Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, organic society, hierarchy and property rights. Conservatives seek to preserve a range of institutions such as religion, parliamentary government, property rights, with the aim of emphasizing social stability and continuity; the more traditional elements—reactionaries—oppose modernism and seek a return to "the way things were". The first established use of the term in a political context originated in 1818 with François-René de Chateaubriand during the period of Bourbon Restoration that sought to roll back the policies of the French Revolution. Associated with right-wing politics, the term has since been used to describe a wide range of views. There is no single set of policies regarded as conservative because the meaning of conservatism depends on what is considered traditional in a given place and time.

Thus conservatives from different parts of the world—each upholding their respective traditions—may disagree on a wide range of issues. Edmund Burke, an 18th-century politician who opposed the French Revolution, but supported the American Revolution, is credited as one of the main theorists of conservatism in Great Britain in the 1790s. According to Quintin Hogg, the chairman of the British Conservative Party in 1959: "Conservatism is not so much a philosophy as an attitude, a constant force, performing a timeless function in the development of a free society, corresponding to a deep and permanent requirement of human nature itself". Liberal conservatism incorporates the classical liberal view of minimal government intervention in the economy. Individuals should be free to participate in the market and generate wealth without government interference. However, individuals cannot be depended on to act responsibly in other spheres of life, therefore liberal conservatives believe that a strong state is necessary to ensure law and order and social institutions are needed to nurture a sense of duty and responsibility to the nation.

Liberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism, influenced by liberal stances. As these latter two terms have had different meanings over time and across countries, liberal conservatism has a wide variety of meanings; the term referred to the combination of economic liberalism, which champions laissez-faire markets, with the classical conservatism concern for established tradition, respect for authority and religious values. It contrasted itself with classical liberalism, which supported freedom for the individual in both the economic and social spheres. Over time, the general conservative ideology in many countries adopted economic liberal arguments and the term liberal conservatism was replaced with conservatism; this is the case in countries where liberal economic ideas have been the tradition such as the United States and are thus considered conservative. In other countries where liberal conservative movements have entered the political mainstream, such as Italy and Spain, the terms liberal and conservative may be synonymous.

The liberal conservative tradition in the United States combines the economic individualism of the classical liberals with a Burkean form of conservatism. A secondary meaning for the term liberal conservatism that has developed in Europe is a combination of more modern conservative views with those of social liberalism; this has developed as an opposition to the more collectivist views of socialism. This involves stressing what are now conservative views of free market economics and belief in individual responsibility, with social liberal views on defence of civil rights and support for a limited welfare state. In continental Europe, this is sometimes translated into English as social conservatism. Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism that combines liberal values and policies with conservative stances; the roots of conservative liberalism are found at the beginning of the history of liberalism. Until the two World Wars, in most European countries the political class was formed by conservative liberals, from Germany to Italy.

Events after World War I brought the more radical version of classical liberalism to a more conservative type of liberalism. Libertarian conservatism describes certain political ideologies most prominently within the United States which combine libertarian economic issues with aspects of conservatism, its four main branches are constitutionalism, paleolibertarianism, small government conservatism and Christian libertarianism. They differ from paleoconservatives, in that they favor more personal and economic freedom. Agorists such as Samuel Edward Konkin III labeled libertarian conservatism right-libertarianism. In contrast to paleoconservatives, libertarian conservatives support strict laissez-faire policies such as free trade, opposition to any national bank and opposition to business regulations, they are vehemently opposed to environmental regulations, corporate welfare and other areas of economic intervention. Many conservatives in the United States, believe that the government should not play a major role in regulating business and managing the economy.

They oppose efforts to charge high tax rates and to redistribute income to assist the poor. Such efforts, they argue, do not properly reward people who have earned their money through hard work. Fiscal conservatism is the economic philosophy of prudence in government debt. In his Reflections on the Revolution in France, Edmund Burke argued that


Bousbir was a walled-off brothel quarter in Casablanca, established by Resident General Lyautey during the French protectorate. Following the Treaty of Fez in 1912, Morocco became a French protectorate; the French authorities were concerned about the spread of STIs syphilis, amongst the troops stationed in the protectorate. They set up quartiers réservés and prostitution was regulated and only permitted within the quartiers. Hubert Lyautey, the first Resident General of the protectorate, wished to rebuild and expand Casablanca, he engaged French architect Henri Prost to plan the new city. Prost and his associates developed Casablanca's master plan from 1917-1922. Within this plan, Prost included a new quartier réservé away from the city centre. In 1924 the red light district moved to its new location. Bousbir is the Moroccan pronunciation of the first name of Prosper Ferrieu, a French diplomat who owned the land the new quartier réservés was built on; the area was designed in a neo-moorish style by architect Edmond Brion to appeal to the orientalist taste of European visitors.

The area enclosed a rectangle 160 metres by 150 metres, surrounded by a windowless wall. There was a single public entrance. From the main entrance a wide street led to the main square. Off the main street and square ran a labyrinth of alleys; each of the alleys had a name that indicated the origins of the prostitutes such as Elfassiya Street, Doukkaliya Street, Lahriziya Street etc. Bousbir included a cinema, a sauna, restaurants, cafés, numerous boutiques, a police station and barracks, a prison, a dispensary. At any one time between 450 and 680 prostitutes Moroccan and worked there, they sold their sexual service to between 1000 and 1,500 visitors daily Some came to Bousbir of their own free will, but about a third were brought there after being arrested for illicit prostitution elsewhere in the city. Many were indebted to the “madam” they worked for; the minimum age for the prostitutes was 12. The prostitutes had regular mandatory health checks and were only allowed to leave once a week after gaining a permit from the police.

Tourists did not just visit Bousbir to purchase sex. It was designed to provide an'oriental experience' for European tourists, they could sample the Moroccan cuisine, see belly dances, striptease or pornographic shows, or just sit on a terrace and watch the women solicit clients while listening to oriental music. Picture postcards were available as souvenirs. Many were taken by French military photographer Marcelin Flandrin, he was influential in creating the stereotype of the "Arab African" prostitute: young, exotic looking topless and wearing robes or kaftans. Most of the photographs were staged rather than being taken spontaneously. Religious, feminist and anticolonialist factions put so much pressure on the Colonial Authorities that they closed the quartier réservé in April, 1955


Nobiskrug is a shipyard located on the Eider River in Rendsburg, specializing in building luxury yachts and the construction and repair of yachts and commercial vessels. It is now a subsidiary of Privinvest Holding; the shipyard employs some 400 people. Nobiskrug was founded in 1905 by Otto Storck; the company changed to a limited liability company, November 12, 1908, a canal expansion work brought a steady stream of waterway construction vessels to the shipyard for repairs and refits. By the start of World War I, the shipyard had built a total of 70 vessels pontoons and lighters. During the war, the company built a number of auxiliary ships for the Kaiserliche Marine and started building minesweepers, they launched its first two cargo steamboats in 1917 for German owners. Germany’s defeat in World War I temporarily halted the country’s export shipbuilding industry, but the company switched production to deep-sea fishing steamers and again, cargo steamers. In 1930 the company scored a major coup with contracts for a series of three-mast schooner yachts.

During the period from 1935 to 1939, the shipyard supplied the German Ministry of Finance with three customs cruisers, the Nettelbeck, the York, the Freiherr von Stein. Shortly before and during World War II, the Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe placed orders with Nobiskrug for a range of auxiliary ships including several ocean-going tugs and tankers. During the immediate post-war years, the company concentrated on ship repairs. From 1945 to 1955 advanced in building larger vessels. In 1963 the shipyard delivered the highly sophisticated navy training ship Deutschland. One year Nobiskrug built its first ferry, the Prins Bertil. Four more ferries were built up until 1968; this period saw the completion of a number of conventional freighters and asphalt tankers as well as heavy goods and RoRo vessels. The early 1980s saw the construction of the research vessel Polarstern, the diving support vessels Seabex One and Seaway Condor. In the mid-1980s the fortunes of the shipyard took a turn for the worse, leading to the verge of financial collapse in 1986.

Under these difficult circumstances, the yard lengthened the ocean cruise liner MS Berlin operated by Peter Deilmann Cruises. This ship is known to German TV viewers as cruise line in the German version of the Love Boat; the successful completion of this project was a sign of better things to come. Nobiskrug was acquired in 1987 by Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft and the shipyard was modernized into a compact shipyard, its maritime division specialising in repairs and conversions. Staffing levels were reduced from more than 1,200 at the start of the 1980s to 400. In 1997 the shipyard supplied the forward half of the passenger ship MS Deutschland and began work on the mega-yacht Tatoosh, completed in the summer of 2000. In the past decade Nobiskrug delivered custom-made superyachts like Triple Seven, Sycara V, Flying Fox and Odessa II amongst them several award winners. Today Nobiskrug is part of the Privinvest Holding and its focus is the construction and conversion of mega-yachts. In 2015 Nobiskrug launched A, the largest sailing yacht built.

Whilst bunkering fuel in Gibraltar on February 15, 2017, the yacht was impounded for six days on the claims of overdue installments to Nobiskrug and its subcontractors. Over a period of two months in 2016, the Environmental Investigation Agency had tracked illegally sourced shipments of teak logged in Myanmar to Nobiskrug's deepwater building facility at the German Naval Yards in Kiel where she had been built. On March 14, 2017, after the yacht had exited German waters, the public prosecutor of Kiel warranted a search of the shipyard that confirmed the presence of illegal timber samples. Subsequently Nobiskrug confirmed to the prosecutor that the teak had been used on the S/Y A. Tatoosh Triple Seven Siren Jamaica Bay Sycara V Sapphire Mogambo Flying Fox Odessa II Sailing Yacht A Homepage of Nobiskrug Yachts build by Nobiskrug - SYT