Plastic arts are art forms which involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by molding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics. Less and less usefully, the term may be used broadly for all the visual arts, as opposed to literature and music. Materials for use in the plastic arts, in the narrower definition, include those that can be carved or shaped, such as stone or wood, glass, or metal; the term "plastic" has been used to mean certain synthetic organic resins since they were invented, but the term "plastic arts" long preceded them. The term should not be confused, with Piet Mondrian's concept of "Neoplasticism"; the oldest known plastic art date to. In contrast to the limiting of'plastic arts' to sculpture and architecture by Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling in 1807, the German critic August Wilhelm Schlegel applied the concept not only to visual arts, but poetry. Classical poetry lines he saw utilizing plastic isolation, rhyme falling under the Romantic.. In Schlegel's Viennese lectures, published in 1827 as On the Theory and History of the Plastic Arts, he contrasted the plasticism of Classical Art with picturesque Romanticism.
He "operated with the antinomy of terms plastic/pictorial, mechanically/ organically, finite/ infinite, closed/accomplished. Schlegel stated that the spirit of the entire antique culture and poetry was plastic and that the spirit of modern culture, was picturesque"; these distinctions were carried over into Russian Romanticism aesthetics, "Venevitinov objected to the indiscriminate use of the term'pictures'. In his use of August Schlegel's term'plastic' he argues for a return to the simple, enclosed, limited, finite and plastic world of the ancients. There seem to have been two interpretations of the plastic - picturesque contrast in Romantic Idealist philosophy; as Venevitinov uses the contrast, as August Schlegel intended it to be used when he defined it in Lecture I of Vorlesungen über dramatische Kunst und Literatur, it denoted the difference between the corporeal mind of the man of antiquity and the'picturesque' mind of modern man. Ancient art appeals directly to the modern art gives rise to mental pictures or images.
The former is therefore real and corporeal, the latter ideal." Art materials Handicraft Media Plastic in art Plastic number Recording medium Visual arts Barnes, A. C; the Art in Painting, 3rd ed. 1937, Brace & World, Inc. NY. OCLC 1572753 Bukumirovic, D.. Maga Magazinovic. Biblioteka Fatalne srpkinje knj. br. 4. Beograd: Narodna knj. Fazenda, M. J.. Between the pictorial and the expression of ideas: the plastic arts and literature in the dance of Paula Massano. N.p. Gerón, C.. Enciclopedia de las artes plásticas dominicanas: 1844-2000. 4th ed. Dominican Republic s.n. Schlegel, August Wilhelm. Vorlesungen uber dramatische Kunst und Literatur, Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1966, p.21f
Conservation and restoration of books, manuscripts, documents and ephemera
The conservation and restoration of books, manuscripts and ephemera is an activity dedicated to the preservation and protection of items of historical and personal value made from paper and leather. When applied to cultural heritage conservation activities are undertaken by a conservator-restorer. Paper-based items, such as books, manuscripts, deeds, drawings, water colors and postcards present distinctive concerns when it comes to care and conservation. Unlike works of art on paper, these items are handled directly and to access information. Paper ephemera like newspapers and letters may be significant historical records or family mementos; the first substantial work on the subject of book restoration was Alfred Bonnardot's Essai sur l'art de Restaurer les Estampes et les Livres, first published in Paris in 1846. Agents of deterioration can include fire, water and heat, dust and neglect and other vermin and mishandling. Inherent vice is "the quality of a material or an object to self-destruct or to be unusually difficult to maintain".
Paper, books and ephemera are prime examples of materials subject to inherent vice. Early paper was handmade from plant fibers such as flax and cotton: it is durable and can last for centuries. In the mid-19th century, machine-made paper was introduced, wood became the most common, least expensive ingredient in newspapers; the presence of lignin in wood pulp paper causes acid to degrade the cellulose, which causes the paper to become unstable and discolored over time. In addition, paper has the natural ability to absorb and retain moisture from the atmosphere, making it prone to the growth of mold and bacteria. Books are inherently complex; some inks used in old books and manuscripts are harmful to paper. Iron gall ink, most used from the 8th century through the end of the 19th century, contains acid and can corrode the paper in humid conditions; the materials used to make books contain hundreds of volatile organic compounds that break down over time. They are released into the air, where they become detectable as "old-book smell".
A book's smell can provide conservators with hints as to its condition. Decomposing cellulose emits furfural, which has an almond-like scent. Lignin releases vanillin with a vanilla smell. Hexanal from cellulose and lignin gives off an earthy smell. Researchers have attempted to profile the smell of old books and relate human perceptions of smell to their chemical sources. “Chocolate” and “coffee” are the most used descriptors from the Historic Paper Odour Wheel. Ephemera, as the name implies, was never made to survive. Flyers and programs are printed on poor quality paper, carelessly handled, to be haphazardly displayed or stored. Insects and vermin are attracted to paper because paper is made of cellulose and protein, materials that provide sources of nourishment; the most common pests are roaches and various types of beetles. Book lice feed on mold spores found on paper and cardboard, although they do not cause visible damage, their decomposition and excretions can stain paper and may nourish other pests, continuing the cycle of damage.
To best discourage infestation, a clean and dust-free environment is desirable: food and drink should be kept away from storage areas. If pests are discovered, they should first be identified. Freezing the collection items is an option for pest mitigation: ideally the center of the item should be frozen within four hours at a temperature of -20 °C for at least 72 hours, following which the materials may be thawed over a 24-hour period. However, some materials should not be frozen, such as books made with leather, because the cold temperatures may cause the fat to rise to the surface of the leather resulting in a white or yellow area called a bloom; the use of insecticides directly on collection materials is not recommended. However, if the infestation is severe, fumigation is the best option, the affected items should be separated from the rest of the collection for treatment. Extremes of temperature or relative humidity are damaging from either end of the spectrum. High heat and low relative humidity can cause paper to become brittle and leather book bindings to crack.
High temperatures and high relative humidity accelerates mold growth, staining, disintegration, "red rot" in leather bindings. Fluctuations in temperatures and humidity may cause cockling: a wrinkling or puckering preventing the surface from laying flat. Precise environmental levels for optimal preservation will depend on whether the collection is for use, storage, or a combination: in general, a cool environment and dry air is recommended. Air quality must be taken into consideration. Dust tends providing a suitable environment to attract mold growth and insects. Dust can become acidic when combined with skin oils and the surface of paper. All kinds of light can be harmful. Light can result in fading, darkening and cellulose breakdown; some inks and other pigments will fade if exposed to light ultraviolet light present in normal daylight and from fluorescent bulbs. Any exposure to light can cause damage, as the effects can not be reversed. Minimal or no exposure to light is ideal. Other than a poor env
An art critic is a person, specialized in analyzing and evaluating art. Their written critiques or reviews contribute to art criticism and they are published in newspapers, books, exhibition brochures and catalogues and on web sites; some of today's art critics use art blogs and other online platforms in order to connect with a wider audience and expand debate about art. Differently from art history, there is not an institutionalized training for art critics. Professional art critics are expected to have a keen eye for art and a thorough knowledge of art history; the art critic views art at exhibitions, museums or artists' studios and they can be members of the International Association of Art Critics which has national sections. Art critics earn their living from writing criticism; the opinions of art critics have the potential to stir debate on art related topics. Due to this the viewpoints of art critics writing for art publications and newspapers adds to public discourse concerning art and culture.
Art collectors and patrons rely on the advice of such critics as a way to enhance their appreciation of the art they are viewing. Many now famous and celebrated artists were not recognized by the art critics of their time because their art was in a style not yet understood or favored. Conversely, some critics, have become important helping to explain and promote new art movements — Roger Fry with the Post-Impressionist movement, Lawrence Alloway with Pop Art as examples. According to James Elkins there is a distinction between art criticism and art history based on institutional and commercial criteria. An experience-related article is Agnieszka Gratza. Always according to James Elkins in smaller and developing countries, newspaper art criticism serves as art history. James Elkins's perspective portraits his personal link to art history and art historians and in What happened to art criticism he furthermore highlights the gap between art historians and art critics by suggesting that the first cite the second as a source and that the second miss an academic discipline to refer to.
Art criticism History of art criticism List of art critics Media related to Art critics at Wikimedia Commons Good audio version of symposium on contemporary art criticism entitled "Empathy and Criticality," sponsored by the Frieze Foundation
A paintings conservator is an individual responsible for protecting cultural heritage in the form of painted works of art. These individuals are most under the employ of museums, conservation centers, or other cultural institutions, they oversee the physical care of collections, are trained in chemistry and practical application of techniques for repairing and restoring paintings. A paintings conservator works with a number of museum professionals to ensure painted works of art receive the best quality of care; this individual may be called upon by a Registrar/Collections Manager in the event of an emergency, such as accidental damage. A paintings conservator may be called upon to consult with the RCM and an exhibition design team to ensure a work is stable enough for display, determine how much exposure to environmental factors, such as humidity or light, it can withstand. Preventive care is the abating of potential deterioration and damage to a painting through designated policies and procedures surrounding the object's storage and handling.
Emergency preparedness and an emergency plan are crucial pieces to have in place for a museum. It informs conservators, RCMs, all other museum personnel how to respond to disasters that may strike their institution, therefore its collections; these plans can be expansive, detailing a number of procedures for different contingencies, such as fire and war. Protective measures in an emergency plan should include prevention through risk management and response training, recovery arrangements. An institution should know which staff member's are delegated to a project during a given circumstance, be able to tell them how they will assess and move forward with the help of an emergency plan. Integrated pest management is the strategy used by a museum to handle pests such as mold, insects, or mice. An IPM program may address environmental issues that contribute to the pest problem; this could include preventing initial entry of pests into the structure through building maintenance, moderating the interior climate, setting up an insect monitoring system.
Like an emergency plan, IPM can be time-consuming and require a number of responsibilities from each staff member. However, if pests do become an issue for a single painting or the entire museum, an IPM system will be helpful to have in place. Prevention is a key part of IPM, as chemical pesticides and fumigants can be harmful to collections. Inter-museum loans can put paintings at great risk due to the fact that they are being moved; the amount of stress a painting can withstand is determined by a number of pre-existing factors, such as canvas and painting technique. Prior to the loan, a paintings conservator will assess the structure of the work for weaknesses and potential areas at risk; this helps determine how it will be packed and transported. Preparation for a loaned painting involves padding the work's frame and ensuring it is properly mounted, determination as to whether it will need a backing board, what repairs the frame may need prior to transport; the paintings conservator may be called upon to collaborate with other personnel from the loaning museum to assess the environment of the institution, borrowing the work.
He or she may take into consideration the travel route between the loaning and the borrowing institutions. The transit planner must consider environmental conditions on the route, how the work will need to be handled, security. Examination is a series of scientific processes by which a paintings conservator collects information regarding the materials used, the technique of the painter, what has contributed to the painting's current state. Examination is a process. Taking samples of materials in a painting has decreased in favor of less invasive techniques for analysis. Examination has become a crucial part of the museum and art historical worlds, helping to place paintings within a cultural and historical context. A painting's natural aging process, as well as environmental factors, can require intervention by a paintings conservator to restore the work. Reasons for restoration may include water damage, flaking, a weakened canvas; the primary goal of a paintings conservator conducting a restoration is to ensure the work is stable.
From there, they may integrate repairs. Ultraviolet light Ultraviolet light examinations are used to reveal varnishes and their ages, as well as previous treatments to a painting. Varnishes fluoresce under UV light and dark spots reveal areas of retouching. Brightness of the painting's glow helps to reveal the type of varnish used. Raking Light Raking light is an oblique-angled light that can record condition problems of a painting, showing the extent of the damage to a particular work. Raking light aids in identifying the topography of brush strokes in paintings, sometimes revealing the underlying original intent of an artist. Infrared light The use of infrared lighting can reveal the working methods of an artist, such as initial sketches and perspective lines drawn on a canvas; this method is effective on works. X-radiography X-radiographs of a painting allow conservators to see beneath the work's surface; the use of this method helps distinguish between materials that look similar under visible light, but have different x-ray absorption.
For example, the Victoria and Albert Museum used x-radiography on a painting by Jean-Francois Millet entitled The Wood Sawyers. The image below showed a woman representing the French Republic, a submission to a competition tha
An art auction or fine art auction is the sale of art works, in most cases in an auction house. In England this dates from the latter part of the 17th century, when in most cases the names of the auctioneers were suppressed. In June 1693, John Evelyn mentions a "great auction of pictures in the Banqueting House, Whitehall", the practice is referred to by other contemporary and writers. An auction catalog, that lists the art works to be sold, is written and made available well before the auction date; some of the best known auction houses are Sotheby's. The oldest auction house is Stockholm Auction House, it was established in Sweden in 1674. Before the introduction of regular auctions the practice was, as in the case of the famous collection formed by Charles I. to price each object and invite purchasers, just as in other departments of commerce. But this was a slow process in the case of pictures, lacked the incentive of excitement; the first important art collection to come under the hammer was that of Edward, Earl of Oxford, dispersed by Cock, under the Piazza, Covent Garden, on 8 March 1742 and the five following days, six more days being required by the coins.
Nearly all the leading men of the day, including Horace Walpole, attended or were represented at this sale, the prices varied from five shillings for an anonymous bishop's "head" to 165 guineas for van Dyck's group of Sir Kenelm Digby and son. The next great dispersal was Dr Richard Mead's extensive collection, of which the pictures and engraved gems, &c. were sold by Abraham Langford in February and March 1754, the sale realizing the total, unprecedented up to that time, of The thirty-eight days' sale of the Duchess of Portland's collection is noteworthy, from the fact that it included the celebrated Portland vase, now in the British Museum. Many other interesting and important 18th centurysales might be mentioned. High prices did not become general until the John Trumbull and Bryan sales; as to the quality of the pictures, sold by auction up to the latter part of the 18th century, it may be assumed that this was not high. The importation of pictures and other objects of art had assumed extensive proportions by the end of the 18th century, but the genuine examples of the Old Masters fell far short of 1%.
England was felt to be the only safe asylum for valuable articles, but the home, intended to be temporary became permanent. Had it not been for the political convulsions on the continent, instead of being one of the richest countries in the world in art treasures, would have been one of the poorest; this fortuitous circumstance had, another effect, in that it raised the critical knowledge of pictures. Genuine works realized high prices, as, for example, at Sir William Hamilton's sale, when Beckford paid 1,300 gns. for the little picture of A Laughing Boy by Leonardo da Vinci. The Woman taken in Adultery, now in the National Gallery, The Master Shipbuilder, now at Buckingham Palace; the Beckford sale of 1823 was the forerunner of the great art dispersal of the 19th century. They comprised every phase of art work, in all the quality was of a high order, they acted as a most healthy stimulus to art collecting, a stimulus, further nourished by the sales of the superb collection of Ralph Bernal in 1855, of the equally fine but not so comprehensive collection of Samuel Rogers, 1856.
Three years came the dispersal of the 1,500 pictures which formed Lord Northwick's gallery at Cheltenham. Towards the latter part of the first half of the 19th century an new type of collectors came into existence, they were not hampered by "collecting" traditions, their patronage was exclusively extended to the artists of the day. The dispersal of these collections began in 1863 with the Bicknell Gallery, continued at irregular intervals for many years, e.g. Joseph Gillott, Sam Mendel, Wynne Ellis and Albert Levy, Albert Grant and Munro of Novar; these patrons purchased at munificent prices either direct from the easel or from the exhibitions not only pictures in oils but water-colour drawings. As a matter of investment their purchases realized far more than the original outlay. One of the features of the sales of the 1870s was the high appreciation of water-colour drawings. At the Gillott sale 160 examples realized J. M. W. Turner's Bamburgh Castle fetching 3150 gns.. The following are the most remarkable prices of years.
In 1895 Cox's Welsh Funeral sold for 2,400 gns. and Burne-Jones's Hesperides for 2460 gns. In 1908, 14 Turner drawings fetched and 7 brought, the "Heidelberg" reaching 4,200 gns. For Frederick Walker's Harbour of Refuge 2,580 gns. were paid and 2,700 gns. for his Marlow Ferry. The demand for pictures by modern artists, whose wo
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes used carving and modelling, in stone, ceramics and other materials but, since Modernism, there has been an complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded or cast. Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, represents the majority of the surviving works from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, this has been lost. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were an expression of religion or politics; those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, as well as many in Central and South America and Africa.
The Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, Greece is seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith; the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, the presentation of found objects as finished art works. A basic distinction is between sculpture in the round, free-standing sculpture, such as statues, not attached to any other surface, the various types of relief, which are at least attached to a background surface. Relief is classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sometimes an intermediate mid-relief. Sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief is the usual sculptural medium for large figure groups and narrative subjects, which are difficult to accomplish in the round, is the typical technique used both for architectural sculpture, attached to buildings, for small-scale sculpture decorating other objects, as in much pottery and jewellery.
Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs of stone also containing inscriptions. Another basic distinction is between subtractive carving techniques, which remove material from an existing block or lump, for example of stone or wood, modelling techniques which shape or build up the work from the material. Techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work; the term "sculpture" is used to describe large works, which are sometimes called monumental sculpture, meaning either or both of sculpture, large, or, attached to a building. But the term properly covers many types of small works in three dimensions using the same techniques, including coins and medals, hardstone carvings, a term for small carvings in stone that can take detailed work; the large or "colossal" statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity. Another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades.
The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the "head", showing just that, or the bust, a representation of a person from the chest up. Small forms of sculpture include the figurine a statue, no more than 18 inches tall, for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Modern and contemporary art have added a number of non-traditional forms of sculpture, including sound sculpture, light sculpture, environmental art, environmental sculpture, street art sculpture, kinetic sculpture, land art, site-specific art. Sculpture is an important form of public art. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in some form of association with religion. Cult images are common in many cultures, though they are not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art, like the Statue of Zeus at Olympia; the actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were evidently rather small in the largest temples.
The same is true in Hinduism, where the simple and ancient form of the lingam is the most common. Buddhism brought the sculpture of religious figures to East Asia, where there seems to have been no earlier equivalent tradition, though again simple shapes like the bi and cong had religious significance. Small sculptures as personal possessions go back to the earliest prehistoric art, the use of large sculpture as public art to impress the viewer with the power of a ruler, goes back at least to the Great Sphinx of some 4,500 years ago. In archaeology and art history the appearance, sometimes disappearance, of large or monumental sculpture in a culture is regarded as of great significance, though tracing the emergence is complicated by the presumed existence of sculpture in wood and other perishable materials of which no record remains; the ability to s
Street art is visual art created in public locations unsanctioned artwork executed outside of the context of traditional art venues. Other terms for this type of art include "independent public art", "post-graffiti", "neo-graffiti", is related with guerrilla art. Common forms and media include spray paint graffiti, stencil graffiti, wheatpasted poster art, sticker art, street installations, sculpture. Video projection and yarn bombing have gained some popularity near the turn of the 21st century. Street art is a form of artwork, displayed in a community on its surrounding buildings, streets and other publicly viewed surfaces. Many instances come in the form of guerrilla art, composed to make a public statement about the society that the artist lives within; the work has moved from the beginnings of graffiti and vandalism to new modes where artists work to bring messages, or just simple beauty, to an audience. Some artists use "smart vandalism" as a way to raise awareness of political issues. Others see urban space as an untapped format for personal artwork, while others may appreciate the challenges and risks that are associated with installing illicit artwork in public places.
A common motive is that creating art in a format which utilizes public space allows artists who may otherwise feel disenfranchised to reach a much broader audience than other styles or galleries would allow. Whereas traditional graffiti artists have used spray paint to produce their work, "street art" encompasses many other media, such as LED art, mosaic tiling, stencil art, sticker art, reverse graffiti, "Lock On" sculptures, street installations, woodblocking, yarn bombing, rock balancing. New media forms such as projection onto large city buildings are an popular tool for street artists—and the availability of cheap hardware and software allows street artists to become more competitive with corporate advertisements. Much like open source software, artists are able to create art for the public realm from their personal computers creating things for free which compete with companies making things for profit; some observers use the term "independent public art" to describe a type of street art, which can include work in remote places that may not be visited by an audience, may be short-lived.
An ephemeral instance of colored smoke in the forest, or a precarious rock balance are examples. Some work has been installed underwater. Slogans of protest and political or social commentary graffitied onto public walls are the precursor to modern graffiti and street art, continue as one aspect of the genre. Street art in the form of text or simple iconic graphics in the vein of corporate icons become well-known yet enigmatic symbols of an area or an era; some credit the Kilroy Was Here graffiti of the World War II era as one such early example. Author Charles Panati indirectly touched upon the general appeal of street art in his description of the "Kilroy" graffiti as "outrageous not for what it said, but where it turned up". Much of what can now be defined as modern street art has well-documented origins dating from New York City's graffiti boom, with its infancy in the 1960s, maturation in the 1970s, peaking with the spray-painted full-car subway train murals of the 1980s centered in the Bronx.
As the 1980s progressed, a shift occurred from text-based works of early in the decade to visually conceptual street art such as Hambleton's shadow figures. This period coincides with Keith Haring's subway advertisement subversions and Jean-Michel Basquiat's SAMO tags. What is now recognized as "street art" had yet to become a realistic career consideration, offshoots such as stencil graffiti were in their infancy. Wheatpasted poster art used to promote bands and the clubs where they performed evolved into actual artwork or copy-art and became a common sight during the 1980s in cities worldwide; the group working collectively as AVANT were active in New York during this period. Punk rock music's subversive ideologies were instrumental to street art's evolution as an art form during the 1980s; some of the anti-museum mentality can be attributed to the ideology of Marinetti who in 1909 wrote the "Manifesto of Futurism" with a quote that reads, "we will destroy all the museums." Many street artists claim we do not live in a museum so art should be in public places with no tickets.
The northwest wall of the intersection at Houston Street and the Bowery in New York City has been a target of artists since the 1970s. The site, now sometimes referred to as the Bowery Mural, originated as a derelict wall which graffiti artists used freely. Keith Haring once commandeered the wall for his own use in 1982. After Haring, a stream of well-known street artists followed, until the wall had taken on prestigious status. By 2008, the wall became managed and made available to artists by commission or invitation only. A series of murals by René Moncada began appearing on the streets of SoHo in the late 1970s emblazoned with the words I AM THE BEST ARTIST. René has described the murals as a thumb in the nose to the art community he felt he'd helped pioneer but by which he felt ignored by. Recognized as an early act of "art provocation", they were a topic of conversation and debate at the time, related legal conflicts raised discussion about intellectual property, artist's rights, the First Amendment.
The ubiquitous murals became a popular backdrop to photographs taken by tourists and art students, for advertising layouts and Hollywood films. IATBA murals were defaced, only to be repainted by René; some street artists have earned international attention for their work and have