click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Consolidated PBY Catalina

The Consolidated PBY Catalina known as the Canso in Canadian service, is an American flying boat, an amphibious aircraft of the 1930s and 1940s produced by Consolidated Aircraft. It was one of the most used seaplanes of World War II. Catalinas served with every branch of the United States Armed Forces and in the air forces and navies of many other nations. During World War II, PBYs were used in anti-submarine warfare, patrol bombing, convoy escort and rescue missions, cargo transport; the PBY was the most numerous aircraft of its kind, the last military PBYs served until the 1980s. As of 2014, nearly 80 years after its first flight, the aircraft continues to fly as a waterbomber in aerial firefighting operations in some parts of the world; the designation "PBY" was determined in accordance with the U. S. Navy aircraft designation system of 1922. Catalinas built by other manufacturers for the U. S. Navy were designated according to different manufacturer codes, thus Canadian Vickers-built examples were designated PBV, Boeing Canada examples PB2B and Naval Aircraft Factory examples were designated PBN.

In accordance with contemporary British naming practice of naming seaplanes after coastal port towns, Royal Canadian Air Force examples were named Canso, for the town of that name in Nova Scotia. The Royal Air Force used the name Catalina and the U. S. Navy adopted this name in 1942; the United States Army Air Forces and the United States Air Force used the designation OA-10. U. S. Navy Catalinas used in the Pacific against the Japanese for night operations were painted black overall; the PBY was designed to be a patrol bomber, an aircraft with a long operational range intended to locate and attack enemy transport ships at sea in order to disrupt enemy supply lines. With a mind to a potential conflict in the Pacific Ocean, where troops would require resupply over great distances, the U. S. Navy in the 1930s invested millions of dollars in developing long-range flying boats for this purpose. Flying boats had the advantage of not requiring runways, in effect having the entire ocean available. Several different flying boats were adopted by the Navy, but the PBY was the most used and produced.

Although slow and ungainly, Catalinas distinguished themselves in World War II. Allied forces used them in a wide variety of roles for which the aircraft was never intended. PBYs are remembered for their rescue role, in which they saved the lives of thousands of aircrew downed over water. Catalina airmen called their aircraft the "Cat" on combat missions and "Dumbo" in air-sea rescue service; as American dominance in the Pacific Ocean began to face competition from Japan in the 1930s, the U. S. Navy contracted Consolidated and Douglas in October 1933 to build competing prototypes for a patrol flying boat. Naval doctrine of the 1930s and 1940s used flying boats in a wide variety of roles that today are handled by multiple special-purpose aircraft; the U. S. Navy had adopted the Consolidated P2Y and Martin P3M models for this role in 1931, but both aircraft were underpowered and hampered by inadequate range and limited payloads. Consolidated and Douglas both delivered single prototypes of their new designs, the XP3Y-1 and XP3D-1, respectively.

Consolidated's XP3Y-1 was an evolution of the XPY-1 design that had competed unsuccessfully for the P3M contract two years earlier and of the XP2Y design that the Navy had authorized for a limited production run. Although the Douglas aircraft was a good design, the Navy opted for Consolidated's because the projected cost was only $90,000 per aircraft. Consolidated's XP3Y-1 design had a parasol wing with external bracing struts, mounted on a pylon over the fuselage. Wingtip stabilizing floats were retractable in flight to form streamlined wingtips and had been licensed from the Saunders-Roe company; the two-step hull design was similar to that of the P2Y, but the Model 28 had a cantilever cruciform tail unit instead of a strut-braced twin tail. Cleaner aerodynamics gave the Model 28 better performance than earlier designs. Construction is all-metal, stressed-skin, of aluminum sheet, except the ailerons and wing trailing edge, which are fabric covered; the prototype was powered by two 825 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830-54 Twin Wasp radial engines mounted on the wing's leading edges.

Armament comprised up to 2,000 lb of bombs. The XP3Y-1 had its maiden flight on 28 March 1935, after which it was transferred to the U. S. Navy for service trials; the XP3Y-1 was a significant performance improvement over previous patrol flying boats. The Navy requested further development in order to bring the aircraft into the category of patrol bomber, in October 1935, the prototype was returned to Consolidated for further work, including installation of 900 hp R-1830-64 engines. For the redesignated XPBY-1, Consolidated introduced redesigned vertical tail surfaces which resolved a problem with the tail becoming submerged on takeoff, which had made lift-off impossible under some conditions; the XPBY-1 had its maiden flight on 19 May 1936, during which a record non-stop distance flight of 3,443 mi was achieved. The XPBY-1 was delivered to VP-11F in October 1936; the second squadron to be equipped was VP-12, which received the first of its aircraft in early 1937. The second production order was placed on 25 July 1936.

Over the next three years, the design was developed further and successive models introduced. The aircr

Al-Mawardi

Abū al-Hasan'Alī Ibn Muḥammad Ibn Habīb al-Māwardī, known in Latin as Alboacen, was an Islamic jurist of the Shafi'i school most remembered for his works on religion, the caliphate, public and constitutional law during a time of political turmoil. Appointed as the chief judge over several districts near Nishapur in Iran, Baghdad itself, al-Mawardi served as a diplomat for the Abbasid caliphs al-Qa'im and al-Qadir in negotiations with the Buyid emirs, he is best known for his treatise on "The Ordinances of Government." The Ordinances, Al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyya w'al-Wilayat al-Diniyya, provide a detailed definition of the functions of caliphate government which, under the Buyids, appeared to be rather indefinite and ambiguous. Al-Mawardi was born in Basrah during the year 972 C. E; some authors make the claim that his family was Kurdish, a claim, unsubstantiated. The Shafi'i historian al-Khatib al-Baghdadi recorded his father as being a rose-water seller. Growing up he was able to learn Fiqh from Abu al-Wahid al-Simari and subsequently took up his residence in Baghdad.

While both Basrah and Baghdad were centers of the Mu'tazila school of thought, the great Shafi'i jurist al-Subki would condemn al-Mawardi for his Mu'tazila sympathies. He was appointed chief qadi of Baghdad, subsequently was entrusted with various responsibilities on behalf of the Caliphate: On four occasions he served as a diplomat on behalf of Caliph al-Qa'im, his successor al-Qadir entrusted al-Mawardi as a diplomat in a negotiation with the Buyid emirs and charged him with the task of writing his treatise on "The Ordinances of the Government." Among many of his various other works he is credited with the creation of darura, a doctrine of necessity. Al-Mawardi died at an old age in Baghdad on 30 Rabi'a 450/27, May 1058. Al-Ahkam al-Sultania w'al-Wilayat al-Diniyya Qanun al-Wazarah Kitab Nasihat al-Mulk Kitab Aadab al-Dunya w'al-Din Personas of the Prophethood According to Wafaa H. Wahaba, "For al-Mawardi the caliphate symbolized an entire politico-religious system that regulates the lives of men in a Muslim community to the smallest detail.

Hence the emphasis in placed on the qualifications and duties pertinent to... This approach to the matter would explain the working arrangement reached by the Buyids and the Abbasid caliphs followed by the more efficient Seljuqs, whereby the military held actual power while recognizing the Caliph as the supreme head of government and receiving from him, in turn, recognition of their mundane authority." List of Arab scientists and scholars Islamic scholars Nasîhatnâme ABU AL-HASAN AL-MAWARDI Review of al-Ahkam as-Sultanniyah Works by or about Al-Mawardi at Internet Archive Kitab adab al-dunya wa-al-din, 1882, by Mward, Al ibn Muammad, 974?-1058 Works by Al-Mawardi at LibriVox

Overdetermined system

In mathematics, a system of equations is considered overdetermined if there are more equations than unknowns. An overdetermined system is always inconsistent when constructed with random coefficients. However, an overdetermined system will have solutions in some cases, for example if some equation occurs several times in the system, or if some equations are linear combinations of the others; the terminology can be described in terms of the concept of constraint counting. Each unknown can be seen as an available degree of freedom; each equation introduced into the system can be viewed as a constraint that restricts one degree of freedom. Therefore, the critical case occurs when the number of equations and the number of free variables are equal. For every variable giving a degree of freedom, there exists a corresponding constraint; the overdetermined case occurs when the system has been overconstrained — that is, when the equations outnumber the unknowns. In contrast, the underdetermined case occurs when the system has been underconstrained — that is, when the number of equations is fewer than the number of unknowns.

Such systems have an infinite number of solutions. Consider the system of 3 equations and 2 unknowns, overdetermined because 3>2, which corresponds to Diagram #1: Y = − 2 X − 1 Y = 3 X − 2 Y = X + 1. There is one solution for each pair of linear equations: for the first and second equations, for the first and third, for the second and third. However, there is no solution. Diagrams #2 and 3 show other configurations that are inconsistent because no point is on all of the lines. Systems of this variety are deemed inconsistent; the only cases where the overdetermined system does in fact have a solution are demonstrated in Diagrams #4, 5, 6. These exceptions can occur only when the overdetermined system contains enough linearly dependent equations that the number of independent equations does not exceed the number of unknowns. Linear dependence means. For example, Y = X + 1 and 2Y = 2X + 2 are linearly dependent equations because the second one can be obtained by taking twice the first one. Any system of linear equations can be written as a matrix equation.

The previous system of equations can be written as follows: = Notice that the rows of the coefficient matrix outnumber the columns, meaning that the system is overdetermined. The rank of this matrix is 2. A linear system is consistent if and only if the coefficient matrix has the same rank as its augmented matrix; the augmented matrix has rank 3, so the system is inconsistent. The nullity is 0, which means that the null space contains only the zero vector and thus has no basis. In linear algebra the concepts of row space, column space and null space are important for determining the properties of matrices; the informal discussion of constraints and degrees of freedom above relates directly to these more formal concepts. The homogeneous case is always consistent. There are two cases, depending on the number of linearly dependent equations: either there is just the trivial solution, or there is the trivial solution plus an infinite set of other solutions. Consider the system of linear equations: Li = 0 for 1 ≤ i ≤ M, variables X1, X2...

XN, where each Li is a weighted sum of the Xis. X1 = X2 =... = XN = 0 is always a solution. When M < N the system is underdetermined and there are always an infinitude of further solutions. In fact the dimension of the space of solutions is always at least N − M. For M ≥ N, there may be no solution other than all values being 0. There will be an infinitude of other solutions only when the system of equations has enough dependencies that the number of independent equations is at most N − 1, but with M ≥ N the number of independent equations could be as high as N, in which case the trivial solution is the only one. In systems of linear equations, Li=ci for 1 ≤ i ≤ M, in variables X1, X2... XN the equations are sometimes linearly dependent. We have the following possible cases for an overdetermined system with N M equations. M = N+1 and all M equations are linearly independent; this case yields no solution. Example: x = 1, x = 2. M > N but only K equations are linearly independent. There exist three possible sub-cases of this: K = N+1.

This case yields no solutions. Example: 2x = 2, x = 1, x = 2. K = N; this case

Vier gegen die Bank (1976 film)

Vier gegen die Bank is a 1976 German crime comedy television film directed by Wolfgang Petersen. It was adapted from the novel The Nixon Recession Caper by Ralph Maloney and was produced for the German television station ARD. In 2016 it was remade under the same title for theatrical release. Hartmut Wredel, a respected lawyer, is left unemployed by the recession. At his golf club he discovers that three other members have not paid their membership dues for a while; the men, out-of-work actor Peter Pagodi, fashion designer Benedict Hoffmann, garage owner Gustav Blümel, have been hit hard by the recession. Wredel convinces them, they carry out the plan, escape imprisonment because the police blame the robbery on a separate group of terrorists who were planning to rob the same bank. Harald Leipnitz as Peter Pagodi Walter Kohut as Hartmut Wredel Günther Neutze as Gustav Blümel Herbert Bötticher as Benedict Hoffmann Ingrid van Bergen as Uschi Blümel Christine Schuberth as Gaby Pagodi Karin Eickelbaum as Angelika Hoffmann Gitty Djamal as Christa Wredel Otto Sander as Bankleiter Hans Schulze as Hauptkommissar Röse Uwe Dallmeier as Kommissar Ludendorf Karl-Heinz von Hassel as Gangster Manfred Hans Dieter Trayer as Kriminalassistent Joachim Regelien as Erster Komplize Wolf Richard as Zweiter Komplize Ulli Chivall as Dritter Komplize Helmut Alimonta as Kfz-Meister Leopold Gmeinwieser as Taxifahrer Horst Pasderski as Feinkosthändler The film was shot in and around Munich in July 1976.

Vier gegen die Bank on IMDb

Lake of fire

A lake of fire appears in both ancient Egyptian and Christian religion, as well as in Plato's Gorgias as a place of after-death punishment of the wicked. The phrase is used in five verses of the Book of Revelation. In the biblical context, the concept seems analogous to the Jewish Gehenna, or the more common concept of Hell; the image of the lake of fire was taken up by the early Christian Hippolytus of Rome in about the year 230 and has continued to be used by modern Christians. Prior to Christianity, Plato identified the lake with Tartarus, where the souls of the wicked are tormented until it is time for them to be reborn, where some souls are left. Richard H. Wilkinson has written: According to the Coffin Texts and other works, the underworld contained fiery rivers and lakes as well as fire demons which threatened the wicked. Representations of the fiery lakes of the fifth "hour" or "house" of the Amduat depict them in the form of the standard pool or lake hieroglyph, but with flame-red "water" lines, surrounded on all four sides by fire signs which not only identify the blazing nature of the lakes, but feed them through the graphic "dripping" of their flames.

Some temple texts and modern books have said that the Lake of Fire in the Egyptian Religion is the lake that Ra would pass through in his daily journey in the Duat. He goes in the west gate and exit through the east gate and after that, it would say that the boat was renewed. An image in the Papyrus of Ani, a version of the Book of the Dead, has been described as follows: The scene shows four cynocephalous baboons sitting at the corners of a rectangular pool. On each side of this pool is a flaming brazier; the pool's red colour indicates that it is filled with a fiery liquid, reminding one of the "Lake of Fire" mentioned in the Book of the Dead. The 1995 edition of the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia says that the Egyptian lake of fire is too remote to be relevant to the use of "lake of fire" in the Book of Revelation. Mark 9:43 has Jesus himself use the image of a punishing unquenchable fire: "If your hand causes you to sin, cut it off, it is better for you to enter into life maimed than with two hands to go into Gehenna, into the unquenchable fire."

The Book of Revelation, written some time in the last half of the first century AD, has five verses that mention a "lake of fire" Revelation 19:20: "And the beast was taken, with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the mark of the beast, them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone." Revelation 20:10 "And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, shall be tormented day and night for and ever." Revelation 20:14-15 "Then Hades were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death, and anyone not found written in the Book of Life was cast into the lake of fire." Revelation 21:8 "But as for the cowardly, the faithless, the detestable, as for murderers, the sexually immoral, sorcerers and all liars, their portion will be in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, the second death."A accepted and traditional interpretation is that the "lake of fire" and the "second death" are symbolic of eternal pain, pain of loss and pain of the senses, as punishment for wickedness.

Jehovah's Witnesses interpret the "lake of fire" and "second death" of the Book of Revelation as referring to a complete and definitive annihilation of those cast into it. Seventh-day Adventists believe in annihilation as well, they too believe that the lake of fire passage is referring to extinction, not to an eternal place of torment as understood in the mainstream Protestant interpretation. Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and other churches within the Latter Day Saint Movement read of a concept of the "lake of fire" in the Book of Mormon, in several passages of the record; the most descriptive instance of a "lake of fire" in the Book of Mormon occurs in Jacob 6:10, which reads, "Ye must go away into that lake of fire and brimstone, whose flames are unquenchable, whose smoke ascendeth up forever and which lake of fire and brimstone is endless torment." The Book of Mormon refers to the lake of fire as a state of second death or spiritual death, where there is no hope for redemption or salvation until after the resurrection or, for sons of perdition, never.

Hippolytus of Rome pictured Hades, the abode of the dead, as containing "a lake of unquenchable fire" at the edge of which the unrighteous "shudder in horror at the expectation of the future judgment feeling the power of their punishment". The third-century writing explicitly pictures the "lake of unquenchable fire" as the eternal destiny of the unrighteous, while awaiting execution of the judgement upon them, are tortured in the abode of the dead by the vision of their doom; the Catholic Portuguese visionary Lúcia Santos reported that the Virgin Mary had given her a vision of Hell as a sea of fire: Our Lady showed us a great sea of fire which seemed to be under the earth. Plunged in this fire were demons and souls in human form, like transparent burning embers, all blackened or burnished bronze, floating about in the conflagration, now raised into the air by the flames that issued from within themselves together with great clouds of smoke, now falling back on every side like sparks in a huge fire, without weight or equilibrium, amid shrieks and groans of pain and despair, which horrified us and made us tremble with fea

Bibi Fricotin

Bibi Fricotin is a 1924 French comic strip series, drawn by Louis Forton, who made Les Pieds Nickelés. The first panels appeared on 5 October 1924 in Le Petit Illustré, published by La Société parisienne d' édition. Bibi Fricotin is a young boy; the series was drawn by Louis Forton from 1924 until his death in 1934. Two years Gaston Callaud continued the comic until the outbreak of World War Two; the volumes he drew, numbers 8 to 12, are nowadays lost and sought by collectors. After the liberation, in 1947, Pierre Lacroix continued the series, he gave Bibi a sidekick: the black boy Razibus Zouzou, whom Bibi met in the story "Bibi Fricotin nouveau Robinson". Lacroix was assisted by writers such as Maric, René Lortac and Roland De Montaubert and drew the series until 1988; the series was popular enough to spawn a movie adaptation in 1950: Bibi Fricotin. Album 1: La vocation de Bibi Fricotin Album 2: Bibi Fricotin fait des farces Album 3: Bibi Fricotin fait le tour du monde Album 4: Bibi Fricotin boit l'obstacle Album 5: Bibi triomphe Album 6: Bibi Fricotin détective Album 7: Bibi Fricotin roi des débrouillards Album 8: Bibi Fricotin au Pôle Nord Album 9: Bibi Fricotin contre Dédé Tapdur Album 10: Bibi Fricotin grande vedette Album 11: Bibi Fricotin chez les Chinois Album 12: Bibi Fricotin globe-trotter Album 13: Bibi Fricotin n'a peur de rien scenario Corrald Album 14: Bibi Fricotin fait du cinéma scenario René Lortac Album 15: Bibi Fricotin aux Jeux Olympiques scenario Debois Album 16: Bibi Fricotin sur le « Black Bird » scenario Debois Album 17: Bibi Fricotin inventeur scenario René Lortac Album 18: Bibi Fricotin roi de la publicité scenario René Lortac Album 19: Bibi Fricotin jockey Album 20: Bibi Fricotin aviateur scenario Debois Album 21: Bibi Fricotin président de Bibiville scenario Debois Album 22: Bibi Fricotin cowboy Album 23: Bibi Fricotin nouveau Robinson scenario Debois Album 24: Bibi Fricotin chercheur d'or scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 25: Bibi Fricotin policier scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 26: Bibi Fricotin et le diamant vert scenario René Lortac Album 27: Bibi Fricotin et les faux tableaux scenario René Lortac Album 28: Bibi Fricotin et le testament mystérieux scenario René Lortac Album 29: Bibi Fricotin et le bathyscaphe scenario René Lortac Album 30: Bibi Fricotin et l'invention du Buldoflorin Album 31: Bibi Fricotin roi du scooter scenario René Lortac Album 32: Bibi Fricotin pilote d'essais scenario René Lortac Album 33: Bibi Fricotin et le supertempostat scenario René Lortac Album 34: Bibi Fricotin chez les Incas scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 35: Bibi Fricotin As du Far-west scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 36: Bibi Fricotin roi des camelots scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 37: Bibi Fricotin chasseur de fauves scenario René Lortac Album 38: Bibi Fricotin contre les kidnappeurs scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 39: Bibi Fricotin champion du système D scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 40: Bibi Fricotin et l'homme aux cheveux rouges scenario Raymond Maric Album 41: Bibi Fricotin et le frigo mondial Album 42: Bibi Fricotin et les lunettes à lire la pensée scenario René Lortac Album 43: Bibi Fricotin naufragé volontaire scenario René Lortac Album 44: Bibi Fricotin et la statuette ensorcelée scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 45: Bibi Fricotin et les soucoupes volantes Album 46: Bibi Fricotin et les martiens scenario René Lortac Album 47: Bibi Fricotin contre l'homme masqué scenario Raymond Maric Album 48: Bibi Fricotin et le satellite artificiel Album 49: Bibi Fricotin As du volant scenario René Lortac Album 50: Bibi Fricotin en plein mystère scenario Raymond Maric Album 51: Bibi Fricotin chasse le Yéti scenario René Lortac Album 52: Bibi Fricotin à Hassi Messaoud scenario Raymond Maric Album 53: Bibi Fricotin et le secret de la momie scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 54: Bibi Fricotin et le Nautilus scenario René Lortac Album 55: Bibi Fricotin sème le bonheur Album 56: Bibi Fricotin chez les Aztèques scenario Raymond Maric Album 57: Bibi Fricotin et le dernier des Mohicans scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 58: Bibi Fricotin roi du karting scenario Raymond Maric Album 59: La surprenante croisière de Bibi Fricotin scenario Raymond Maric Album 60: Bibi Fricotin et la machine KB x Z2 Album 61: Bibi Fricotin spéléologue scenario Raymond Maric Album 62: Bibi Fricotin en l'an 3000 scenario René Lortac Album 63: Bibi Fricotin découvre l'Atlantide scenario René Lortac Album 64: Bibi Fricotin reporter scenario René Lortac Album 65: Bibi Fricotin chez les chevaliers de la Table Ronde scenario Raymond Maric Album 66: Bibi Fricotin a du flair Album 67: Bibi Fricotin et son ami Kryk scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 68: Bibi Fricotin aux jeux olympiques scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 69: Bibi Fricotin forain scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 70: Bibi Fricotin et la pipe royale scenario Roland de Montaubert Album 71: Les enquêtes de Bibi Fricotin Album 72: Bibi Fricotin campeur scenario Roland de Montaubert, Jacques Veissid Album 73: Bibi Fricotin déménageur scenario Roland de Montaubert, Jacques Veissid Album 74: Bibi Fricotin super vendeur scenario Roland de Montaubert, Jacques Veissid Album 75: Bibi Fricotin et ses 36 métiers scenario René Lortac Album 76: Bibi Fricoti