, with an annual increase in rate. In October 2008 TfL introduced a new livery, using the blue and green of the routes on TfL maps, to distinguish the trams from buses operating in the area; the colour of the cars was changed to green, the brand name was changed from Croydon Tramlink to Tramlink. These refurbishments were completed in early 2009; the tram stops have 35 cm above rail level. They are unstaffed and had automated ticket machines that are no longer in use due to TfL making trams cashless. In general, access between the platforms involves crossing the tracks by pedestrian level crossing. There are most being 32.2 m long. They are level with the doors and are all wider than 2 m.
This allows wheelchairs, prams and the elderly to board the tram with no steps. In street sections, the stop is integrated with the pavement. Tramlink uses some former main-line stations on the Wimbledon–West Croydon and Elmers End–Coombe Lane stretches of line; the railway platforms have been demolished and rebuilt to Tramlink specifications, except at Elmers End and Wimbledon where the track level was raised to meet the higher main-line platforms to enable cross-platform interchange. Thirty-eight stops opened in the phased introduction of tram services in May 2000. Centrale tram stop in Tamworth Road opened on 10 December 2005; as turnround times were quite tight this raised the issue of buying an extra tram to maintain punctuality. For this reason but to take into account the planned restructuring of services, TfL issued tenders for a new tram. However, nothing resulted from this. All
East Coastway line
The East Coastway line is a railway line along the south coast of Sussex to the east of Brighton, England. Trains to the West of Brighton operate on the West Coastway line. Both lines form a continuous route from Havant to Hastings; the train operating company Southern refers to the routes on this line as "East Coastway" or "Coastway East". The trains running under the East Coastway name serve stations between Brighton, Eastbourne, Hastings and Ashford, together with the branch line to Seaford; the long-closed branch to Kemptown used to diverge just east of London Road Station. The Brighton Main Line route to Eastbourne and Hastings, via Plumpton and Cooksbridge, shares the East Coastway line east of Lewes station, thus for completeness, the line from Lewes to Keymer Junction has been included on the route map. Not included here, but having their own articles, are the Newhaven & Seaford branch and Kemp Town branch; the route has Engineers line references: BTL, KJE1, KJE2, KJE3, WJB and TTH. PSC between Polegate and Stone Cross Junctions.
The Brighton Lewes and Hastings Railway was formed 7 February 1844 and received Parliamentary approval for the construction of a line between Brighton and Lewes 29 July 1844. Work was started by September, engineered by John Urpeth Rastrick, with the route crossing a valley with the London Road viaduct running through the South Downs to Falmer before descending to Lewes, with a station at Falmer; this section opened on 8 June 1846. By 27 June 1846 a single line extension was opened to just outside Hastings at Bulverhythe with an intermediate station at Polegate to serve Eastbourne; the following month the Brighton Lewes and Hastings Railway, along with other railways, merged to form the London and South Coast Railway. In November 1846 the bridge over the River Asten was completed and Bulverhythe station was replaced with Hastings and St Leonards station renamed St Leonards West Marina station. For a year all services from London travelled via Brighton until a spur off the Brighton main line was constructed from Keymer Junction to Lewes and opened on 2 October 1847.
On 14 May 1849, two branches from Polegate opened, one southwards to Eastbourne and one northwards to Hailsham making Polegate an important junction. Lewes has had its fair share of stations; when the rail first arrived at Lewes, a terminus station was built in Friars Walk. Trains running from Brighton to Hastings first visited Lewes Friars Walk station reversed out before continuing east. Platforms were built in 1847, known as Pinwell platforms, eliminating the need for reversing trains but were separate from Friars walk, a new junction station with four platforms was constructed and opened on 1 November 1857. Serving Brighton, Uckfield, Newhaven and Hastings, the station was rebuilt and re-aligned 32 years with the original route leading to the freight yards. Another junction station on the line was at Polegate. In May 1849, two branch lines from Polegate were built, one southwards to Eastbourne and one north to Hailsham. Although this was changed when the Cuckoo Line from Hailsham to Eridge was extended in 1880 and a new station was built 440 yards east and had four through platforms, the line to Hailsham was re-routed from the west of the station which eliminated the need to reverse trains from Eastbourne towards Tunbridge Wells.
Eastbourne station increased in size as a terminal station. The present station is the second station in the town, built in 1880 and which once boasted four platforms, a locomotive shed and an extensive goods yard. A branch line was built just north of the station heading east to the town's gas works and to the "Crumbles", an area of shingle, once used for ballast on the railway line; the next station in the area was Hampden Park, built in 1888 as Willingdon, after the parish of Willingdon. The junction north of Hampden Park is called Willingdon Junction, where the route diverges either east or west. A single line spur from Willingdon Junction to Stone Cross Junction was opened on 2 August 1871, forming a triangular junction between Polegate and Eastbourne and allowing direct trains to operate from Eastbourne to Hastings; this was doubled in 1862. The remaining 0.25 miles of line to Hastings were constructed by the South Eastern Railway in 1851 as a part of their line from Ashford to Hastings but the London and South Coast Railway – obtained running powers over it.
This three-mile branch, constructed in 1862, led to a ¾-mile-wide shingle bank known locally as The Crumbles. The LB&SCR used the shingle as ballast for its railway lines. Ballast trains ran until 1932. Other branches appeared on the line. Coal was transported to the gas works. In return it produced coke and was taken away and in 1926 a line was created for the Eastbourne Corporation Electric Works to transport coal supplying fuel to the bus garage and taking scrap metal away from the refuse destructor works; the branch saw its last steam engines in April 1960 and diesel shunting locomotives were provided for the work until the line closed in early 1967. In 1905, the LB&SCR introduced motor trains and unmanned halts between Eastbourne and St Leonards West Marina and new halts were built at Stone Cross Halt, Pevensey Bay, Normans Bay, Cooden Beach and Glyne Gap Halt. All apart from Glyne Gap remain open. All the lines, as far as Ore (exce