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Conradin

Conrad, called the Younger or the Boy, but known by the diminutive Conradin, was the Duke of Swabia, King of Jerusalem, King of Sicily. Conradin was born in Bavaria, to Conrad IV of Germany and Elisabeth of Bavaria, he is sometimes known as Conrad V of Germany. Though he never succeeded his father in Germany, he was recognized as king of the Germans and Jerusalem by German supporters of the Hohenstaufens in 1254. Having lost his father in 1254, he grew up at the court of his uncle and guardian, Louis II, Duke of Bavaria, his guardians were able to hold Swabia for him. Jerusalem was held by a relative from the royal house of Cyprus as regent. In Sicily, his father's half-brother Manfred continued as regent, but began to develop plans to usurp the kingship. Little is known of his appearance and character except that he was as "beautiful as Absalom, spoke good Latin". Although his father had entrusted him to the guardianship of the church, Pope Innocent IV pursued Conradin with the same relentless hatred he had for his grandfather Frederick II, attempted to bestow the kingdom of Sicily on a foreign prince.

Innocent's successor, Pope Alexander IV, continuing this policy, offered the Hohenstaufen lands in Germany to King Alfonso X of Castile and forbade Conradin's election as king of the Romans. Having assumed the title of King of Jerusalem and Sicily, Conradin took possession of the Duchy of Swabia in 1262, remained for some time in his duchy. Conradin's first invitation to Italy came from the Guelphs of Florence: they asked him to take arms against Manfred, crowned king of Sicily in 1258 on a false rumor of Conradin's death. Louis refused this invitation on his nephew's behalf. In 1266 the count Charles I of Anjou, called by the new pope Clement IV, defeated and killed Manfred at Benevento, taking possession of southern Italy: envoys from the Ghibelline cities went to Bavaria and urged Conradin to come and free Italy. Count Guido de Montefeltro representing Henry of Castile, Senator of Rome, offered him the support of the eternal city. Pledging his lands, Conradin crossed the Alps and issued a manifesto at Verona setting forth his claim on Sicily.

Notwithstanding the defection of his uncle Louis and of other companions who returned to Germany, the threats of Clement IV, a lack of funds, his cause seemed to prosper. Proclaiming him King of Sicily, his partisans, among them Prince Henry of Castile, both in the north and south of Italy took up arms. In September 1267 a Spanish fleet under Frederick of Castile, a number of knights from Pisa, Spanish knights soldiering from Tunis, disembarked in the Sicilian city of Sciacca, most of the island rebelled against the Angevin rule. Only Palermo and Messina remained loyal to Charles; the revolt spread to Apulia. In November of the same year the Church excommunicated him. Having strengthened his forces, he marched towards Lucera to join the Saracen troops settled there since the time of his grandfather. On 23 August 1268 his multi-national army of Italian, Roman and German troops encountered that of Charles at Tagliacozzo, in a hilly area of central Italy; the eagerness of Conradin's Spanish knights under Infante Henry of Castile in the most successful first charge, the error of obtaining plunder in the enemy's camp after that momentary victorious assault gave the final victory to the reinforced French.

Escaping from the field of battle, Conradin reached Rome, but acting on advice to leave the city he proceeded to Astura in an attempt to sail for Sicily: but here he was arrested and handed over to Charles, who imprisoned him in the Castel dell'Ovo in Naples, together with the inseparable Frederick of Baden. He was tried as a traitor, on 29 October 1268 he and Frederick were beheaded. With Conradin's death at 16, the legitimate Hohenstaufen line became extinct, his remains, with those of Frederick of Baden, lie in the church of the monastery of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel at Naples, founded by his mother for the good of his soul. In the 14th-century Codex Manesse, a collection of medieval German lyrics, preserved at Heidelberg, there appear two songs written by Conradin, his fate has formed the subject of several dramas, his hereditary Kingdom of Jerusalem passed to the heirs of his great-great-grandmother Isabella I of Jerusalem, among whom a succession dispute arose. The senior heir in primogeniture was Hugh of Brienne, a second cousin of Conradin's father, but another second cousin Hugh III of Cyprus held the office of regent and managed to keep the kingdom as Hugh I of Jerusalem.

Conradin's grandmother's first cousin Mary of Antioch staked her claim on basis of proximity of blood, which she sold to Conradin's executioner Charles of Anjou. The general heiress of his Kingdom of Sicily and the Duchy of Swabia was his aunt Margaret, half-sister of his father Conrad IV and married with Albert, Landgrave of Thuringia since 1255, their son Frederick claimed Swabia on her right. However, these claims met with little favor. Swabia, pawned by Conradin before his last expedition, was disintegrating as a territorial unit, he went unrecognized in Outremer, Charles of Anjou was entrenched in

FC Gland

FC Gland Etoile FC Gland, or l'Etoile Sportive is a Swiss sports club located in Gland. The club is best known for its football team, they play in the sixth level of the Swiss Football League, in the Association Cantonale Vaudoise de Football. The club was formed in October 1920 by a group of eleven young sportsmen – Alfred Blonay, Jean Bottin, Charles Caboussat, Maurice Heimberg, Albert Jonzier, Charles Mosetti, Daniel Mosetti, Emile Mosetti, Jules Muston; the club was known as L'Etoile sportive Alfred Blonay was president. Their first match was a friendly against a local club which they lost 3–1. Between 1921 and 1925 the club finished first in the Championat du Léman, one season, were undefeated during the whole season. After a couple of years of inactivity, in 1933 the clubs changed name to FC Gland. A key event in the club's history came in 1936 with the arrival of the Rih's brothers. Once again, they were champions of the Regional Championship with a 7–0 victory against Malley II, they were regional champions again in the 1937–38 season and promoted to the Upper III league.

The following season they were promoted to the Second League. In 1939, the club won the Third League's Roman Champion Cup, beating Malley 3–2. From 1939 to 1944 they played in the Second League. However, in 1944 they were relegated to the Fourth league for financial reasons; the following season they were promoted back up to the Third league. In 1947, they were promoted to the Second league again, before being relegated to the Third league in 1953; the club continued to be relegated between the Third league and Second league. In the 1978–79 season, for the first time in its history the club played a promotion game for the First League, the third tier in the league in Switzerland, they lost 1–2 to Guin. A second chance arose in 1982, however they lost again. In 1981, in order to comply with the gender equality standards, the FC Gland girls team was formed with the combined efforts of the president Lecoultre and the FC Gland community; the club played twice more in promotion games, in 1983 and 1987.

Yet again though they lost both matches. In 1996, they had another chance to be promoted to the First League; this time the opportunity was seized. And coached by Arpad Soos, they won promotion for the first time to the First League, their stay in the First League though was short-lived as the following season they finished next to bottom and were relegated to the Second League. In the following years, the club remained constant in its results and a reserve team was formed and a junior section. Centre Sportif En Bord is the home of FC Gland; the site has football pitches and tennis courts. Two of the pitches are grass and one is astroturf. There are many outdoor tennis courts and some indoor ones as well. There is a Buvette next to the football changing rooms; the site is located in Gland near the Gland train station. Ranked first in the Championnat du Leman: 1922 Second League Group champions: 1979, 1997, 2000 Third League Group champions: 1939, 1946, 1950, 1960, 1978, 1983, 1987, 1989, 2008 Fourth League Group champions: 1938, 1945, 1970 Canton Vaud champions: 2007 Roman Champion Cup winners: 1939 Canton de Vaud Cup winners: 2008 Bucher, Pierre.

Football-Club Gland: 1920–1995. Cabédita. ISBN 2-88295-149-3. FC Gland Annual Bulletinl 2006–07 season Official website Association of Swiss Football official website History of Football in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Association suisse de football: FC Gland

Peace Pagoda

A Peace Pagoda is a Buddhist stupa. Most peace pagodas built since World War II have been built under the guidance of Nichidatsu Fujii, a Buddhist monk from Japan and founder of the Nipponzan-Myōhōji Buddhist Order. Fujii was inspired by his meeting with Mahatma Gandhi in 1931 and decided to devote his life to promoting non-violence. In 1947, he began constructing Peace Pagodas as shrines to world peace; the first was inaugurated at Kumamoto in 1954. Peace Pagodas were built as a symbol of peace in Japanese cities including Hiroshima and Nagasaki where the atomic bombs took the lives of over 150,000 people all of whom were civilian, at the end of World War II. By 2000, eighty Peace Pagodas had been built around the world in Europe and the United States; the Nipponzan-Myōhōji monks of the New England Peace Pagoda were awarded the Courage of Conscience award June 5, 1998 in Sherborn, Massachusetts. World Peace Pagoda Analayo is located at the premises of Comilla, it is the first Thai architecture Pagoda in Bangladesh and, designed by Thai architect.

The 100 feet tall Pagoda is rich in Thai artistic beauty both outside. A 30 feet Standing Buddha image installed in front of the pagoda is a symbol of compassion and kindness, it is inaugurated in 2017. Founder: Venerable Sugato Bhikkhu by the support of his spiritual teacher Most Venerable Phrathep Mongkolyarn chief abbot of Wat Phutthabucha, Thailand with his Thai devotees; the Rajgir Vishwa Shanti Stupa/World Peace Pagoda was completed in 1969 at Rajgir hills near Rajgir, near the Vulture's Peak where the Buddha is believed to have preached the Lotus Sutra. The dedication coincided with the 100th anniversary of the birth of Mahatma Gandhi; the site includes a Nipponzan Myohoji temple. The shanthi stupas in India were established by Fuji Guru for World Peace; the Nipponzan Myōhōji Buddhist temple at Charlimont in Darjeeling is one of them. Work on the Stupa began in 1972 and it was dedicated on November 1, 1992. A Vishwa Shanti Stupa/World Peace Pagoda in New Delhi was inaugurated on 20th. November 2007 by monks and nuns of Nipponzan-Myōhōji, the Dalai Lama and the Lt.

Governor of Delhi. It is situated in Millennium Indraprastha Park, North-East of Humayun's Tomb, adjacent to Delhi Ring Road. A traditional Japanese garden has been constructed in the area around the stupa; the garden is a joint project by the Fujii Guruji Vishwa Shanti Stupa Committee and the Delhi Development Authority. The Dhauli Giri Shanti Stupa was built in Bhubaneswar, Orissa State, India during a two-year period, was inaugurated on November 8, 1972, it was established by Sri Nitya Nanda Kanungo, Governor of Bihar, with the spiritual guidance of Nichidatsu Fujii, whose monks helped build the Peace Pagoda. The Shanti Stupa in Ladakh was built by Nipponzan-Myōhōji monks, headed by Head monk Nakamura, with the help of local people; the Shanti Stupa holds the relics of the Buddha at its base, enshrined by the 14th Dalai Lama himself It is situated at a hilltop in Changspa village providing a bird's eye view of Leh town and the surrounding mountain peaks. The 14th and current Dalai Lama inaugurated the Shanti Stupa in August 1985.

The stupa at Vaishali was inaugurated 23 October 1996. Vaishali is an important place in the life of the Buddha. Vishwa Shanti stupa was a dream of Nichidatsu Fujii, it is beside Gitai Mandir. It is a large stupa of white color. Statues of Buddha are mounted on the stupa, it has a small Japanese Buddhist temple with a large park. There is a temple near the stupa. Work on Hanaokayama Peace Pagoda, the first Peace Pagoda constructed by Nipponzan Myohoji Japanese Buddhist monks, began in 1947 atop Mount Hanaoka, Kumamoto with basic hand tools, it took seven years to build, being inaugurated in 1954: it was the first of over 80 built by Fujii and his followers all over the world. The Hiroshima Peace Pagoda was built in 1966 by Nipponzan Myohoji Buddhist monks, it commemorate the lives lost in the A-bomb blast, contains gifts of Buddha's ashes from the Prime Minister of India and Mongolian Buddhists. It is notable for being built of steel; the Peace Pagoda in Nagasaki, the site of the second A-Bomb attack, was inaugurated by Nipponzan in 1970.

At Mount Kiyosumi, the most predominant ceremonies held by Nipponzan tend to take place. The Pagoda was inaugurated in 1969. Built in 1984, dedicated May 13, 2001, the peace pagoda at Narita-shi in Chiba Prefecture, Japan is 58 m high and situated on a small hill. Founded in 1964, the Gotemba Peace Pagoda in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan includes a Nipponzan-Myōhōji temple; this Peace Pagoda was built by Nipponzan-Myōhōji monks in 1959 halfway up Mount Moiwa. It was built to commemorate peace after World War II and can be seen from anywhere