British Rail Class 508
British Rail Class 508 electric multiple units were built by BREL York works in 1979-80. They were the fourth variant of BR's standard 1972 design for suburban EMUs encompassing 755 vehicles and five classes, they have worked on the Merseyrail network since 1983, continue to do so, now refurbished by Alstom's Eastleigh Works. The Class 508 unit is now 40 years old, making them among the oldest units still in service on the UK mainland rail network, after the Class 313 and Class 507; the class was developed for Merseyside following extensive trials and testing of the 4Pep/2Pep stock built in the early 1970s. Testing of Class 313 took place on the Northern Line on Merseyside, using 313013/063 which were loaned from the Great Northern Line of the Eastern Region to Hall Road depot. Original plans were drawn up for 58 Class 508s to be constructed, although costing issues limited the eventual number to 43. However, following planning and building, British Rail decided to divert the 508s to work alongside much older first-generation 4Sub EMUs in the London Waterloo area.
The first unit was delivered to Strawberry Hill depot on 9 August 1979. Based at Wimbledon Park depot, they soon became problematic due to their non-standard dimensions and brake problems caused by leaf fall. Once a new build of Class 455 EMUs were complete, the Class 508s were sent to their intended home on the Merseyrail network. Driver training began at Kirkdale on 17 February 1982, the first Class 508 began service on the Northern Line the following month; the first Wirral Line service commenced on 8 June 1984, the Class 508s had displaced the Class 503 fleet by the end of March 1985. The fleet was working in parallel with the well-established fleet of Class 507 EMUs across the River Mersey, working on Merseyside since 1978. Delivered to the Southern Region as four-car sets numbered 508 001–043, all of the sets were reduced to three cars for Merseyside operation by the removal of one trailer and renumbered as 508/1; the individual passenger door controls were plated over. The spare trailer car from each set was incorporated into class 455/7 EMUs.
Carriage numbering is as follows: 64649-64691 - DMSO 71483-71525 - TSO 71526–71568 – TSO 64692-64734 - BDMSO Merseyrail operates 27 508s, which are used interchangeably between the Northern Line and the Wirral Line. They work the following services: Southport - Hunts Cross line Liverpool Central - Ormskirk line Liverpool Central - Kirkby line Liverpool Lime Street - New Brighton line Liverpool Lime Street - West Kirby line Liverpool Lime Street - Chester line Liverpool Lime Street - Ellesmere Port lineMerseyrail's fleet of Class 508 units are maintained at Birkenhead North TMD, with minor maintenance being undertaken at Kirkdale TMD; the units, when out of service, have stabling points at various sidings around the Merseyrail network. These can be found at the station termini and the depots, as well as at Rock Ferry station and Birkenhead North station. Connex South Eastern leased twelve Class 508s freed up by capacity reductions on Merseyrail services in 1996, for operation on specific Kent services.
Their main duties included London Bridge to Tunbridge Wells, Paddock Wood to Strood, Maidstone West to Three Bridges and Sittingbourne to Sheerness-on-Sea, as well as Grove Park to Bromley North for a short period. Units were based at Gillingham Depot. In September 2006 new operator Southeastern announced that a cascade of rolling stock would see Class 466 units replace the 508s on the Sheerness and Medway Valley lines in the December 2006 timetable. Following this timetable change the fleet was reduced to six serviceable units. There were five sets in'warm store' at Ashford Chart Leacon, one unit, 508212, was cannibalised to keep the surviving service units in operation, including the swap of its TSO coach with one from a unit that ran into a tree on the Redhill to Tonbridge Line. With the transfer of the Tonbridge to London via Redhill services to Southern, Southeastern placed its remaining 508s in store in December 2008. Silverlink leased three 508s from Angel Trains in 2003 for operation on the Watford DC Line to assist its fleet of Class 313 EMUs.
These were withdrawn following the delivery of Class 378 Capitalstar units. These three Class 508/3 units were modified by Alstom Eastleigh to designs provided by Interfleet Technology to make them inter-operable with Class 313 units, they were numbered 508001–508043. When they transferred to Merseyside they were renumbered to 508101–508143 and designated as Class 508/1 to avoid confusion with the numbered Class 507s; the Merseyrail 508s were refurbished in 2003/04, the first unit to re-enter service being 508110. The final unit to leave for the works for refurbishment was black-striped 508137. Southeastern units were renumbered 508/2 when they were refurbished in 1996. 508203, 205, 207, 208, 210 and 211 were further overhauled at Wabtec, Doncaster in 2007. Silverlink units were renumbered 508/3 when they were refurbished in 2003, modified to make them compatible with Class 313s for operation on Euston to Watford Junction services. Both Southeastern and London Overground have withdrawn their fleets for replacement - Southeastern has been able to cascade existing rolling stock to the Sheerness and Medway lines, while the London Bridge to Tonbridge via Redhill service has been transferred to Southern.
508/2 units 508201-508206, 508209, 508211 and 508212 as well as parts of 508207, 508208 and 508210 were scrapped at Eastleigh in 2013. 508/2 BDMSO carriages 64710 and 64720
British Rail Class 421
The British Rail Class 421 electrical multiple units were built at BR's BREL York Works between 1964 and 1972. Units were built in two batches, were introduced on services on the Brighton Main Line. Units were introduced on services to Portsmouth; these units replaced older Southern Railway-designed units, such as the 5Bel "Brighton Belle" units, 4Cor units. Towards the end of their life, with the increasing use of newer trains which were equipped with sliding or plug doors, these trains were known as "slam-door trains"; the fleet's lifespan was 46 years. The standard units contained only passenger accommodation, formed the bulk of the fleet, they were unusual in. Units consisted of two driving trailers, sandwiching the non-driving motor coach and an intermediate trailer. Units were built in two batches.'Phase 1' units were built from 1963 to 1966 for the Brighton Line, were numbered 7301-7336. These were followed in 1970-72 by the'Phase 2' units, built for the Portsmouth line, numbered 7337-7438.
The 4Big units were similar to the standard units, but contained a buffet car in place of the intermediate trailer. These units were built in two batches.'Phase 1' units were built in 1965/66, were numbered 7031-48.'Phase 2' units were built in 1970, were numbered 7049-7058. The 4Big fleet were classified as Class 420 by British Rail under the new computer numbering system introduced in 1968, Class 422; the numbering of individual vehicles and details of when units were built are shown in the table below. Units were facelifted between 1986 and 1993. In 1983 two temporary 8Mig units, given the TOPS classifcation Class 482 and numbered 2601–2602, were formed while the 4Big fleet underwent asbestos removal, they were used on the Portsmouth Direct line. Therefore, four standard'Phase 2' 4Cig units, numbers 7401–7404, were reformed with a conventional locomotive-hauled miniature buffet carriage; each 8Mig unit was formed by marshalling the RMB coach in between two units, one of, reduced to three carriages, with the removal of the intermediate trailer.
Thus in effect each 8Mig unit was formed of 4Cig + RMB + 3Cig. The formations of the units are listed below: These units were only used during the summer of 1983, after which enough asbestos-free 4Big units were available; the two 8Mig units were disbanded and the four 4Cig unit reformed. The 4Cig units have since been renumbered several times, as shown below: In 1992 four 8Dig units, numbered 2001-2004, were formed by semi-permanently coupling a 4Cig and a 4Big unit; the units were dedicated to London Victoria to Brighton express services, which were operated as the Capital–Coast Express. The 8Dig units were formed from four'Phase 2' 4Big units plus two'Phase 1' and two'Phase 2' 4Cig units. The'Phase 1' units, numbers 1901/02, were fitted with Mk.6 motor bogies. One of the'Phase 2' 4Cig units, no. 1875, had been part of 8Mig unit 2602. Unit formations are listed below: The units were disbanded in 1996, after replacement by dedicated Class 319/2 units; the various 4Cig and 4Big units were reformed and gained their original numbers, except unit 1875, renumbered to 1802.
Two units had remained in service until 22 May 2010, 3Cig units nos. 1497 and 1498, which were used on the Lymington Branch Line. These two units were withdrawn from service on 22 May 2010 and replaced by Class 158 Diesel Multiple Units. 1497 is now preserved at The Mid Norfolk Railway and 1498 is now preserved on the Epping Ongar Railway. The latter has had an extra carriage added to restore its original 4Cig formation. After rail privatisation in the mid-1990s the different divisions of British Rail were divided up into different franchises; the three former SR division – South-Eastern, South Central and South-Western – all operated 4Cig units, are dealt with separately here. South Eastern Trains operated a small fleet of three'Phase 1' and 22'Phase 2' 4Cig units; the franchise was operated by Connex South Eastern. All but one of the'Phase 2' units continued to carry the obsolete Network SouthEast livery. One unit, no. 1870, was repainted into Connex South Eastern white. The three'Phase 1' units were painted in white undercoat livery, since their use was only supposed to be short-term.
However, despite this, the units remained in traffic for seven more years, from 1997 to 2004. They were popularly known as "Ghosts" by rail enthusiasts. From 2003 units started to be withdrawn, having been replaced by the second batch of the new "Electrostar" units; the three'Phase 1' units had gone by mid-2004. The final unit, no. 1843, lingered on for several months longer than its classmates being withdrawn in mid-November 2004. All the SET units have been scrapped; the South Central Division inherited the largest fleet of 4Cig units. This included all remaining'Phase 1' units, 35'Phase 2' units, the four 8Dig units; the remaining few 4Big units were used on the former Central Division. The South Central franchise was won by Connex South Central, which applied its yellow and white livery to most stock. In 2000 it lost the franchise to the Go-Ahead Group. In 2004 this was changed to Southern. Four'Phase 1' units and eight'Phase 2' units received Southern's new green livery. In 1997 the remaining 4Big units were withdrawn.
Eight were transferred to South West Trains. The remaining eleven unit were rebuilt at Eastleigh Works, with compartments removed and opened out, the buffet ca
British Rail Class 411
The British Rail Class 411 electric multiple units were built at Eastleigh works from 1956–63 for the newly electrified main lines in Kent. These units were based on the earlier Southern Railway 4 COR design, built in 1937. Variants of the class 411 design included the class 410 and class 412 4 BEP units, which contained a buffet car in place of a standard trailer, they were used on services in Sussex and Hampshire. They were replaced by Electrostar units; the fleet's lifespan was 49 years. These units are the longest-lived BR Mark 1 EMUs. A total of 133 units were built, as two different types; the majority of units were'standard' passenger-only units, complemented by units containing a buffet car. The standard units contained passenger seating only, formed the backbone of the new fleet. 111 units were built in several batches numbered in the range 7101-7211. Units 7101-7104 were the prototype units, were followed by'Phase 1' units and subsequently'Phase 2' units. Units were formed of two outer driving motors cars with 2nd class seating in open saloons, sandwiching two intermediate trailer cars – one a corridor second and the other a First/Second corridor composite.
The 4 BEP units were similar to the standard units, but contained a buffet car in place of the second class open trailer. 22 units were built numbered in the range 7001-7022. The first two units were prototypes, were followed by'Phase 1' units and'Phase 2'; the 4 BEP fleet were classified as Class 410 by British Rail under the new computer numbering system introduced in 1968. The numbering of individual vehicles and details of when units were built are shown in the table below. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, British Rail recognised that the 4 CEP fleet was in need of refurbishment; this was carried out at BR's Swindon Works. Refurbishment included moving the guard's compartment from both the motor cars to one of the intermediate trailers. Many of the 4BEP fleet were converted to standard units, since the requirement for buffet cars had declined; the first refurbished unit was no. 7153, renumbered to 1500. This unit was experimentally refurbished in 1975 at Eastleigh Works. Following evaluation, the contract for the refurbishment of the rest of the fleet was awarded to BR's Swindon Works.
Subsequent refurbished standard units were renumbered in the range 1501–1621, reclassified as Class 411/5. Only seven 4 BEP units were retained and refurbished, being renumbered in the range 2301–2307, reclassified as Class 412/3; the remaining 4BEP units were converted into 4CEP units by replacing the buffet car with a standard trailer converted from conventional locomotive-hauled coaching stock. Between 1983 and 1986, several 4 Big units required extensive refurbishment. To cover their workings, four temporary 4 TEP units were created, formed of three carriages from a refurbished CEP unit, with an unrefurbished buffet car from a BEP unit; the units were renumbered in the range 2701–2704. They were based at Brighton depot and operated on the London to Hastings line; the units were disbanded by 1986, once the refurbishment programme was complete, were reformed as standard 4 CEP units. The unrefurbished buffet carriages were scrapped. Unit formation are given below: After rail privatisation in the mid-1990s, the different divisions of British Rail were divided up into different franchises.
The three former SR division. The South Central division, operated as Connex South Central operated 4 CEP units in the period 1995–1998. Three standard units were converted to Class 411/6 by fitting them with high-speed Mk.6 motor bogies. These units were renumbered into the series 1697–1699, they were chiefly employed on London Bridge to Brighton express services. However, as the units were non-standard in the SC fleet, they were withdrawn and transferred to South West Trains; the South Eastern division inherited the largest fleet of 4 CEP units. The franchise was operated by Connex South Eastern, but after Connex lost the franchise it became South Eastern Trains. In 1996, when the franchise was awarded, a fleet of 85 standard units were in traffic. Many of these were withdrawn from traffic, or transferred to the SW division. In early 1999, five units were converted to Class 411/9 3CEP units, with the removal of the second class open trailer; these removed trailers had not had so much work carried out on them at the time of refurbishment and many had become corroded.
This was necessary. A further 13 units were converted; the 3 CEP units were renumbered into the series 1101–1118. The Connex fleet contained two'celebrity' units; the first, no. 1592, was repainted by staff at Ramsgate depot into its original Green livery, to commemorate the final months in traffic for these units. The second, no. 1602, was the only 4 CEP unit repainted into Connex livery, after it received derailment damage outside London Bridge station, had to be repaired at Eastleigh works. Both of these units were popular with railtours and excursion trains. Withdrawal of units started in 1999; the original aim was to replace the 4 CEP fleet by 2000. However, poor reliability of the new units saw. By the end of 2002
Electric multiple unit
An electric multiple unit or EMU is a multiple-unit train consisting of self-propelled carriages, using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotive, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of the carriages. An EMU is formed of two or more semi-permanently coupled carriages, but electrically powered single-unit railcars are generally classed as EMUs; the great majority of EMUs are passenger trains, but versions exist for carrying parcels and mail. EMUs are popular on commuter and suburban rail networks around the world due to their fast acceleration and pollution-free operation. Being quieter than diesel multiple units and locomotive-hauled trains, EMUs can operate at night and more without disturbing nearby residents. In addition, tunnel design for EMU trains is simpler as no provision is needed for exhausting fumes, although retrofitting existing limited-clearance tunnels to accommodate the extra equipment needed to transmit electric power to the train can be difficult.
Multiple unit train control was first used in the 1890s. The Liverpool Overhead Railway opened in 1893 with two car electric multiple units, controllers in cabs at both ends directly controlling the traction current to motors on both cars; the multiple unit traction control system was developed by Frank Sprague and first applied and tested on the South Side Elevated Railroad in 1897. In 1895, derived from his company's invention and production of direct current elevator control systems, Frank Sprague invented a multiple unit controller for electric train operation; this accelerated the construction of electric traction railways and trolley systems worldwide. Each car of the train has its own traction motors: by means of motor control relays in each car energized by train-line wires from the front car all of the traction motors in the train are controlled in unison; the cars that form a complete EMU set can be separated by function into four types: power car, motor car, driving car, trailer car.
Each car can have more than one function, such as power-driving car. A power car carries the necessary equipment to draw power from the electrified infrastructure, such as pickup shoes for third rail systems and pantographs for overhead systems, transformers. Motor cars carry the traction motors to move the train, are combined with the power car to avoid high-voltage inter-car connections. Driving cars are similar to a cab car. An EMU will have two driving cars at its outer ends. Trailer cars are any cars that carry little or no traction or power related equipment, are similar to passenger cars in a locomotive-hauled train. On third rail systems the outer vehicles carry the pick up shoes, with the motor vehicles receiving the current via intra-unit connections. Many modern 2-car EMU sets are set up as "married pair" units. While both units in a married pair are driving motors, the ancillary equipment are shared between the two cars in the set. Since neither car can operate without its "partner", such sets are permanently coupled and can only be split at maintenance facilities.
Advantages of married pair units include weight and cost savings over single-unit cars while allowing all cars to be powered, unlike a motor-trailer combination. Each car has only one control cab, located at the outer end of the pair, saving space and expense over a cab at both ends of each car. Disadvantages include a loss of operational flexibility, as trains must be multiples of two cars, a failure on a single car could force removing both it and its partner from service; some of the more famous electric multiple units in the world are high-speed trains: the AGV in France, Italian Pendolino, Shinkansen in Japan, the China Railway High-speed in China and ICE 3 in Germany. The retired New York–Washington Metroliner service, first operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad and by Amtrak featured high-speed electric multiple-unit cars, see Budd Metroliner. EMUs powered by fuel cells are under development. If successful, this would avoid the need for third rail. An example is Alstom’s hydrogen-powered Coradia iLint.
The term hydrail has been coined for hydrogen-powered rail vehicles. Electro-diesel multiple unit Diesel multiple unit Battery electric multiple unit British electric multiple units
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generates about 120 hours of radio and television output each day, as well as online news coverage; the service maintains 50 foreign news bureaus with more than 250 correspondents around the world. Fran Unsworth has been Director of News and Current Affairs since January 2018; the department's annual budget is in excess of £350 million. BBC News' domestic and online news divisions are housed within the largest live newsroom in Europe, in Broadcasting House in central London. Parliamentary coverage is broadcast from studios in Millbank in London. Through the BBC English Regions, the BBC has regional centres across England, as well as national news centres in Northern Ireland and Wales. All nations and English regions produce their own local news programmes and other current affairs and sport programmes.
The BBC is a quasi-autonomous corporation authorised by Royal Charter, making it operationally independent of the government, who have no power to appoint or dismiss its director-general, required to report impartially. As with all major media outlets it has been accused of political bias from across the political spectrum, both within the UK and abroad; the British Broadcasting Company broadcast its first radio bulletin from radio station.2LO In 14 November 1922. Wishing to avoid competition, newspaper publishers persuaded the government to ban the BBC from broadcasting news before 7:00 pm, to force it to use wire service copy instead of reporting on its own. On Easter weekend in 1930, this reliance on newspaper wire services left the radio news service with no information to report after saying There is no news today. Piano music was played instead; the BBC gained the right to edit the copy and, in 1934, created its own news operation. However, it could not broadcast news before 6 PM until World War II.
Gaumont British and Movietone cinema newsreels had been broadcast on the TV service since 1936, with the BBC producing its own equivalent Television Newsreel programme from January 1948. A weekly Children's Newsreel was inaugurated on 23 April 1950, to around 350,000 receivers; the network began simulcasting its radio news on television in 1946, with a still picture of Big Ben. Televised bulletins began on 5 July 1954, broadcast from leased studios within Alexandra Palace in London; the public's interest in television and live events was stimulated by Elizabeth II's coronation in 1953. It is estimated that up to 27 million people viewed the programme in the UK, overtaking radio's audience of 12 million for the first time; those live pictures were fed from 21 cameras in central London to Alexandra Palace for transmission, on to other UK transmitters opened in time for the event. That year, there were around two million TV Licences held in the UK, rising to over three million the following year, four and a half million by 1955.
Television news, although physically separate from its radio counterpart, was still under radio news' control – correspondents provided reports for both outlets–and that first bulletin, shown on 5 July 1954 on the BBC television service and presented by Richard Baker, involved his providing narration off-screen while stills were shown. This was followed by the customary Television Newsreel with a recorded commentary by John Snagge, it was revealed that this had been due to producers fearing a newsreader with visible facial movements would distract the viewer from the story. On-screen newsreaders were introduced a year in 1955 – Kenneth Kendall, Robert Dougall, Richard Baker–three weeks before ITN's launch on 21 September 1955. Mainstream television production had started to move out of Alexandra Palace in 1950 to larger premises – at Lime Grove Studios in Shepherd's Bush, west London – taking Current Affairs with it, it was from here that the first Panorama, a new documentary programme, was transmitted on 11 November 1953, with Richard Dimbleby becoming anchor in 1955.
On 18 February 1957, the topical early-evening programme Tonight, hosted by Cliff Michelmore and designed to fill the airtime provided by the abolition of the Toddlers' Truce, was broadcast from Marconi's Viking Studio in St Mary Abbott's Place, Kensington – with the programme moving into a Lime Grove studio in 1960, where it maintained its production office. On 28 October 1957, the Today programme, a morning radio programme, was launched in central London on the Home Service. In 1958, Hugh Carleton Greene became head of Current Affairs, he set up a BBC study group whose findings, published in 1959, were critical of what the television news operation had become under his predecessor, Tahu Hole. The report proposed that the head of television news should take control, that the television service should have a proper newsroom of its own, with an editor-of-the-day. On 1 January 1960, Greene became Director-General and brought about big changes at BBC Television and BBC Television News. BBC Television News had been created in 1955, in response to the founding of ITN.
The changes made by Greene were aimed at making BBC reporting more similar to ITN, rated by study groups held by Greene. A newsroom was created at Alexandra Palace, television reporters were recruited and given the opportunity to write and voice their own scripts–without the "impossible burden" of having to cover stories for radio too. In 1987 thirty years John B
British Rail Class 375
The British Rail Class 375 is an electric multiple unit train, built by Bombardier Transportation at Derby Litchurch Lane Works, from 1999 to 2005. The class form part of the Electrostar family of units, which includes classes 357, 376, 377, 378, 379 and 387, is the most numerous type of EMU introduced since the privatisation of British Rail; these units form the basis of Southeastern's mainline fleet. These trains are owned by Eversholt Rail Group and leased to Southeastern for operation from London to Kent and parts of East Sussex; the first batch of 30 trains were fitted with both a pantograph and third-rail shoes for dual voltage, where the remainder of these trains have one coach in each unit with a recess where the pantograph could be fitted, allowing for future conversion to run on AC power from overhead lines. Although the units are operated on 750 V DC lines only, the class is numbered in the 3xx series which refers to AC operation; the option is available for the 375/6 units to be leased to a network which operates on 25 kV AC overhead lines.
Southern's Class 375 units have since been converted to Class 377. The Class 375 is the principal train used by Southeastern, replaced the life-expired slam door Mark 1 derived stock which came to an end of their useful lives on mainline services to Kent and East Sussex and which did not meet up with modern health and safety requirements. All the Southeastern units have been converted from Tightlock to Dellner couplers, but unlike the Southern fleet, the Southeastern units were not reclassified as 377s; the 375/8 and 375/9 sub-classes were built with Dellner couplers from new, a different pattern of headlight. The only noticeable difference from the Class 377 is that none of the 375s have an external CCTV; the Class 375 has GPS-based Selective door opening, so if the train is too long for a particular station, the doors which are overhanging the platform will not open. From August 2011, Southeastern has begun a minor refresh of the interiors of the units, with a full re-trim of the seating in the company's new purple moquette and the addition of new CCTV cameras.
The seats in first class have now been fitted with larger, more prominent seat bolstering to distinguish them from the standard class seats and the first class areas have been re-carpeted. In May 2015, unit 375301 was moved from Ramsgate Depot to Derby Litchurch Lane Works for a full refurbishment. On 16 May 2015, it was returned to the Kent depot wearing a new livery, similar to, but not based on the'Highspeed' livery carried by the high speed Class 395 EMU, with a more vibrant shade of blue on the saloon doors and bolder stripes to highlight First Class and Disabled areas. Internally, the unit has received new carpets and lino flooring, new table top covers and the grab poles, side panels and table legs have been re-powder coated; the existing seat covers have been retained, but were dry cleaned to provide a brighter, cleaner interior. This work will involve combining the two separate First Class sections on four car units into one section in the end of MOSL coach, it is intended for all class 375 units to receive this refurbishment between 2015 and 2018.
The original plan was for the first 50 units to be refurbished at Bombardier in Derby and the remaining units would be transferred for refurbishment at Bombardier Ilford. This plan did not go ahead and the 375/8s and 375/9s have started refurbishment at Derby. On 19 September 2015 the last 375/3 unit no 375310 went to Derby for refurbishment; the following week on 26 September the first 375/6 went to Derby for refurbishment. The final 375 to receive the refurbishment and gain the new blue Southestern livery was 375 920, returned to Ramsgate depot on 28 April 2018. On 8 November 2010, a passenger train operated by unit 375 711 overran Stonegate station, on the Hastings Line in East Sussex, due to low railhead adhesion in the leaf fall season and maintenance errors in respect of the train's sanding apparatus; the train continued to slide beyond the station for 2 miles 36 chains. Following the incident, Southeastern reduced the interval that the sand hoppers were to be refilled from seven days to five days.
On 24 November 2014, the front carriage of unit 375 611 caught fire from faulty electrical insulation pots at Charing Cross Platform 6. There were no injuries, though both the track and leading carriage required repairs, part of the rail being melted. On 26 July 2015, units 375 703 and 375 612 formed a train that collided with a herd of cattle on the line at Godmersham, between Wye and Chilham, Kent; the leading carriage of 375 703 was derailed. There were no injuries amongst crew on board. On 5 January 2018, unit 375 815 hit a fallen tree near Herne Bay. Though damage was sustained to the leading carriage, there were no injuries. On 24 October 2018, shortly before midnight unit 375 301 leading 375 906 hit a car abandoned on a level crossing between Teynham and Faversham; the car caught fire, driver subsequently arrested, while the leading carriage of 375 301 sustained damage to its corridor and coupling. Charing Cross/Cannon Street – Tunbridge Wells and Hastings fast services Charing Cross/Cannon Street – Dover Priory and Ramsgate via Ashford International.
Victoria – Ramsgate and Dover Priory via Chatham Cannon Street - Ramsgate/Broadstairs via Chatham Electrostars work the following outer suburban Southeastern routes interchangeably with Class 465/9 units: Charing Cross/Cannon Street – Tunbridge Wells Victoria – Canterbury West, via Ashford International and Maidstone East, Victoria - Dover Priory via Denmark Hill and Gillingham Victoria - Canterbury East/Favers
Cannon Street station
Cannon Street station known as London Cannon Street, is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in Travelcard zone 1 located on Cannon Street in the City of London and managed by Network Rail. It is one of two London termini of the South Eastern main line, the other being Charing Cross, while the Underground station is on the Circle and District lines, between Monument and Mansion House; the station runs services by Southeastern catering for commuters in southeast London and Kent, with occasional services further into the latter. The station was built on a site of the medieval steelyard, the trading base in England of the Hanseatic League, it was built by the South Eastern Railway in order to have a railway terminal in the City and compete with their rivals, the London and Dover Railway. The City location of the station necessitated a new bridge across the River Thames, constructed between 1863 and 1866; the station was a stop for continental services from Charing Cross, that route was convenient for travel between the City and the West End, until the construction of the District Railway.
It remained popular with commuters, though its off-peak services were discontinued in the early 20th century, leading to it being closed on Sundays for 100 years. The original hotel on the station was unsuccessful, closed; the station was controversially renovated in the late 1950s by John Poulson, while further construction on top of the station building occurred during the City's 1980s property boom. The Poulson building was replaced in 2007 as part of a general renovation of the station to make it more accessible; as part of the Thameslink Programme development in the 2010s, it was re-opened on Sundays and began to offer more long-distance services in place of Charing Cross. Cannon Street is a terminal station, approached across the River Thames by the Cannon Street Railway Bridge, its approach by rail is by a triangular connection to both London Charing Cross. It is one of eighteen stations in the country. There were eight platforms, it has Dowgate Hill. It is located near the London Stone, once used as the place from which all distances in Roman Britain were measured.
London Buses routes 15, 17, 521 and heritage route 15H and night routes N15 and N199 serve the station. Cannon Street Station was built on a site where the Hanseatic merchants' steelyard was based from the 10th century until 1598; the site was proposed in 1860 by the South Eastern Railway in response to their rivals, the London, Chatham & Dover Railway, extending a line into the City of London as far north as Ludgate Hill. The SER had made plans to extend their line towards Charing Cross, but decided that they should complement this with a terminus in the City. In 1861, the company obtained an act for a station in Cannon Street, a short distance from Mansion House and the Bank of England. In addition to taking traffic from the LC&DR, the new station would provide a direct railway link between the City and the West End, over which a journey could be made in a fraction of the time taken travelling by road; the approach was a 60-chain branch of the line to Charing Cross, west of London Bridge. Work started on the station and its approach in July 1863.
The station was opened on 1 September 1866 at a cost of £4 million. The original building was designed by Sir John Hawkshaw and John Wolfe-Barry and was characterised by its two Christopher Wren-style towers, 23 ft square and 135 ft high, which faced on to the River Thames; the towers supported an iron train shed, 700 ft long and crowned by a high single arch semicircular, of glass and iron. The station is carried over Upper Thames Street on a brick viaduct, 700 ft long and containing 27 million bricks. Below this viaduct, there are the remains of a number of Roman buildings, which form a scheduled ancient monument. Between 1872 and 1877, the bridge was opened to pedestrians; the five-storey City Terminus Hotel, which fronted the station, was opened in May 1867. It was an Italianate style hotel and forecourt, designed by E. M. Barry, it provided many of the station's passenger facilities, as well as an appropriate architectural frontispiece to the street; this arrangement was similar to that put in place at Charing Cross.
The hotel was not profitable, was over £47,000 in debt by 1870. The City Terminus Hotel was renamed the Cannon Street Hotel in 1879. In July 1920, the hotel was the first meeting point of the Communist Party of Great Britain. Most of the hotel was closed in 1931; the rest were renamed Southern House. Upon opening, Cannon Street Station was a stopping point for all services to and from Charing Cross, including boat trains to Continental Europe. A shuttle service between the two stations ran every 20 minutes and became a popular way of travelling between the City and the West End. However, the opening of the District Railway as far as Blackfriars caused traffic to drop off, its extension to Mansion House the following year reduced it further; the SER's route could not compete with the Underground, more direct and reliable, but suburban traffic to Cannon Street remained popular, the bridge was widened to 120 feet in the late 1880s, allowing ten tracks with sidings. The rebuilt bridge was opened on 13 February 1892.
The signal boxes outside the station were upgraded the following year. The London and Southwestern Railway became inte