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Conrad I of Germany

Conrad I, called the Younger, was the king of East Francia from 911 to 918. He was the first king not of the Carolingian dynasty, the first to be elected by the nobility and the first to be anointed, he was chosen as the king by the rulers of the East Frankish stem duchies after the death of young king Louis the Child. Ethnically Frankish, prior to this election he had ruled the Duchy of Franconia from 906. Conrad was the son of duke Conrad of Thuringia and his wife Glismut related to Ota, wife of the Carolingian emperor Arnulf of Carinthia and mother of Louis the Child; the Conradines, counts in the Franconian Lahngau region, had been loyal supporters of the Carolingians. At the same time, they competed vigorously for predominance in Franconia with the sons of the Babenbergian duke Henry of Franconia at Bamberg Castle. In 906 the two parties battled each other near Fritzlar. Conrad the Elder was killed. King Louis the Child took the Conradines' side and the third Babenbergian brother Adalbert was arrested and executed shortly thereafter, despite a promise of safe conduct by the king's chancellor, Archbishop Hatto I of Mainz.

Conrad became the undisputed duke of all Franconia. He failed in his attempts to extend the rule of Conradines over the western Lotharingia after the death of his uncle, duke Gebhard. After the death of Louis the Child, Conrad was elected king of East Francia on 10 November 911 at Forchheim by the rulers of Saxony and Bavaria; the dukes prevented the succession to the throne of Louis' Carolingian relative Charles the Simple, king of West Francia. They chose the Conradine scion, maternally related to the late king. Only Conrad's rival, duke of Lotharingia refused to give him his allegiance and joined West Francia; because Conrad I was one of the dukes, he found it hard to establish his authority over them. Duke Henry of Saxony was in rebellion against Conrad I until 915 and the struggle against Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria cost Conrad I his life. Burchard II, Duke of Swabia received more autonomy. Arnulf of Bavaria called on Magyars for assistance in his uprising, when defeated, fled to Magyar lands.

For this he was condemned to death as a traitor. In 913 Conrad I married the sister of the Swabian count Erchanger, grandson of king Louis the German. Cunigunde, widow of Liutpold and mother of Duke Arnulf of Bavaria, gave him two children: Cunigunda and Herman, both born in 913. In 913 Erchanger revolted against Conrad I. In 914 He captured Solomon III, Bishop of Constance, Conrad’s chief counselor. Erchanger still managed to defeat royal army in a battle near Lake Constance, he was arrested for treason in assembly of nobles at Hohenaltheim in Swabia and on 21 January 917 was executed together with his brother Berthold. Conrad's reign was a continuous and unsuccessful struggle to uphold the power of king against the growing power of the local dukes, his military campaigns against Charles the Simple to regain Lotharingia and the Imperial city of Aachen were failures. Archbishop Ratbod of Trier became West Frankish chancellor in 913. Conrad's realm was exposed to the continuous raids of the Magyars since the disastrous defeat of the Bavarian forces at the 907 Battle of Pressburg, leading to a considerable decline in his authority.

His attempt to mobilize the East Frankish episcopate led by Archbishop Unni of Bremen to his cause at the 916 synod of Hohenaltheim was not enough to compensate other failures. After several clashes, Conrad at least was able to come to terms with duke Henry of Saxony; the restless Swabian dukes Erchanger and Burchard II were a continuous threat, as was Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria. Injured at one of his battles with Arnulf, Conrad died on 23 December 918 at his residence in Weilburg Castle, he was buried in Fulda Cathedral. According to the Res gestae saxonicae by the chronicler Widukind of Corvey, Conrad on his deathbed persuaded his younger brother Eberhard of Franconia to offer the royal crown to Henry the Fowler, the duke of Saxony and one of his principal opponents, since he considered Henry to be the only duke capable of holding the kingdom together in the face of internal rivalries among the dukes and the continuous Magyar raids, it was not until May 919, when Eberhard and the other Frankish nobles accepted Conrad's advice, Henry was elected king as Henry I at the Reichstag of Fritzlar.

Kingship now changed from Franks to Saxons, who had suffered during the conquests of Charlemagne and were proud of their identity. Eberhard succeeded Conrad as duke of Franconia, he was killed in 939 at the Battle of Andernach during his rebellion against emperor Otto I, whereafter the duchy of Franconia became a direct Imperial possession of the Ottonian dynasty until 1024

Henry Milford

Henry John Bede Milford was a politician in Queensland, Australia. He was a Member of both the New South Wales Legislative Assembly and the Queensland Legislative Assembly. Born 1833, Milford moved to Sydney, Australia with his family in 1843, Milford became an articled clerk before being admitted as a solicitor in 1855, he practiced in Sydney until 1867. He had 3 sons and 1 daughter, he represented the Electoral district of Braidwood in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly from 3 February 1864 to 10 November 1864. He represented the Electoral district of Rockhampton from 6 December 1869 to 7 June 1870. Winning the seat in a by-election, he resigned before taking his seat. Milford died on the 29 February 1888 and, according to the Charters Towers Daily Herald, he died of "excess drink and exposure"

Mule (disambiguation)

A mule is the offspring of a female horse and a male donkey. Mule, Mules, MULE or The Mule can refer to: Mule, in British sheep farming, a cross between a meat ram and a hardy mountain ewe Mule deer, a North American species of deer with large mule-like ears Mules, hybrid British finches, such as of a goldfinch and a canary Mule, a character in Isaac Asimov's Foundation Series Taurean Mule, an intermediate ship in the TradeWars 2002 universe The Mule known as Border Run, a 2012 film starring Sharon Stone The Mule, a 2014 Australian film starring Hugo Weaving, Angus Sampson, John Noble The Mule, a 2018 American film starring and directed by Clint Eastwood Mule, a 1990 album by Alice Donut Mule, an American punk blues band fronted by P. Long "Mule", a song by Agoraphobic Nosebleed from the 7" single Agoraphobic Nosebleed "Mule", a song by Gov't Mule from the album Gov't Mule "The Mule", a song by Deep Purple from the album Fireball "The Mule", a song by The Magic Numbers from the album The Magic Numbers Mule, a non-profit, Manchester-based independent media project M.

U. L. E. A 1983 multiplayer video game Pure Mule, a 2005 Irish six-part drama mini-series The Mule, a 1960s dance fad "The Mule", a Hugo Award-winning novella republished as the second half of the novel Foundation and Empire Mule, a list of people Mule, a list of people with the last name Mule or Mules Mule, Norway, a village in Levanger municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway Mule Island, Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica Mule Keys, a group of scattered islets in the Florida Keys Mule Key, easternmost of the islets Mule Lake, a lake in Minnesota Mule Mountains, Riverside County, California Mule Mountains, Cochise County, Arizona Mule Peninsula, Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica Mule Point, Kemp Land, Antarctica Mule Town, Ohio, an unincorporated community Mule, an open source Java-based Enterprise Service Bus MULE, the MUltiLingual Extension to Emacs allowing editing text written in multiple languages Mules, the sports teams of Leilehua High School, Hawaii Mules, the sports teams of Muhlenberg College, Pennsylvania Central Missouri Mules and Jennies, the sports teams of the University of Central Missouri Colby Mules, the sports teams of Colby College, in Waterville, Maine New Britain Mules, a 1930s American Basketball League team Newark Bears, an American Basketball League team renamed the Newark Mules for the 1934 season.

S. Military M274 Truck, Utility 1/2 Ton, 4X4, a 4-wheel drive military vehicle Mules, two passenger trains which ran between St. Louis and Kansas City, Missouri Development mule, a vehicle equipped with experimental or prototype components for testing Maultier, a series of German World War II half-tracks Multifunctional Utility/Logistics and Equipment vehicle, an unmanned six-wheeled vehicle Mule, a coin or medal minted with obverse and reverse designs not seen on the same piece Mule, a type of shoe or slipper without a back Mule, a smuggler of contraband Moscow mule, a drink make of vodka, ginger beer, lime juice Spinning mule or Crompton's mule, a textile spinning technology created by Samuel Crompton in 1779 eMule, a peer-to-peer file sharing application for Microsoft Windows Mul Mulesing, a controversial Australian procedure which aims to reduce fly-strike in sheep by removing folds of skin around the tail

James Cotterill

James Cotterill is a former professional footballer. He plays as a central defender for Handsworth Parramore, he began his career at Scunthorpe United, was released in 2003 after making 24 appearances for the first team. Following this, Cotterill joined Barrow in August 2003, where he remained until December 2006, he made 115 appearances in all competitions for Barrow. On 1 March 2007, two weeks after his release from prison, Cotterill joined Northern Premier League side Ossett Town. During the 2007/08 season he joined Ossett's ex manager Steve Kittrick at local rivals Guiseley A. F. C.. He joined Bradford Park Avenue on a short-term loan in November 2010 making two appearances for the club, he left Guiseley in February 2011 to look for regular first team football. He re-signed for Ossett Town. On 11 November 2006, during an FA Cup first round match between Barrow and Bristol Rovers, Cotterill was involved in an off the ball incident with Rovers player Sean Rigg. Cotterill was seen to punch Rigg in the face, leaving him with a double fracture of the jaw, screened that evening on Match of the Day.

After the incident, Rigg was only able to eat with a teaspoon and drink through a straw, his treatment involved the insertion of two metal plates into his jaw, which will remain permanently. Cotterill was banned from all football activity by The FA until March 2007, on 11 January 2007 he was jailed for four months after pleading guilty to causing grievous bodily harm. An appeal to free Cotterill had failed, however, he was soon released from prison on 14 February 2007 although he was forced to wear an electronic tag in his home town Barnsley until 11 March 2007. Hoping to re-build his life, Cotterill thanked the Barrow fans who helped release him. Cotterill apologised to Sean Rigg saying he "never intended to hurt Sean". After Cotterill's sentence had been passed, Barrow players past and present were shocked at the severity of the punishment, Barrow's chairman Brian Keen said that he was "made an example of." James Cotterill at Soccerbase

Jeremy Catto

Robert Jeremy Adam Inch Catto was a British historian, a Rhodes fellow and tutor in Modern History at Oriel College, where he was senior dean. Catto was a Brackenbury Scholar in History at Balliol College, where he graduated with first-class honours, he held a master's degree and a doctorate From 1964 to 1969 he was employed as a tutor at Hatfield College, Durham. During this time he became acquainted with Mark Lancaster and Bryan Ferry, who were art students in nearby Newcastle, his research interests lay in the politics and religion of medieval England. In a piece in The Spectator to commemorate his retirement in June 2006, Alan Duncan MP described him as "the quintessential Oxford don... if one were to devour C. P. Snow, Goodbye, Mr. Chips and Porterhouse Blue, there is a smattering of Catto in each."He died on 17 August 2018 at the age of 79. The History of the University of Oxford Volume I: The Early Oxford Schools Clarendon Press ISBN 0-19-951011-3, The History of the University of Oxford Volume II: Late Mediaeval Oxford Clarendon Press ISBN 0-19-951012-1 "The King's Government and the Fall of Pecock 1457–58" in Rulers and Ruled in Late Mediaeval England, pp. 201–222, The Chronicle of John Somer, OFM'Currents of religious thought and expression' in Cambridge Medieval History, Vol 6 pp. 42–65


Kalamata is the second most populous city of the Peloponnese peninsula, after Patras, in southern Greece and the largest city of the homonymous administrative region. The capital and chief port of the Messenia regional unit, it lies along the Nedon River at the head of the Messenian Gulf; the 2011 census recorded 69,849 inhabitants for the wider Kalamata Municipality, of which, 62,409 resided in the municipal unit of Kalamata proper. Kalamata is renowned as the land of Kalamata olives; the modern name Kalamáta is a corruption of the older name Καλάμαι, Kalámai, "reeds". The phonetic similarity of Kalamáta with the phrase "kalá mátia" has led to various folk etymologies; the municipality Kalamata was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Arfara Aris Kalamata ThouriaThe municipality has an area of 440.313 km2, the municipal unit 253.279 km2. The municipal unit of Kalamata is subdivided into the following communities: Municipal communities Kalamata Verga Local communities Alagonia Antikalamos Artemisia Asprochoma Elaiochori Karveli Ladas Laiika Mikri Mantineia Nedousa Piges Sperchogeia The province of Kalamata was one of the provinces of the Messenia Prefecture.

Its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities West Mani. It was abolished in 2006; the history of Kalamata begins with Homer, who mentions Firai, an ancient city built more or less where the Kalamata Castle stands today. It was believed that during ancient times the area that the city presently occupies was covered by the sea, but the proto-Greek and archaic period remains that were unearthed at Akovitika region prove the opposite. Pharai was rather unimportant in antiquity, the site continued in obscurity until middle Byzantine times. Kalamata is first mentioned in the 10th-century Life of St. Nikon the Metanoeite, experienced a period of prosperity in the 11th–12th centuries, as attested by the five surviving churches built in this period, including the Church of the Holy Apostles, as well as the comments of the Arab geographer al-Idrisi, who calls it a "large and populous" town. Following the Fourth Crusade, Kalamata was conquered by Frankish feudal lords William of Champlitte and Geoffrey of Villehardouin in 1205, when its Byzantine fortress was in so bad a state that it could not be defended against them.

Thus the town became part of the Principality of Achaea, after Champlitte granted its possession to Geoffrey of Villehardouin, the town was the center of the Villehardouins' patrimony in the Principality. Prince William II of Villehardouin was died there. After William II's death in 1278, Kalamata remained in the hands of his widow, Anna Komnene Doukaina, but when she remarried to Nicholas II of Saint Omer, King Charles of Anjou was loath to see this important castle in the hands of a vassal, in 1282 Anna exchanged it with lands elsewhere in Messenia. In 1292 or 1293, two local Melingoi Slavic captains managed to capture the fortress of Kalamata by a ruse and, aided by 600 of their fellow villagers, took over the entire lower town as well in the name of the Byzantine emperor, Andronikos II Palaiologos. Constable John Chauderon in vain tried to secure their surrender, was sent to Constantinople, where Andronikos agreed to hand the town over, but immediately ordered his governor in Mystras not to do so.

In the event, the town was recovered by the Franks through the intercession of a local Greek, a certain Sgouromalles. In 1298, the town formed the dowry of Princess Matilda of Hainaut upon her marriage to Guy II de la Roche. Matilda retained Kalamata as her fief until 1322, when she was dispossessed and the territory reverted to the princely domain. In 1358, Prince Robert gifted the châtellenie of Kalamata to his wife, Marie de Bourbon, who kept it until her death in 1377; the town remained one of the largest in the Morea—a 1391 document places it, with 300 hearths, on par with Glarentza—but it declined in importance throughout the 14th and 15th centuries in favour of other nearby sites like Androusa. Kalamata remained in Frankish hands until near the end of the Principality of Achaea, coming under the control of the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea only in 1428. Kalamata was occupied by the Ottomans like the rest of Greece. In 1659, during the long war between Ottomans and Venetians over Crete, the Venetian commander Francesco Morosini, came into contact with the rebellious Maniots, for a joint campaign in the Morea, in the course of which he took Kalamata.

He was soon after forced to return t