Conscription in the United States known as the draft, has been employed by the federal government of the United States in five conflicts: the American Revolutionary War, the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Cold War. The fourth incarnation of the draft came into being in 1940 through the Selective Training and Service Act, it was the country's first peacetime draft. From 1940 until 1973, during both peacetime and periods of conflict, men were drafted to fill vacancies in the United States Armed Forces that could not be filled through voluntary means; the draft came to an end in 1973 when the United States Armed Forces moved to an all-volunteer military. However, the Selective Service System remains in place as a contingency plan. S. citizens, regardless of where they live, male immigrants, whether documented or undocumented, residing within the United States, who are 18 through 25 are required to register. United States Federal Law provides for the compulsory conscription of men between the ages of 17 and 45 and certain women for militia service pursuant to Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution and 10 U.
S. Code § 246. In colonial times, the Thirteen Colonies used a militia system for defense. Colonial militia laws—and after independence those of the United States and the various states—required able-bodied males to enroll in the militia, to undergo a minimum of military training, to serve for limited periods of time in war or emergency; this earliest form of conscription involved selective drafts of militiamen for service in particular campaigns. Following this system in its essentials, the Continental Congress in 1778 recommended that the states draft men from their militias for one year's service in the Continental army. For long-term operations, conscription was used when volunteers or paid substitutes were insufficient to raise the needed manpower. During the American Revolutionary War, the states sometimes drafted men for militia duty or to fill state Continental Army units, but the central government did not have the authority to conscript except for purposes of naval impressment. Post Ratification of the Constitution, Article I.8.15, allows for Congress to conscript.
Giving it the power to provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions. Article II.2.1 makes the President the chief of the militia. The second amendment protects the infringement of the militia regulations, being necessary to the security of a free state; the Second Militia act of 1792 defined the first group who could be called forth as all free able-bodied males between the ages of 18 and 45. President James Madison and his Secretary of War James Monroe unsuccessfully attempted to create a national draft of 40,000 men during the War of 1812; this proposal was fiercely criticized on the House floor by antiwar Congressman Daniel Webster of New Hampshire. The United States first employed national conscription during the American Civil War; the vast majority of troops were volunteers. The Confederacy had far fewer inhabitants than the Union, Confederate President Jefferson Davis proposed the first conscription act on March 28, 1862.
Resistance was both violent, with comparisons made between conscription and slavery. Both sides permitted conscripts to hire substitutes to serve in their place. In the Union, many states and cities offered bonuses for enlistment, they arranged to take credit against their draft quota by claiming freed slaves who enlisted in the Union Army. Although both sides resorted to conscription, the system did not work in either; the Confederate Congress on April 16, 1862, passed an act requiring military service for three years from all males aged 18 to 35 not exempt. The U. S. Congress followed with the Militia Act of 1862 authorizing a militia draft within a state when it could not meet its quota with volunteers; this state-administered system failed in practice and in 1863 Congress passed the Enrollment Act, the first genuine national conscription law, setting up under the Union Army an elaborate machine for enrolling and drafting men between twenty and forty-five years of age. Quotas were assigned in each state, the deficiencies in volunteers required to be met by conscription.
Still, men drafted could provide substitutes, until mid-1864 could avoid service by paying commutation money. Many eligible men pooled their money to cover the cost of any one of them drafted. Families used the substitute provision to select which member should go into the army and which would stay home; the other popular means of procuring a substitute was to pay a soldier whose period of enlistment was about to expire—the advantage of this method was that the Army could retain a trained veteran in place of a raw recruit. Of the 168,649 men procured for the Union Army through the draft, 117,986 were substitutes, leaving only 50,663 who had their personal services conscripted. There was much evasion and overt resistance to the draft, the New York City draft riots were in direct response to the draft and were
Mauvoisin Dam is a concrete variable radius arch dam across the Val de Bagnes on the Dranse de Bagnes stream, in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. Initial construction on the dam commenced in 1951 and was completed in 1957, with the reservoir filling by 1958. In 1991, the dam was raised to increase the capacity of the reservoir for winter storage; the dam's primary purpose is hydroelectric power generation. The eighth highest dam in the world, Mauvoisin stands 250 metres high and 520 metres long, with a structural volume of 2,030,000 cubic metres; the impounded water behind the dam forms the 4.9-kilometre Lac de Mauvoisin, which has a capacity of 211.5 million m3 and a full surface area of 208 hectares. The dam and reservoir control runoff from a catchment of 167 square kilometres. Flood waters are released by a gated spillway with a capacity of 107 m3/s. Water from the dam is fed to two hydroelectric power stations with a combined capacity of 363 megawatts. Mauvoisin Dam provides a hydraulic head of 482 m to the Fionnay generating station, which can produce 138 MW from three Francis turbines.
The water drops another 1,014 m to the Riddes generating station, where it drives five Pelton turbines with a combined capacity of 225 MW. The two plants produce about 943 million kilowatt hours each year, with Fionnay generating 278 million KWh and Riddes generating 665 million KWh. Mauvoisin Dam serves for flood prevention and sediment control; the dam helps protect the Bagnes and Rhône river valleys from glacial lake outburst floods such as ones that occurred in 1595 and 1818. During the 1960s and 1970s, Giétro Glacier adjacent to Lac de Mauvoisin threatened to produce icefalls, which could have overtopped the dam. Giétro has retreated since 1980; the dam traps about 300,000 m3 of sediment each year, helping to extend the life of downstream hydroelectric plants. However, sediment accumulation poses a threat to the dam's useful life. In 2016, the dam was the location of the world-record highest successful basketball shot. 28-year-old Australian Derek Herron launched a basketball from the top of the dam, where it fell 180 metres directly into a net placed on the ground below.
List of tallest dams in Switzerland Cross section of Mauvoisin Dam
The Bonnie J. Addario a Breath Away from the Cure Foundation, now styled Bonnie J. Addario Lung Cancer Foundation on their website, is a foundation created by Bonnie J. Addario to eradicate lung cancer through research, early detection, education and treatment, it is made up of volunteers, people in the medical profession, lung cancer survivors. The Foundation has three goals: 1) to raise public awareness about the relative lack of attention given to lung cancer in biomedical research, 2) to help lung cancer patients navigate the healthcare system to receive the best available care, 3) to enlist the aid of physicians and biomedical scientists in transforming cancer research; the Foundation is based in California. BJALCF provides funding for lung cancer research, early detection, education and treatment; the Foundation is one of the only private providers of lung cancer research and community outreach programs. The Foundation was founded by Bonnie J. Addario, a lung cancer survivor, on March 6, 2006, the same day Dana Reeve died from lung cancer.
This Foundation was formed in response to the fact that lung cancer is under-funded and under-researched based on the amount of research dollars allocated per death. In 2005, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention spent $204 million on breast and cervical cancer research. However, no money was allocated to lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women; the lack of funding, coupled with the complexity of the disease, has helped prevent lung cancer from making significant advances in its five-year survival rate. According to the American Cancer Society, the five-year survival rate has remained at 15% since 1971; the Bonnie J. Addario Lung Cancer Foundation set out to change this seeming lack of progress by bringing lung cancer to national attention and establishing the Addario Lung Cancer Medical Institute, an international endeavor partnering academic institutions and community hospitals to advance treatment. Founder and Chair - Bonnie J. Addario Cofounder - David M. Jablons, M.
D. Vice President - Julie B. Harkins Secretary and Treasurer - Sheila Von Driska Fred Marcus, MD Lisa Boohar, MD Carolyn Clary-Macy, RN, OCN David R. Gandara, MD R. Ronald Hare, MD Claudia Henschke, PhD, MD, FCCP David Jablons, MD Thierry Jahan, MD Alan Kramer, MD Melissa Lim, MD Mary S. Maish, MD, MPH Michael S. O’Holleran, MD Rafael Rosell, MD, PhD Paul Scheinberg, MD Pierre Theodore, MD Katherine Tully, R. N. Bonnie J. Addario is the Founder and Chair of the BJALCF. In that role, Addario works with a diverse group of physicians and individuals to identify solutions and make timely and meaningful change through research, early detection, education and treatment. Addario is a lung cancer survivor and an experienced leader with 25 years experience in managing a large oil company and is nationally recognized as a business leader, she was President of both Olympian Oil Company. She was a member of Petroleum Marketers of America, the Society of Independent Gasoline Marketers of America, a board member of the California Independent Oil Marketers, was their first female president.
A frequent presenter and speaker, Addario has been featured in numerous publications including The San Mateo County Times, UCSF Philanthropy Insider and The Oakland Tribune, was featured with Hollywood star Robin Williams in a fundraising film for the University of California, San Francisco’s Thoracic Oncology department. As an active member of the community Addario serves on the boards of the aforementioned UCSF's Thoracic Oncology Program, Fifth Business, the CHW-Sequoia Hospital Foundation, she is grandmother of seven. The Bonnie J. Addario a Breath Away from the Cure Foundation ABAFTC's Lung Cancer LungBlog Putting Drug Development In Patients' Hands Putting Drug Development In Patients' Hands Domenico Wines Partners with BJALCF National Lung Cancer Organizations BJALCF Independent Charities of America Page San Francisco Chronicle Photo Exhibit Sequoia Hospital Feature on Lung Cancer Early Detection UCSF Thoracic Surgery News Item on BJALCF SF Chronicle Feature on Bonnie J. Addario UCSF - Lung Cancer Now Is the Focus of Powerful Genetics Research UCSF Thoracic Oncology Program History Elyse's Big Adventure Blog A Cancer Fighting Rock Star San Mateo County Daily Journal Feature on BJALCF Lung Cancer Alliance Funding Request to NIH & NCI CBS Jefferson Award Winner Bonnie Addario South Carolinians Against Lung Cancer Twitter Challenge for ABAFTC Cheers for the Survivors WTF - Simply the Best Gala 2009 Recap